Electrical Safety for the Non-Electrical Skilled Worker: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Electrical Safety for the Non-Electrical Skilled Worker Recognizing and Mitigating Specific Hazards in the Work Place Encountered by the Non-Electrical Skilled Worker Module 6 Non-Electrical Skilled Worker: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Non-Electrical Skilled Worker This training provides additional electrical safety training for electrical hazards non-electrical skilled workers are exposed to in the work place. It is developed as an add-on module to the basic electrical safety training module for non-electrical workers. Review of Basic Electrical Safety Hazard Awareness for the Non-Electrical Worker: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Review of Basic Electrical Safety Hazard Awareness for the Non-Electrical Worker You should have taken as a prerequisite for this training “Basic Electrical Safety Hazard Awareness for Non-Electrical Personnel”. This training covered the hazards associated with electrical energy – Shock, Arc and Blast. These hazards can cause disability or death. You were taught how to recognize electrical hazards. Review of Basic Electrical Safety Hazard Awareness for the Non-Electrical Worker (continued): EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Review of Basic Electrical Safety Hazard Awareness for the Non-Electrical Worker (continued) You were taught basic electrical safety that included: Ground-fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) Basic electrical cord safety Resetting Breakers Conductive Apparel Wall Penetrations Safe Work Practices for Equipment Applications Only qualified electrical workers can perform electrical work Review of Basic Electrical Safety Hazard Awareness for the Non-Electrical Worker (cont.): EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Review of Basic Electrical Safety Hazard Awareness for the Non-Electrical Worker (cont.) You were taught basic electrical safety that included: What to do in case of an electrical emergency. To inspect your work area for unsafe electrical conditions. To use equipment per its Listing and Labeling instructions i.e. no daisy chaining, no overloading of circuits, etc. What to do if you identify an electrical hazard. To contact your Site Electrical Safety Officer or Safety Engineer for specific electrical safety items. Who is considered a Non-Electrical Skilled Worker?: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Who is considered a Non-Electrical Skilled Worker? The following list of workers includes but is not limited to those who would be considered a “Non-Electrical Skilled Worker”. Fitters, Painters, Carpenters, Laborers, Utility Operators, Equipment Operators, D&D Workers, Janitors, Radiation Control Technicians, Waste Handlers and Warehouse Workers. Non-Electrical Skilled Workers (cont.): EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Non-Electrical Skilled Workers (cont.) Non-Electrical Skilled workers are: Exposed to specific electrical hazards Expected to work safely around electrical energy To use electrical tools safely To follow electrical safety requirements To help keep other workers safe from electrical hazards. Obey all postings and barriers protecting exposed energized electrical hazards. DOE and NFPA 70E Requirements: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project DOE and NFPA 70E Requirements DOE has identified NFPA 70E (70E) as the basis document for electrical safety at its facilities. Compliance with 70E is mandatory. 70E has specific requirements for working safely with electrical energy. 70E requirements (cont.): EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project 70E requirements (cont.) Only Qualified Electrical Workers can perform work “ON” or “NEAR” electrical equipment Non-electrical workers may use electrical equipment, but must be trained to know the hazards of the equipment and how to use the equipment safely. If you don’t know how to operate a piece of equipment safely and don’t know the hazards involved in it use, stop work and get the required training. 70E Requirements (cont.): EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project 70E Requirements (cont.) 70E requirements for energized work apply if an exposed energized condition exists. 70E requires that an electrically safe work condition (Lockout/Tagout – LO/TO) must be established unless work around energized equipment with exposed electrical components is permitted with all the required safety precautions established. 70E Requirements (cont.): EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project 70E Requirements (cont.) If an exposed energized condition exists, there will be a Flash Protection Boundary and a Shock Protection Boundary that will have specific PPE and access requirements. These boundaries are established to protect you from the heat energy of an arc and from getting shocked. 70E requires proper barriers, posting, and/or attendants to inform unqualified workers of existing hazards. The work control document should address these boundaries and your work task relationship to them. Do not cross these boundaries unless you are qualified and authorized or are escorted by a qualified electrical worker. You must have the PPE required by 70E for the boundary to be crossed. 70 E Requirements (cont.): EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project 70 E Requirements (cont.) Generally for systems under 600V the Flash Protection Boundary (FPB) is 4 ft. unless calculated under engineering supervision . The FPB is established to protect you from the heat energy of an ARC. The shock protection boundaries are based on a table in 70E. The non- electrical worker can be escorted by a qualified electrical worker inside the Limited Approach Boundary, but can approach no closer to exposed energized components. See following slide for copy of table listing approach distances from 70E. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project The following slides will discuss specific electrical hazards the non-electrical skilled worker is exposed to in the work place and the methods used to mitigate the hazards. Hazards of Electricity Shock Arc Blast The most effective way to protect against electrical hazards is to use LO/TO.: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project The most effective way to protect against electrical hazards is to use LO/TO. Your facility will have specific requirements for LO/TO. Always comply with the requirements. Only LO/TO qualified employees may work under the protection of a LO/TO. LO/TO accomplishes a zero energy state and there is no electrical hazard. You are required to comply with all LO/TO requirements. Failure to comply can result in injury or death! DO NOT OPERATE! Lockout/Tagout: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Lockout/Tagout Your personal lock and personal danger tag is what protects you from systems being re-energized while you are working on them. You are the only person authorized to remove them except under specially controlled conditions. If you don’t install them, you are not protected! PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project A Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) is a very effective device to protect employees in the work place from electrical shock. The number of deaths from electrical shock in the work place has been cut in half since GFCIs have been introduced. GFCIs are required for all maintenance activities. GFCIs protect you from electrical shock by tripping on current leakage to ground, which may be through you. Plugging one GFCI into another one does not create a hazard. The most sensitive one will trip first. GFCIs may be permanently installed in the facility or a portable device. – Use them. Use of Specific Safety-Related Equipment and Work Practices : EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Use of Specific Safety-Related Equipment and Work Practices GFCIs Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) are required for all 125-volt, single phase, 15 and 20-ampere receptacle outlets used for temporary electric power, or as an extension to the power supply cord. Test Before Use. Push the test button and verify the GFCI has shut off by plugging a safe device into it (i.e. portable lamp or tool). If it doesn’t shut off, don’t use it. Reset it. If it turns on, it is safe to use. Report a malfunctioning GFCI to the designated facility organization. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project GFCIs Most facilities will allow resetting the GFCI one time. Verify with your facility. If it trips a second time, have it evaluated by a qualified electrical worker. It may have tripped to save your life! Repeated resetting is not allowed. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Circuit Breaker Tripping Anytime a circuit has been de-energized by the operation of an over current protective device (such as a fuse or circuit breaker) by a short circuit or ground-fault, the circuit must be checked by a qualified person to determine if it can be reenergized safely. The repetitive manual re-closing of circuit breakers or reenergizing circuits through replacing fuses is prohibited. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project If you are allowed to reset circuit breakers or other electrical switches, position yourself in the safest location possible. Never stand directly in front of or reach across the device. Some facilities have specific requirements for who is allowed to operate breakers and disconnects. Make sure you know the requirement before performing these actions. Circuit Breaker Tripping PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Moisture provides a conductive path that could result in death. Never work with wet tools or clothing. Remove Your Jewelry. Use of Specific Safety-Related Equipment and Work Practices: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Use of Specific Safety-Related Equipment and Work Practices Portable Electric Equipment and Flexible Cord Set requirements: The user must visually inspect the equipment for defects and damage before they are used on any shift. If the tool or cord set is damaged, take it out of service or have it repaired. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Portable Electric Tools - Things to look for: Damaged/Broken case Ground prong missing on three-prong plugs. Some tools are double insulated and won’t have a ground prong. That’s OK. Damaged Cord – outer sheath broken PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Cords – Items to consider before use. Use per Listing and Labeling Inner wires exposed – Don’t use. Plug not fully seated – Don’t use. Cords run through doors / pinch points – Don’t use. Outer sheath damaged – Don’t use. Cord tightly coiled may cause a problem – Don’t use. Tightly coiled cord that had a meltdown because it couldn’t cool properly when overloaded. Cords must be GFCI protected or under an Assured Equipment Ground Conductor program. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Extension cords should be a minimum of 16 AWG and be rated for the equipment in use. The following is a guide that might be helpful in selecting the cord: Extension Cord Ampere Rating Wire Size (Copper) Single Phase Two and Three Conductor Cords Three Phase Cords 16AWG 13 amps 10 amps 14AWG 18 amps 15 amps 12AWG 25 amps 20 amps 10AWG 30 amps 25 amps 8AWG 40 amps 35 amps 6AWG 55 amps 45 amps 4AWG 70 amps 60 amps 2AWG 95 amps 80 amps RECOMMENDED WIRE SIZE MAXIMUM LENGTH AWG #16 — 25 Feet AWG #14 — 50 Feet AWG #12 — 75 Feet AWG #10 — 100 Feet PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Extension cords shall: Be protected from physical damage at all times. Be inspected before use. Be routed so trip, pinch, abrasion, snagging, etc. cannot occur. Not be used as a substitute for permanent wiring. Be suitable for the environment i.e. outside, wet, sunlight, etc. Shall have slack – not drawn out tight. Shall be unplugged by grasping the plug not the cord. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Is it Safe? What do you think? Could you make this a better installation? PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Ladders used around electrical hazards must have non-conductive side rails. Ladders with non-conductive side rails that are contaminated with paint, greases or other coatings may no longer be non-conductive. Check them out. Stay away from exposed energized equipment. Always look up before you lift or climb up. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Be aware of overhead exposed energized equipment such as overhead lines, cords, or overhead crane rails. Minimum approach distance to overhead lines below 72,500 volts is 10 feet. (Limited Approach Boundary - 70E) There may be other requirements that apply to approach distances to overhead lines. Make sure you inquire about these requirements. Possible examples may include: The use of a designated spotter. Approach distances may be different than 70E requirements. Overhead utilities may be under separate management. Look Up and Stay Alive! PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project The National Electrical Code (NEC) has specific clearance requirements around electrical equipment to maintain safe working clearances for electrical workers. These are dedicated spaces and include width, height, and depth requirements. The clearance distances are based on configuration and voltage level. You must keep these spaces clear. Check with a qualified electrical worker to ensure you do not store or install materials and equipment in theses dedicated spaces. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Batteries present special hazards in the work place. They may contain an acid or an alkaline substance in the electrolyte. If you get electrolyte on you, rinse with water for 15 minutes then get medical help. Failure to do this may lead to severe burns or blindness. Most batteries give off explosive gasses when charged. Make sure adequate ventilation is available. Don’t cause sparks or flames in the vicinity of batteries. A catastrophic explosion may occur. Batteries can store significant amounts of electrical energy. Do not use conductive equipment/tools around batteries. If you cause an ARC, you can be severely injured. Remember, there is no off switch on a battery ! PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project If you must perform work around batteries or battery racks, eye wash/drench stations are required. Spill kits for the electrolyte are to be available. Use non-sparking/non-conductive tools. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project One of the most common occurrences with electrical systems around the DOE complex is excavating, cutting or drilling into electrical systems. There are many methods of trying to identify buried or concealed electrical conduits and cables. None of them are fool proof. Electrical System Intrusions Facilities have developed methods and procedures to help prevent these occurrences. If you are involved in this type of activity, it is your responsibility to comply with facility requirements. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project If location or condition of energized electrical systems is uncertain, utilize electrically rated PPE and other protective measures such as drill stops, hand digging, vacuum excavators, etc. Conduit cut – Location was right, depth was wrong. PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Demolition Worker Cuts Energized Circuit while Removing Conduit -- Reference: ORPS Report OH-MB-BWO-BWO01-2003-0004 On October 14, 2003, a demolition craftsman cut an energized 110-volt circuit while removing conduit with a double insulated reciprocating saw. The conduit contained numerous branches and only a cursory check was made for air-gapped circuits. Work control documents specifically required verification of zero energy or installation of a lockout/tagout if verification could not be performed. (continued) Consider the following ORPS event: PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Important Points: The demolition worker failed to request a “meter check” to ensure a zero-energy condition existed. The worker failed to complete a thorough walkdown of the area to verify that all conduit branches and runs were air-gapped and there was no potential for energy being fed from other sources. Contributors: The demolition worker made assumptions about the task based on previous work experience on the same system months earlier. He assumed the lighting circuit was totally de-energized by an electrician when the light circuits were removed. (Make sure you don’t make the same kinds of errors) ORPS (continued) PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project AREA IN FRONT OF THIS ELECTRICAL PANEL MUST BE KEPT CLEAR FOR 36 INCHES OSHA - NEC REGULATIONS C A U T I O N HIGH VOLTAGE Signs, Symbols, Tags, and Barricades are used to warn personnel of potential electrical hazards. OBEY ALL SIGNS AND BARRIERS! PowerPoint Presentation: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project REMEMBER! The results of a mistake with electrical energy occur at the speed of light. There is not time to react after the error is made. You must think ahead. Pre-job briefs, planned work instructions, and facility requirements are not optional. Pay attention and obey all the rules, not just the ones that are convenient. They provide the edge you need to be safe with electrical energy. Post-job reviews help keep us from repeating errors – participate in them. You are responsible for your safety. Summary: EFCOG Electrical Improvement Project Summary Many items concerning electrical safety have been presented. It isn’t possible to cover all the hazards electrical energy can present. If you identify a hazard, make sure you and others are safe and then report it immediately to the proper authority for your work location. 70E requires electrical workers to be ALERT. You are also required to be ALERT and AWARE of potential electrical hazards. If you are not, you can be severely injured or killed Above all, BE SAFE.