Muslim Rule in India 712-1857

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Muslim Rule in India 712-1857

Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (31 December 695–18 July 715) :

Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (31 December 695–18 July 715) Umayyad General Iraq Governor, Hijaj bin Yousaf Married his Daughter Zubaida Foundation of Islamic Rule in Subcontinent

Causes of Sindh Invasion:

Causes of Sindh Invasion Attacked by Raja Dahir’s forces on Muslim’s ship The Arab were imprisoned later on by the Debal Governor, Partaab Raye Refusal of Raja Dahir Hijaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for this expedition in 711 A.D

Campaign:

Campaign Third Expedition Makran Arman Belah(lasbela) Debal (Karachi) Sadusan (Sehwan), Nerun (Hyd), Brahamnabad (Shehdad Pur) Ar-rur (Rohri,Nawabshah) met by Dahir's forces Captured (Multan)

Reason for Success:

Reason for Success Superior military equipment Troop discipline and leadership. [4] The concept of Jihad as a morale booster. [4] Religion; the widespread belief in the prophecy of Muslim success. [4] [12] The ‘Samanis” the majority of the population was Buddhist who were dissatisfied with their rulers, who were Hindu. [12]

Death:

Death Revolt in Umayyad Death of Hijaj bin Yousaf M.B Qasim Return Murdered on way

Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi (November 2, 971 - April 30, 1030):

Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi (November 2, 971 - April 30, 1030) Son of Sabuktagin Ruled from 997 to 1030 Dynasty (Afghanistan, Eastern Iran, Pakistan, North Eest India) 17 expeditions on India

Campaign:

Campaign Started from (Khorsan, Balkh, Herat, Merv) Afghanistan, from Samanids in 999 Seistan (Iran) 1000 Ghandhara (Peshawar) defeats Jaypal 1001 Multan, Ismail shah & Anandapala Expeditions in India against Rajput (Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj, i Ajmer, Kangra. HP) 1008

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Takes Lahore on his return Nehrwala, Kathiawar, Somnath This raid was his last major campaign. Somnath 1025: killing over 50,000 people who tried to defend it Sultan Mahmud died on April 30, 1030 at Ghazni

Sultan Muhammad Shahabu-ddin Ghori (1150 – 15 March 1206) :

Sultan Muhammad Shahabu-ddin Ghori (1150 – 15 March 1206) Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Bin Sām Born in Ghor, Afghanistan Brother Ghayassu-ddin Ghorid’s Dynasty (Afghanistan, Pakistan, North East India)

Campaign:

Campaign Multan & Uch 1175 Attacked Gujrat 1178, defeated by Rajput Bhimdev Solanki II Capture Lahore 1181 Conquered Sialkot 1181 Attacked Terrain (Delhi) against Prithvi Raj Chohan (Rajput) 1191, Loss Attacked Terrain 1192 again, become Victorious

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Moved to Ajmer + North Rajasthan Attacked Ayodhya temple, capture Delhi 1193 Made Qutbuddin Aibak his Deputy of Sultanate Conquered Bengal 1204 Murdered by Hindu warrior near Jhelum 1206

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The Great Mughal Empire 1526-1707

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The Mughals were descendants of two great rulers. From their mother’s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan, ruler of the Mongol tribes, China & Central Asia. From their father’s side they were the successors of Timur, the ruler of Iran, Iraq & Modern-day Turkey.

Mughal Empire:

Mughal Empire Under the Mughals, India was the heart of a great Islamic empire and a prolific center of Islamic culture and learning. Dynasty was the greatest, richest and longest lasting Muslim dynasty to rule India. Mongol Descendents The Great Mughal Emperors were: Babur (1526-1530) The First of the Mughals Humayun (1530-1556) The Luckless Leader Akbar (1556-1605) The Great Jehangir (1605-1627) The Paragon of Stability Shah Jehan (1627-1658) The Master Builder Aurangzeb (1658-1707) The Intolerant

Babur 1526 - 1530 The First of the Mughals:

Babur 1526 - 1530 The First of the Mughals Born on 14 Feb 1483 Uzbekistan Babur was a direct descendant of the Turkish Ghengis Khan and Timur from Tamerlane. Defeated the Delhi Sultanate (Ibrahim Lodhi at Panipat 1526 & Rana Sanga rajput 1527 ) & established the Mughal Empire. Gained control of the whole northern India Made Agra capital He reigned for 4 short years and died at age 47 in 1530. Did not enact new laws or organization in the empire due to early his death Buried in Kabul

Humayun 1530 - 1556 :

Humayun 1530 - 1556 After Babur died, he was succeeded by his son Humayun in 1530. Humayun was 23 years old. He was not a soldier and unlike his father, neither skilled nor a wise leader. Inherited a disunited and disorganized empire. In 1540, Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun and took over the Mughal Empire. The Empire was lost from 1540-1545. He was exiled but later regained power in 1555, defeating Feroz shah Suri. Humayun died in 1556 after falling down the steps of his library.

Akbar 1556 - 1605 The Great:

Akbar 1556 - 1605 The Great Akbar become the new Mughal ruler at the age of 14. Akbar was an ambitious and noble commander Built the largest army ever in the empire. Helped to conquer nearly all of modern-day northern India and Pakistan. Great administrator developed a centralized government It delegated 15 provinces each under a governor and each province into districts and each district was further sub-divided into smaller sections. Best known for tolerance of his subjects (especially Hindus) Invited religious scholars to debate him in his private chambers. Developed his own faith call Din Ilahi. Din Ilahi was a mixture of the other religions Akbar had studied from those debates. Religion never caught on Died and Buried at Sikandra (agra)

Jehangir 1605 - 1627 The Paragon of Stability:

Jehangir 1605 - 1627 The Paragon of Stability Jehangir (Prince Salim) succeeded his father Akbar in 1605. Opposite of his father Poor monarch and warrior but good at maintaining the status quo. He continued many of Akbar’s policies . Freedom of worship. Fair treatment of Hindus. Continued friendship and alliance with Rajputs. Allowed foreigners like the Portuguese and English into India for trade. Jehangir married Nur Jahan. She became the real ruler of the empire until the death of her husband.

Jehangir Issues (specific):

Jehangir Issues (specific) Under the influence of his wife and many others, Jehangir was not an able ruler like his father. He loved to drink and enjoy himself. He had to suppress many rebellions . Important posts in the court were given to families, friends, and especially those close to his wife, Jahan.

Shah Jehan 1627 - 1658 The Master Builder:

Shah Jehan 1627 - 1658 The Master Builder Shah Jehan (Prince Khurram) succeeded his father in 1627. Better ruler than Jehangir. Restored the efficiency of government. Recovered territories . Maintained peace Foreign traders were allowed into India and trade increased considerably. The empire was expanded. Shah Jehan was a patron of the arts Built many great architecture buildings including the Taj Mahal

Shah Jehan:

Shah Jehan Taj Mahal ( Mumtaz ) Built in honor of his wife ( Arjuman Bano ) who died during childbirth. 1657 - Shah Jehan became seriously ill and a dispute over the succession of the throne between his three sons. Aurangzeb depose Shah Jehan in 1658. Shah Jehan was imprisoned in the Octagonal Tower of the Agra Fort from which he could see the Taj Mahal . He died in 1666 and was buried next to his wife in the Taj Mahal .

Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707 The Intolerant:

Aurangzeb 1658 - 1707 The Intolerant Aurangzeb ascended the throne after disposing his father and beating out his two brothers. Dictator severely mistreated Hindus of Northern India. Empire declines under his reign He removed the tax-free status (Jizya)for Hindus Destroyed their temples Crushed semi-autonomous Hindu states Primary Interest - Promote Islam

Aurangzeb:

Aurangzeb Aurangzeb over expanded the empire and strained his resources. Large sums of money and manpower were lost. He lost the support of the Hindu people. The over expansion of his empire weakened his administration. Aurangzeb died in 1707 Son Bahadur Shah succeeded him., he only managed to live a few more years. But at this point in time, the government was so unstable and so weak, the empire become an easy target of invasion and exploitation, first by the Persians, and then by the British. The death of Aurangzeb, the empire started its gradual decline

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1526-1530 Babur’s victory at Panipat in 1526 established the Mughal Empire and ended the reign of the Delhi Sultanate. The rise of the great Mughal Dynasty in India began with Babur. 1530-1556 Humayun succeeded his father Babur and became emperor. He was defeated and dislodged by insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi regime. In 1540, the Mughal domain came under control of Farid Khan Sur (Shir Shah Sur). Humayun died at the age of 48 when he fell down the steps of his library. 1556-1605 Akbar, the most sophisticated Mughal commander and leader, was only 14 years of age when he succeeded his father Humayun. Under Akbar's reign, Muslims and Hindu’s received the same respect. Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India

Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India:

Summary: The Dynasty of the Great Mughals in India 1605-1628 Jehangir succeeded his father, Akbar. 1628-1658 Prince Khurram was 35 years old when he ascended the throne as Shah Jehan, King of the World. 1659-1707 In the summer of 1659, Aurangzeb held a coronation in the Red Fort where he assumed the title of Alamgir (World Conqueror). After a bitter struggle with his two brothers, Aurangzeb was the victor who took the throne. 1857 Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor, was deposed in 1858. India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown. This brought the end of the Mughal Empire.

British Rule in India:

British Rule in India

British Rule:

British Rule East India Company 1601 James Lancaster (Commander) Trade (Cotton, Silk, Salt, Tea) Surat, Madras, Bombay Calcutta… Trading zone Well Established in 1690 Battle of Palessy 1757 was the major offense by Company against Nawab Sirajudolla of Bengal Captured Bombay from Marathas Conquered Mysore by defeating Tipu Sultan, Battle of Seringapatam 1799

War Of Independence 1857:

War Of Independence 1857

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