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QUANTUM COMPUTER made by Farwa student of IUB


INDEX Defination History Bits vs. Qubits Data representing Inevitability of Quantum Computers Diff. b/w QC $ CC Images of QC Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion


DEFINATION OF QUANTUM COMPUTER A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena , such as superposition and entanglement , to perform operations on data . Quantum computer utilize quantum properties to represent data and perform operations on these data A Quantum Computer is a computer that harnesses the power of atoms and molecules to perform memory and processing tasks. It has the potential to perform certain calculations billions of times faster than any silicon-based computer.


HISTORY OF QUANTUM COMPUTERS In 1980 when quantum theory was applied to the classical Turing machine, the development of a quantum computer was pondered. they can run with no energy consumption It has the potential to perform certain calculations billions of times faster than any silicon-based computer. 1982 - Feynman proposed the idea of creating machines based on the laws of quantum mechanics instead of the laws of classical physics. 1994 - Peter Shor came up with a quantum algorithm to factor very large numbers in polynomial time.

Representation of Data - Qubits:

Representation of Data - Qubits A bit of data is represented by a single atom that is in one of two states denoted by |0> and |1> . A single bit of this form is known as a qubit A physical implementation of a qubit could use the two energy levels of an atom. An excited state representing |1> and a ground state representing |0>. Excited State Nucleus Electron State |0> State |1>


Superposition A single qubit can be forced into a superposition of the two states denoted by the addition of the state vectors: A qubit in superposition is in both of the states |1> and |0 at the same time DEFINATION;. Two things can overlap each other without interfering with each other. In classical computers, electrons cannot occupy the same space at the same time, but as waves, they can .


ENTANGELMENT Entanglement is the ability of quantum systems to exhibit correlations between states within a superposition. Imagine two qubits, each in the state |0> + |1> (a superposition of the 0 and 1.) We can entangle the two qubits such that the measurement of one qubit is always correlated to the measurement of the other qubit


BITS VS.QUBITS BITS:. The device computes by manipulating those bits with the help of logic gates A classical computer has a memory made up of bits , where each bit holds either a one or a zero QUBITS:. A qubit can hold a one, a zero, or, crucially, a superposition of these. manipulating those qubits with the help of quantum logic gates the qubits can be in a superposition of all the classically allowed states. the phases of the numbers can constructively and destructively interfere with one another; this is an important feature for quantum algorithms

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BITS:. QUBITS:. For an n qubit quantum register, recording the state of the register requires 2 n complex numbers (the 3-qubit register requires 2 3 = 8 numbers).


QUANTUM DOT A quantum dot is a semiconductor nanostructure that confines the motion of conduction band electrons , valence band holes , or excitons (pairs of conduction band electrons and valence band holes) in all three spatial directions.


HOW POWERFUL ARE QUANTUM COMPUTER? The time takes to execute the algorithm must increase no faster than a polynomial function of the size of the input Some of quantum algorithms can turn hard mathematical problems into easy ones Potential use of quantum factoring for code-breaking purposes has raised the obvious suggestion of building a quantum computer It may help in cryptography of the data

How to build a quantum computer:

How to build a quantum computer


CLASSICAL VS. QUANTUM CLASSICAL COMPUTER:. The classical desktop computer works by manipulating bits, digits that are binary QUANTUM COMPUTER:. Quantum computers aren't limited by the binary nature of the classical physical world



Realizations and difficulty to make quantum computer:

Realizations and difficulty to make quantum computer The quantum computer might be the theoreticial's dream, its realization is a nightmare It is very difficult to scaling the component in quantum computer As the number of quantum gates in a network increases, we quickly run into some serious practical problems The more likely it is that quantum information will spread outside the quantum computer and be lost into the environment, thus spoiling the computation



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Scaling Energy Economics


Our computing world is surrounded by breath-taking innovation Chip capacity has doubled every 18 months The number of transistors on a single chip is rising exponentially also A bit will be represented by a single atom by the year 2020 This trend inevitably leads us into the microworld of quantum effects, where classical rules no longer apply SCALING


Energy The speed of chips is also rising exponentially Advances in energy efficiency are required to keep the chips from melting during use Quantum computers are reversible The energy inefficiencies drive us away from classical computers, and the appeal for energy-free computing drives us toward quantum computers


Economics Besides the energy factors at the micro level of computing, there are large-scale economic factors pushing us to a more energy-efficient means of computing 5% of the entire national power production is consumed by computing machinery The cost to build a semiconductor plant doubles every three years Included quantum computers as an integrated step of their global acquisition strategy


QUANTUM ALGORITHM a quantum algorithm is an algorithm which runs on a realistic model of quantum computation A classical (or non-quantum) algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, quantum algorithm is a step-by-step procedure

Algorithms based on the quantum :

Algorithms based on the quantum Jozsa algorithm The Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm solves a black-box problem which provably requires exponentially many queries to the black box for any deterministic classical computer, but can be done with exactly 1 query by a quantum computer Simon's algorithm Simon's algorithm solves a black-box problem exponentially faster than any classical algorithm, including bounded-error probabilistic algorithms

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Shor's algorithm Shor's algorithm solves the discrete logarithm problem and the integer factorization problem in polynomial time, whereas the best known classical algorithms take super-polynomial time.

The advantages of Quantum Computing::

The advantages of Quantum Computing:


There are several reasons that researchers are working so hard to develop a practical quantum computer If functional quantum computers can be built, they will be valuable in factoring large numbers, and therefore extremely useful for decoding and encoding secret information


COMPUTING POWER By using quantum computer, impossible mathematical calculations can be possible In short it increases computing power


CRYPTOLOGY It is important in cryptography CRYPTOGRAPHY:. it is method of breaking cyphers CYPHERS:. They are secret codes for security


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE This suggest that computers will be capable of stimulating concious rational thoughts


TELEPORTATION It is the capability to make an object or person disintegrate in one place while a perfect replica appears in another In physics it is never taken seriously because of uncertainty principle Quantum computing provides theoratical basis for teleportation



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With quantum computer we will be able to build nanoassembler a microscopic machine NANOASSEMBLER:. a universal conductor that will not take just materials apart and rebuild then atom by atom.

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The bad news is that it cost nothing except it cost the loss of human brain

Today's Quantum Computers::

Today's Quantum Computers: Quantum computers could one day replace silicon chips, just like the transistor once replaced the vacuum tube. But for now, the technology required to develop such a quantum computer is beyond our reach. The most advanced quantum computers have not gone beyond manipulating more than 7 qubits, one day could perform, quickly and easily, calculations that are incredibly time-consuming on conventional computers


Conclusion The paper discusses an overview of the quantum computing world It discusses the inevitability of quantum computers, how they originated, and what is different about them from classical computers This paper is intended to be accessible to the general reader, so it will explain the basics of a few quantum computer features at the risk of over-simplification Quantum computes are coming, and they will require a new way of looking at computing

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