JavaScript

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1 CSC 551: Web Programming Spring 2004 client-side programming with JavaScript scripts vs. programs JavaScript vs. JScript vs. VBScript common tasks for client-side scripts JavaScript data types & expressions control statements functions & libraries strings & arrays Date, document, navigator, user-defined classes

Client-side programming:

2 Client-side programming recall: HTML is good for developing static pages can specify text/image layout, presentation, links, … Web page looks the same each time it is accessed in order to develop interactive/reactive pages, must integrate programming client-side programming programs are written in a separate programming language e.g., JavaScript, JScript, VBScript programs are embedded in the HTML of a Web page, with tags to identify the program component e.g., <script type="text/javascript"> … </script> the browser executes the program as it loads the page, integrating the dynamic output of the program with the static content of HTML

Scripts vs. programs:

3 Scripts vs. programs a scripting language is a simple, interpreted programming language scripts are embedded as plain text, interpreted by application simpler execution model: don't need compiler or development environment saves bandwidth: source code is downloaded, not compiled executable platform-independence: code interpreted by any script-enabled browser but: slower than compiled code, not as powerful/full-featured JavaScript: the first Web scripting language, developed by Netscape in 1995 syntactic similarities to Java/C++, but simpler & more flexible (loose typing, dynamic variables, simple objects) JScript: Microsoft version of JavaScript, introduced in 1996 same core language, but some browser-specific differences fortunately, IE & Netscape can (mostly) handle both JavaScript & JScript JavaScript 1.5 & JScript 5.0 cores conform to ECMAScript standard VBScript: client-side scripting version of Microsoft Visual Basic

Common scripting tasks:

4 Common scripting tasks adding dynamic features to Web pages validation of form data image rollovers time-sensitive or random page elements handling cookies defining programs with Web interfaces utilize buttons, text boxes, clickable images, prompts, frames limitations of client-side scripting since script code is embedded in the page, viewable to the world for security reasons, scripts are limited in what they can do e.g., can't access the client's hard drive since designed to run on any machine platform, scripts do not contain platform specific commands script languages are not full-featured e.g., JavaScript objects are crude, not good for large project development

JavaScript:

5 JavaScript JavaScript code can be embedded in a Web page using SCRIPT tags the output of JavaScript code is displayed as if directly entered in HTML <html> <!-- Dave Reed js01.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>JavaScript Page</title> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> // silly code to demonstrate output document.write("Hello world!"); document.write("<p>How are <br />" + "<i>you</i>?</p>"); </script> <p>Here is some static text as well. </p> </body> </html> document.write displays text in page text to be displayed can include HTML tags the tags are interpreted by the browser when the text is displayed as in C++/Java, statements end with ; JavaScript comments similar to C++/Java // starts a single line comment /*…*/ enclose multi-line comments view page in browser

JavaScript data types & variables:

6 JavaScript data types & variables JavaScript has only three primitive data types strings : "foo" 'howdy do' "I said 'hi'." "" numbers : 12 3.14159 1.5E6 booleans : true false <html> <!-- Dave Reed js02.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Data Types and Variables</title> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> x = 1024; document.write("<p>x = " + x + "</p>"); x = "foobar"; document.write("<p>x = " + x + "</p>"); </script> </body> </html> assignments are as in C++/Java message = "howdy"; pi = 3.14159; variable names are sequences of letters, digits, and underscores: start with a letter variables names are case-sensitive you don't have to declare variables, will be created the first time used variables are loosely typed, can assign different types of values view page in browser

JavaScript operators & control statements:

7 JavaScript operators & control statements <html> <!-- Dave Reed js03.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Folding Puzzle</title> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> distanceToSun = 93.3e6*5280*12; thickness = .002; foldCount = 0; while (thickness < distanceToSun) { thickness *= 2; foldCount++; } document.write("Number of folds = " + foldCount); </script> </body> </html> standard C++/Java operators & control statements are provided in JavaScript +, -, *, /, %, ++, --, … ==, !=, <, >, <=, >= &&, ||, ! if, if-else, while, do, … PUZZLE: Suppose you took a piece of paper and folded it in half, then in half again, and so on. How many folds before the thickness of the paper reaches from the earth to the sun? view page in browser

JavaScript Math routines:

8 JavaScript Math routines <html> <!-- Dave Reed js04.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Random Dice Rolls</title> </head> <body> <div style="text-align:center"> <script type="text/javascript"> roll1 = Math.floor(Math.random()*6) + 1; roll2 = Math.floor(Math.random()*6) + 1; document.write("<img src='http://www.creighton.edu/"+ "~davereed/csc551/Images/die" + roll1 + ".gif' />"); document.write("&nbsp;&nbsp;"); document.write("<img src='http://www.creighton.edu/"+ "~davereed/csc551/Images/die" + roll2 + ".gif' />"); </script> </div> </body> </html> the Math object contains functions and constants Math.sqrt Math.pow Math.abs Math.max Math.min Math.floor Math.ceil Math.round Math.PI Math.E Math.random function returns number in [0..1) view page in browser

Interactive pages using prompt:

9 Interactive pages using prompt <html> <!-- Dave Reed js05.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Interactive page</title> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> userName = prompt("What is your name?", ""); userAge = prompt("Your age?", ""); userAge = parseFloat(userAge); document.write("Hello " + userName + ".") if (userAge < 18) { document.write(" Do your parents know " + "you are online?"); } </script> <p>The rest of the page... </body> </html> crude user interaction can take place using prompt 1 st argument: the prompt message that appears in the dialog box 2 nd argument: a default value that will appear in the box (in case the user enters nothing) the function returns the value entered by the user in the dialog box (a string) if value is a number, must use parseFloat to convert forms will provide a better interface for interaction (later) view page in browser

User-defined functions:

10 User-defined functions function definitions are similar to C++/Java, except: no return type for the function (since variables are loosely typed) no types for parameters (since variables are loosely typed) by-value parameter passing only (parameter gets copy of argument) function isPrime(n) // Assumes: n > 0 // Returns: true if n is prime, else false { if (n < 2) { return false; } else if (n == 2) { return true; } else { for ( var i = 2; i <= Math.sqrt(n); i++) { if (n % i == 0) { return false; } } return true; } } can limit variable scope if the first use of a variable is preceded with var , then that variable is local to the function for modularity, should make all variables in a function local

Function example:

11 Function example <html> <!-- Dave Reed js06.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Prime Tester</title> < script type="text/javascript"> function isPrime(n) // Assumes: n > 0 // Returns: true if n is prime { // CODE AS SHOWN ON PREVIOUS SLIDE } </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> testNum = parseFloat(prompt("Enter a positive integer", "7")); if ( isPrime(testNum) ) { document.write(testNum + " <b>is</b> a prime number."); } else { document.write(testNum + " <b>is not</b> a prime number."); } </script> </body> </html> view page in browser function definitions go in the HEAD HEAD is loaded first, so the function is defined before code in the BODY is executed

Another example:

12 Another example <html> <!-- Dave Reed js07.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title> Random Dice Rolls Revisited</title> <script type="text/javascript"> function RandomInt(low, high) // Assumes: low <= high // Returns: random integer in range [low..high] { return Math.floor(Math.random()*(high-low+1)) + low; } </script> </head> <body> <div align="center"> <script type="text/javascript"> roll1 = RandomInt(1, 6); roll2 = RandomInt(1, 6); document.write("<img src='http://www.creighton.edu/"+ "~davereed/csc551/Images/die" + roll1 + ".gif' />"); document.write("&nbsp;&nbsp;"); document.write("<img src='http://www.creighton.edu/"+ "~davereed/csc551/Images/die" + roll2 + ".gif' />"); </script> </div> </body> </html> view page in browser recall the dynamic dice page could define a function for generating random numbers in a range, then use whenever needed easier to remember, promotes reuse

JavaScript libraries:

13 JavaScript libraries better still: if you define functions that may be useful to many pages, store in a separate library file and load the library when needed the file at http://www.creighton.edu/~davereed/csc551/JavaScript/random.js contains definitions of the following functions: RandomNum(low, high) returns random real in range [low..high) RandomInt(low, high) returns random integer in range [low..high) RandomChar(string) returns random character from the string RandomOneOf([item1,…,itemN]) returns random item from list/array Note: as with external style sheets, no tags in the JavaScript library file load a library using the SRC attribute in the SCRIPT tag (nothing between the tags) <script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.creighton.edu/~davereed/csc551/JavaScript/random.js"> </script>

Library example:

14 Library example <html> <!-- Dave Reed js08.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title> Random Dice Rolls Revisited</title> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.creighton.edu/~davereed/csc551/JavaScript/random.js"> </script> </head> <body> <div align="center"> <script type="text/javascript"> roll1 = RandomInt(1, 6); roll2 = RandomInt(1, 6); document.write("<img src='http://www.creighton.edu/"+ "~davereed/csc551/Images/die" + roll1 + ".gif' />"); document.write("&nbsp;&nbsp;"); document.write("<img src='http://www.creighton.edu/"+ "~davereed/csc551/Images/die" + roll2 + ".gif' />"); </script> </div> </body> </html> view page in browser

JavaScript Strings:

15 JavaScript Strings a class defines a new type (formally, Abstract Data Type ) encapsulates data (properties) and operations on that data (methods) a String encapsulates a sequence of characters, enclosed in quotes properties include length : stores the number of characters in the string methods include charAt(index) : returns the character stored at the given index (as in C++/Java, indices start at 0) substring(start, end) : returns the part of the string between the start (inclusive) and end (exclusive) indices toUpperCase() : returns copy of string with letters uppercase toLowerCase() : returns copy of string with letters lowercase to create a string, assign using new or just make a direct assignment ( new is implicit) word = new String("foo"); word = "foo"; properties/methods are called exactly as in C++/Java word.length word.charAt(0)

String example: palindromes:

16 String example: palindromes function Strip(str) // Assumes: str is a string // Returns: str with all but letters removed { var copy = ""; for (var i = 0; i < str.length ; i++) { if (( str.charAt(i) >= "A" && str.charAt(i) <= "Z") || ( str.charAt(i) >= "a" && str.charAt(i) <= "z")) { copy += str.charAt(i) ; } } return copy; } function IsPalindrome(str) // Assumes: str is a string // Returns: true if str is a palindrome, else false { str = Strip(str.toUpperCase()) ; for(var i = 0; i < Math.floor( str.length /2); i++) { if ( str.charAt(i) != str.charAt(str.length-i-1) ) { return false; } } return true; } suppose we want to test whether a word or phrase is a palindrome noon Radar Madam, I'm Adam. A man, a plan, a canal: Panama! must strip non-letters out of the word or phrase make all chars uppercasein order to be case-insensitive finally, traverse and compare chars from each end

PowerPoint Presentation:

17 <html> <!-- Dave Reed js09.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Palindrome Checker</title> <script type="text/javascript"> function Strip(str) { // CODE AS SHOWN ON PREVIOUS SLIDE } function IsPalindrome(str) { // CODE AS SHOWN ON PREVIOUS SLIDE } </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> text = prompt("Enter a word or phrase", "Madam, I'm Adam"); if ( IsPalindrome(text) ) { document.write("'" + text + "' <b>is</b> a palindrome."); } else { document.write("'" + text + "' <b>is not</b> a palindrome."); } </script> </body> </html> view page in browser

JavaScript arrays:

18 JavaScript arrays arrays store a sequence of items, accessible via an index since JavaScript is loosely typed, elements do not have to be the same type to create an array, allocate space using new (or can assign directly) items = new Array(10); // allocates space for 10 items items = new Array(); // if no size, will adjust dynamically items = [0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]; // can assign size & values [] to access an array element, use [] (as in C++/Java) for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) { items[i] = 0; // stores 0 at each index } the length property stores the number of items in the array for (i = 0; i < items.length; i++) { document.write(items[i] + "<br>"); // displays elements }

Array example:

19 Array example <html> <!-- Dave Reed js10.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Die Statistics</title> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://www.creighton.edu/~davereed/csc551/JavaScript/random.js"> </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> numRolls = 60000; dieSides = 6; rolls = new Array(dieSides+1); for (i = 1; i < rolls.length ; i++) { rolls[i] = 0; } for(i = 1; i <= numRolls; i++) { rolls[RandomInt(1, dieSides)]++; } for (i = 1; i < rolls.length ; i++) { document.write("Number of " + i + "'s = " + rolls[i] + "<br />"); } </script> </body> </html> suppose we want to simulate die rolls and verify even distribution keep an array of counters: initialize each count to 0 each time you roll X , increment rolls[X] display each counter view page in browser

Date class:

20 Date class String & Array are the most commonly used classes in JavaScript other, special purpose classes & objects also exist the Date class can be used to access the date and time to create a Date object, use new & supply year/month/day/… as desired today = new Date(); // sets to current date & time newYear = new Date(2002,0,1); //sets to Jan 1, 2002 12:00AM methods include: newYear.getYear() can access individual components of a date newYear.getMonth() newYear.getDay() newYear.getHours() newYear.getMinutes() newYear.getSeconds() newYear.getMilliseconds()

Date example:

21 Date example <html> <!-- Dave Reed js11.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Time page</title> </head> <body> Time when page was loaded: <script type="text/javascript"> now = new Date(); document.write("<p>" + now + "</p>"); time = "AM"; hours = now.getHours(); if (hours > 12) { hours -= 12; time = "PM" } else if (hours == 0) { hours = 12; } document.write("<p>" + hours + ":" + now.getMinutes() + ":" + now.getSeconds() + " " + time + "</p>"); </script> </body> </html> by default, a date will be displayed in full, e.g., Sun Feb 03 22:55:20 GMT-0600 (Central Standard Time) 2002 can pull out portions of the date using the methods and display as desired here, determine if "AM" or "PM" and adjust so hour between 1-12 10:55:20 PM view page in browser

Another example:

22 Another example <html> <!-- Dave Reed js12.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Time page</title> </head> <body> This year: <script type="text/javascript"> now = new Date(); newYear = new Date(2004,0,1); secs = Math.round((now-newYear)/1000); days = Math.floor(secs / 86400); secs -= days*86400; hours = Math.floor(secs / 3600); secs -= hours*3600; minutes = Math.floor(secs / 60); secs -= minutes*60 document.write(days + " days, " + hours + " hours, " + minutes + " minutes, and " + secs + " seconds."); </script> </body> </html> you can add and subtract Dates: the result is a number of milliseconds here, determine the number of seconds since New Year's day divide into number of days, hours, minutes and seconds possible improvements? view page in browser

document object:

23 document object Both IE and Netscape allow you to access information about an HTML document using the document object (Note: not a class!) <html> <!-- Dave Reed js13.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Documentation page</title> </head> <body> <table width="100%"> <tr> <td><small><i> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write(document.URL); </script> </i></small></td> <td align="right"><small><I> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write(document.lastModified); </script> </i></small></td> </tr> </table> </body> </html> document.write(…) method that displays text in the page document.URL property that gives the location of the HTML document document.lastModified property that gives the date & time the HTML document was saved view page in browser

navigator object:

24 navigator object <html> <!-- Dave Reed js14.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Dynamic Style Page</title> <script type="text/javascript"> if (navigator.appName == "Netscape") { document.write('<link rel=stylesheet '+ 'type="text/css" href="Netscape.css">'); } else { document.write('<link rel=stylesheet ' + 'type="text/css" href="MSIE.css">'); } </script> </head> <body> Here is some text with a <a href="javascript:alert('GO AWAY')">link</a>. </body> </html> <!-- MSIE.css --> a {text-decoration:none; font-size:larger; color:red; font-family:Arial} a:hover {color:blue} <!-- Netscape.css --> a {font-family:Arial; color:white; background-color:red} navigator.appName property that gives the browser name navigator.appVersion property that gives the browser version view page in browser

User-defined classes:

25 User-defined classes can define new classes, but the notation is awkward simply define a function that serves as a constructor specify data fields & methods using this no data hiding: can't protect data or methods // Dave Reed Die.js 2/01/04 // // Die class definition //////////////////////////////////////////// function Die(sides) { this.numSides = sides; this.numRolls = 0; this.Roll = Roll; } function Roll() { this.numRolls ++; return Math.floor(Math.random()* this.numSides ) + 1; } define Die function (i.e., constructor) initialize data fields in the function, preceded with this similarly, assign method to separately defined function (which uses this to access data)

Class example:

26 Class example <html> <!-- Dave Reed js15.html 2/01/04 --> <head> <title>Dice page</title> <script type="text/javascript" src="Die.js"> </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> die6 = new Die(6); die8 = new Die(8); roll6 = -1; // dummy value to start loop roll8 = -2; // dummy value to start loop while (roll6 != roll8) { roll6 = die6.Roll(); roll8 = die8.Roll(); document.write("6-sided: " + roll6 + "&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;" + "8-sided: " + roll8 + "<br />"); } document.write("<br />Number of rolls: " + die6.numRolls ); </script> </body> </html> create a Die object using new (similar to String and Array) here, the argument to Die initializes numSides for that particular object each Die object has its own properties (numSides & numRolls) Roll(), when called on a particular Die, accesses its numSides property and updates its NumRolls view page in browser

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