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MANAGEMENT OF GARBAGE From the last few years, there is increase in solid waste material in India. Its reason is rapid increase in population. There is also increase in nature of consumption. According to the world health organizations (WHO) solid waste is matter in the wrong place i.e. A non liquid, non gaseous substance no longer useful to the older. According to an estimate, the solid waste in India in 2047 will be about 260 million tones, which is five times more than the present status.

Different aspects of satisfactory and efficient and sustainable system of solid waste management are as follows:- :

Different aspects of satisfactory and efficient and sustainable system of solid waste management are as follows:- For efficient disposal of waste impose tax or fee. By incorporating the cost of disposal in the production cost, by using less pecking or buy using recyclable packaging material. Creating awareness among the people about the need and advantages of proper disposal of solid waste. There is no single solution to the challenge of solid waste disposal but a combination of processes like reduction at source, reuse , recycle and environmentally safe disposal of garbage may help to a greater extent. Reduction, Reuse and Recycling of waste is generally referred to as 3R principles.


REDUCE OF WASTE MATERIAL Use paper carefully, Use both side of paper( in this way paper waste can be reduced to 50%. Use slates for writing & learning practice instead of papers. Keep your books neat and clean , so that other children can use them. Stop using disposable things like paper plates, cups and napkins. Use refillable lighter and pens , disposable razors and cameras. Use cloth napkins and bags instead of paper napkins and bags. Avoid heavy package. Sell consumer goods in concentrated forms as it will use less raw materials.


REUSE OF WASTE MATERIAL Many items can be reused, including mobile phones, computers, printer cartridges, leftover paint and clothes. Even if you have finished with something, someone else will often be able to use it. National charity organisations , local charity shops, internet auction sites and free exchange schemes may be able to reuse your unwanted items.


RECYCLE Recycling is processing used materials ( waste ) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration ) and water pollution (from landfilling ) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. [1][2] Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the " Reduce , Reuse , Recycle" waste hierarchy . There are some ISO standards relating to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001 :2004 for environmental management control of recycling practice. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass , paper , metal , plastic , textiles , and electronics . Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste – such as food or garden waste – is not typically considered recycling. [2] Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing.

Suggestion for proper solid waste management:

Suggestion for proper solid waste management Rapid and widespread industrial development, unplanned urbanisation , regular flow of persons from rural to urban areas and improper and inadequate action of the authorities entrusted with the work of pollution control and environmental protection have largely contributed to unhealthy and degraded environment. This all, in turn, affected the quality of life of the large number of persons. Unplanned and alarming rate of urbanisation has given rise to many environment related problems, such as problem of health and hygiene, sewage, disposal of solid waste, air, water and land pollution, slums, housing, basic amenities and others. Looking to cumulative widespread and deleterious effects of these problems, Justice Kuldip Sing declared ‘historic city of Delhi—the capital of India—is one of the most polluted cities in India .’

Management  of Municipal Solid Waste :

Management  of Municipal Solid Waste Since Vedic time, the prime motto of Indian social life was to live in harmony with nature and in an hygienic environment. Vedas, Upanishads, Smiritis and Dharmashastras preach in one way or another a worshipfull attitude towards plants, trees, mother earth, sky, vayumandal (sky), water and animals (all living creatures). Thus, polluting air, water or land was regarded as sin as they were to be respected and regarded as God and Goddesses. Maintaining them pure was considered to be the duty of everyone. Manusmiriti —first systematic treatment of Hindu Law, also prohibited the throwing of garbage, dust, rubbish, pieces of meat etc. on the highway and in water bodies and made it punishable. It emphasized to maintain clean, hygienic and unpolluted atmosphere near dwelling houses and around towns and villages.

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Proper sanitation and keep the public places clean was maintained as a duty of everybody and violation of such duty was considered to be punishable. Kautilya in his Arthshastra has mentioned that maintaining sanitation of habitat was essential and inviable . The great epic Mahabharata also identified environmental pollution and that whole society may suffer from various diseases because of it. The Charak —doyen of Ayurveda also emphasized on the wholesomeness of water and pure air as the pollution of both causes many type of diseases. Other scriptures also cautioned against disposal of civic waste and industrial refuge into rivers as they are considered to be sacred and respectable by the Hindus. Thus, Hindu culture and scriptures cautioned against those activities which were detrimental in any way to the quality of environment.

Criminal Laws and The Waste Management :

Criminal Laws and The Waste Management There are two major criminal laws dealing with solid waste management—(a) The Indian Penal Code, 1860; and (b) The Criminal Procedure Code, 1973.

The Indian Penal Code and Solid Waste Management:

The Indian Penal Code and Solid Waste Management The Indian Penal Code of 1860 has dealt with solid waste management under Chapter XIV ‘of offences affecting the public health, safety, convenience, decency and morals’. Since, solid waste gives rise to various type of diseases and is dangerous to public health, it has been treated as ‘public nuisance’ and has been made punishable. But there is no direct section in the Code which deals with the problem of solid waste.

Conclusion & Suggestion :

Conclusion & Suggestion The above discussion depiets that the problem of municipal solid waste has not been considered as health & hygiene problem which ultimately affects the environment of the area. Though various laws were available but either they are not well couched to meet such type of exigencies, or were not efficiently and efficaciously implemented. Rather these laws were never made use of to deal with the problem of municipal solid waste. Because of inefficacious laws and inaction on the part of the implementing authorities, the supreme court was compelled to give serious thought to the problem and had to come out with detailed guidelines and the mechanism to overcome this menacing problem. It is clear that public at large is also not aware of inimical effects of this problem as it appeared in Love Canal incident of the USA. It is getting less attention than required. Moreover, the landfill sites with toxic and hazardous wastes are like timebombs , they must be dealt with before they become `foremost environmental problem' of this decade.

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In such cases one has to adopt `cradle to grave' solutions from generation to final disposal of the wastes. This is particularly essential with the waste including toxic and hazardous wastes. To contain and control the problem, there must be ` awareness program ' to reduce solid waste, to reuse the things if possible and to recycle the wastes like paper waste. Thus, it deals attitudinal change amongst the people before we venture to strengthen the existing laws and implement them effectively and efficiently.

Some of the other suggestions :

Some of the other suggestions Reprocess the wastes to recover energy and material. Seperate hazardous waste from other source material for efficient handling. Incinerate or otherwise convert hazardous wastes to non-hazardous wastes. Dispose of hazardous wastes in a `secured landfill' or use some safe method to protect the environment and maintain integrity of this safe method for and indefinite period, at least for one hundred years. Before `secure landfill' the wastes should treated to make it safe for land and water of the area for example, Chemical solidification's (binders may be cement based, pozzolanic or lime based, thermoplastic, and organic binders.) may be done before burial to guard against probable erosion hazards.

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To encourage recyeling of material, some motivation be given. Efficient laws alone cannot solve the problem, unless we have efficient mechanism to implement, will of the government to implement and attitudinal change among the masses is needed Multiplicity of laws and multitudinous authorities cannot overcome such problem unless people are made aware of the adverse effects of this problem and they abide by laws with an aim to safeguard the present and future generation. Municipal corporation is a local authority within the meaning of `State' under Article 12 of the Constitution and it is Statutory duty to collect, store, transport, process and dispose of the municipal soiled wastes and see the health & hygiene of the public is maintained.


SARPREET SINGH 10-B ROLL NO.27 Thank you Created by

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