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CCTV CAMERAS TYPES OF CCTV DIGITAL CCTV IP CAMERAS NETWORK CONFIGURATION CCTV TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION TODAY AND TOMORROW’S CCTV SYSTEM LIMITATION OF CCTV WHAT IS CCTV : Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint, or mesh wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores. WHAT IS CCTV Dome CCTV cameras Surveillance cameras on a corner In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing Digital Video Recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP-based CCTV cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation. : In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing Digital Video Recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP-based CCTV cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation. DISPLAY MONITER : DISPLAY MONITER Slide 8: CCTV Cameras : CCTV systems have become extremely popular over the last few decades as the technology has improved and become more affordable. The majority of CCTV cameras in use today are usually for surveillance and security purposes. CCTV systems can be found in almost every bank, casino, mall, and large department store. In fact, CCTV systems have become so affordable, most smaller mom and pop stores also have CCTV systems in them for security purposes. TYPE OF CCTV : TYPE OF CCTV There are many types of CCTV cameras. They can be categorized by the types of images they are able to capture, the amount of frames they can take per minute, the type of connection to the monitor or video recording device, whether they are able to move position, and special functions they can provide. Types of Images: CCTV cameras generally take both black and white or color video images. In addition, many CCTV cameras even have night vision capabilities that allow a CCTV camera to view and record low light images using special technology. Frames per Second: Frames per second is the amount of full frames that a video camera captures and sends to a recording device or monitor per second. While most CCTV camera systems easily capture 30 or more frames per second, the amount of video tape or digital storage would be enormous to record every moment of everyday. For most stores, speeds of 1 to 6 frames per second are more than enough to catch and record a perpetrator committing a crime. Pan Tilt Zoom Cameras: These types of CCTV cameras allow a person controlling the surveillance of an area to move the camera remotely, usually with an RF or wired controller. Most movable cameras allow the person monitoring it to move the camera from right to left , up and down. Slide 10: Cameras with Special Accessories: Certain CCTV cameras have special functions that are made for specialty uses. For instance, there are extremely small surveillance cameras that are used for spying (Nanny Cams), night viewing, are vandal resistant, and that are specifically made for indoor or outdoor uses. Wired Vs. Wireless Connection There are two main types of connections for CCTV cameras: a fixed cable or a wireless connection. Fixed Cable Connection Fixed cable connection means that the camera is physically connected to the monitor or recording device via a cable. Coaxial cables that are similar to normal home TV cables are usually used. Lengths come in 25, 35, 50, 100, or 500 feet. As the distance increases, signal quality decreases. For distances longer than 100 or 200 feet, purchase higher quality coaxial cables such as RG59 coaxial cable for distances up to 600 feet and for distances more than 600 feet, but less than 2,000 feet, purchase CAT5 cable. Slide 11: Wireless Connection Most wireless CCTV cameras use the 2.4 Gigahertz frequencies to transmit their video images to a monitor or DVR (digital video recorder). Usually, frequencies can be slightly changed to have more than one group of cameras in a specific space. Wireless CCTV cameras that use this frequency can easily transmit through most walls and obstacles. However, each individual location will have its own operating limits. Expect most wireless CCTV cameras to send data to a range of about 200 feet. However, many will more likely work well when transmitting less than 150 feet. A clear line of sight transmission will always work best. Obviously a wireless connection allows greater freedom to place CCTV cameras almost anywhere. While wireless CCTV cameras transmit their video images to a digital video recorder or monitor, many of these types of cameras must be plugged into an electrical outlet. There are, however, some CCTV cameras that are battery operated. Slide 12: Tape vs. Digital Video Recorders There are two main ways to record video images that CCTV cameras capture. They are analog tape and digital video recorders. Most analog video recorders use VCR tapes or standard VCRs to record the images or special security time-lapse VCRs to record images for a longer period of time.. VCR Tape Recorder A tape recorder such as a security-time lapse VCR can record CCTV camera images in either black and white or color for 2,4, 6, 8, all the way up to 960 hours, which is 40 complete days. The determining factor is how many frames per second users intend to record and how many cameras are hooked up to the VCR for recording. For instance, if a user records 30 frames per second (real time video), he/she will only be able to get a few hours of video captured on the recorder. If users record one frame per second or less, they can record for dozens of hours before the video tape is full. VCRs are very practical, very reliable, and extremely affordable. Slide 13: Digital Video Recorders There are two types of DVRs (Digital Video Recorders). They are either stand alone devices or hard drives that are connected to a computer system. DVRs work similar to VCRs, but the images they capture from the CCTV camera is digital. The amount of digital images captured on a DVR is determined by a few factors including the frames per second recorded, the amount of cameras hooked up to the DVR device, the resolution that the DVR saves the images at, and the video compression used (e.g. MPEG4). For a common set up, where 4 cameras are shooting at 30 fps and an image resolution of 320 X 240 is being used, each camera only records when motion is on, and MPEG4 compression is used, users should be able fill up a 20 to 25 GB hard drive in about 80 hours. Main DVR Interface : Main DVR Interface What is Digital and Compressed Video : What is Digital and Compressed Video Digital refers to the process of digitizing or sampling the CCTV analog video to transform an analog signal to a digital format Digital (uncompressed) 8-10bit video used by some CCTV fiber transceivers – this is not IP video Compressed (or encoded) video removes some of the redundant information in order to reduce data rates Lossless – removes redundant information without affecting picture quality – 45-90MB data rate Lossy – results in some reduction in video quality (resolution, frame rate, color depth) over uncompressed image – 56kbps to 10MBps How Does Digital CCTV Work? : How Does Digital CCTV Work? Digital CCTV is a relatively new technology that has proclaimed itself to be the next level in security monitoring systems. Recent advances in technology over the past couple of years has made digital CCTV available and affordable for virtually anyone to implement on their premises. Versatile in design, digital CCTV operates across a standard ethernet, so no extra wiring is required in the majority of situations. Once installed on your premises, your digital CCTV network can be added to quickly and easily simply by installing new CCTV cameras and adding these to your CCTV software package. Once your network of CCTV cameras have been installed on your site, you are able to analyse both live and historic event-based video clips through your PC monitor using the CCTV software supplied with your system. Slide 17: Digital CCTV is unique in that it will only record images when movement is detected. This ultimately means that you will only have CCTV footage of activity: when something occurs across the camera's field of view. The quality of the footage generated by your digital CCTV cameras means that evidence quality images are generated, which can be used in a court of law to prosecute perpetrators. Analogue CCTV systems invariably are unable to do this. The integrational capabilities of digital CCTV mean that in addition to working extremely well as a standalone security system, it can also be connected to other installed security equipment. What are IP cameras? : What are IP cameras? A growing branch in CCTV is internet protocol cameras (IP cameras). IP cameras use the Internet Protocol (IP) used by most Local Area Networks (LANs) to transmit video across data networks in digital form. IP can optionally be transmitted across the public internet, allowing users to view their camera(s) through any internet connection available through a computer or a 3G phone. For professional or public infrastructure security applications, IP video is restricted to within a private network or VPN Slide 19: Easy access with IP cameras IP systems designed for large scale jobs – school, military, multiple locations. Greater flexibility, includes VOIP. Network Configuration : Camera Network Video Server CCTV CPE CCTV CO Analog Camera Network Camera Camera CCTV CPE Backbone Switch DSL (2wire,24AWG) : ~ 4Km Optic Cable : 15Km 까지 MAX 24 Port MAX 2 Port Ethernet Ethernet Network Configuration Digital transmission : Digital transmission CCTV Image Transmission System using DSL/Optic Cable : CCTV Image Transmission System using DSL/Optic Cable The system is for image transmission of CCTV camera applied DSL and Optic Solution. Max. transmission speed : 1Mbps / 5Km Efficient Transmission Speed : 3Mbps / within 4Km Using Optic cable for long distance image transmission ( ~ 15Km) Using Telephone line instead of Coaxial cable, it makes maintenance easier. Suit for Security and Surveillance system through Closed- Network of DSL / Optic. 3U Shelf and 19’’ rack mount type for maintenance easier. System could be composed to Max. 24 ports using DSL/Optic units by user convenient. In case of using Optic system, Image transmission by 2 Ethernet cables of CPE which is connected with camera, also designable. System Structure : System Structure CCTV DSL CPE [ Model : C800D2 ] Capacity 1 Port (Standard) or 2 Ports (Option) Interface CCTV Ethernet Data : RJ-45 Port 1 or 2 Ports Line Data : RJ-11 Console : RJ-45 Port LED Power / Alarm / Line ACT 1,2 / Line Sync 1,2 / Camera Link 1,2 Reset System Line Loopback Test LB Test Switch Visible LED : OK / Fail Size 175(W) X 230(D) X 31(H) Power AC 88 ~ 132V / 0.2A AC 176 ~ 264V / 0.1A 43 ~ 63 Hz, On-Board Power Module Temperature -20 ~ 60 ℃ Humidity 10 ~ 90 % RH Slide 24: CCTV Optic CPE [ Model : C800F2 ] Capacity 1 Port (Standard) or 2 Ports (Option) Interface CCTV Ethernet Data : RJ-45 Port, 2 Ports Line Data : SC/PC Type Optic Connector 2 Ports Console : RJ-45 Port Connection Method P-t-P (Standard) , Ring (Option) Line Connection SC/PC (1310nm~1550nm) Type Line Loopback Test LB Test Switch Visible LED : OK / Fail LED Power / Alarm / Optic ACT 1,2 / SF 1,2 / Camera Link 1,2 / Cascade 1 Size 175(W) X 230(D) X 31(H) Power AC 88 ~ 132V / 0.2A AC 176 ~ 264V / 0.1A 43 ~ 63 Hz, On-Board Power Module Temperature -2 ~ 50 ℃ Humidity 10 ~ 90 % RH CCTV COT – Optic and DSL/Optic Mixed Type : CCTV COT – Optic and DSL/Optic Mixed Type Technological developments : Technological developments WATER PROOF CCTV Computer controlled analytics and identification Today’s High-definition CCTV cameras have many computer controlled technologies that allow them to identify, track, and categorize objects in their field of view. Slide 27: Video Content Analysis (VCA) is the capability of automatically analyzing video to detect and determine temporal events not based on a single image. As such, it can be seen as the automated equivalent of the biological visual cortex. A system using VCA can recognize changes in the environment and even identify and compare objects in the database using size, speed, and sometimes color. The camera’s actions can be programmed based on what it is “seeing”. For example; an alarm can be issued if an object has moved in a certain area, or if a painting is missing from a wall, and if someone has spray painted the lens. VCA also has the ability to track people on a map by calculating their position from the images. It is then possible to link many cameras and track a person through an entire building or area. This can allow a person to be followed without having to analyze many hours of film. Currently the cameras have difficulty identifying individuals from video alone, but if connected to a key-card system, identities can be established and displayed as a tag over their heads on the video. Slide 28: Facial recognition system Is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. The combination of CCTV and facial recognition has been tried as a form of mass surveillance, but has been ineffective because of the low discriminating power of facial recognition technology and the very high number of false positives generated. This type of system has been proposed to compare faces at airports and seaports with those of suspected terrorists or other undesirable entrants. Slide 29: Computerized monitoring of CCTV images is under development, so that a human CCTV operator does not have to endlessly look at all the screens, allowing an operator to observe many more CCTV cameras. These systems do not observe people directly. Instead, they track their behavior by looking for particular types of body-movement behavior, or particular types of clothing or baggage. Where is CCTV located? : Where is CCTV located? Cities and towns Car parks Within and outside organisations Car parks Residential areas Within private homes Application – Toll Gate Surveillance System : Application – Toll Gate Surveillance System Toll Gate CCTV CPE #1 Monitoring CCTV CO Monitoring Image Storage Management/Control PC Switch/Hub Internet Network Switch/Hub Fiber optics Cable Manage/Control PC Central Control Station Toll gate office or Traffic Surveillance Center Telephone Line Max. ~5Km Application – Apartment Surveillance System : Application – Apartment Surveillance System Apartment Area Switch/Hub Management/Control PC Image Storage CCTV CO Monitoring Internet Network Apartment Managing Office CCTV CPE #1 Telephone Line Max. ~5Km Application – Factory Surveillance System : Application – Factory Surveillance System Area A Area B Area C CCTV CO CCTV CPE #1 Switch/Hub Image Storage Management/Control PC Monitoring Central Surveillance Station Telephone Line Max. ~5Km Application – Airport or Seaport Surveillance System : Application – Airport or Seaport Surveillance System Area A Area B Area N CCTV CO # CCTV CPE #1 CCTV CPE #N Monitoring Switch/Hub Management/Control PC Image Storage Central Control Station Telephone Line Max. ~5Km Application – Security Surveillance/Traffic Control System : Application – Security Surveillance/Traffic Control System CCTV CO CCTV CPE CCTV CPE Switch/Hub MSPP MSPP Image Storage Management/Control PC Monitoring Internet Network Monitoring PC Security / Traffic Surveillance Area Fiber optics Cable Telephone line Max ~5Km Central Control Station Data Access Area Application – Army Security Area Surveillance System : Application – Army Security Area Surveillance System Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector A Sector B Effective distance of Camera Max. 5 km Corps H.Q Regiment or Division H.Q CCTV CO #1 CCTV CPE #1 Monitoring Switch/Hub Management/Control PC Switch/Hub Fiber Optics Cable Image Storage Management/Control PC Phone Line Application – School or Kindergarten Safety System : Application – School or Kindergarten Safety System Section A Section B Section C Kindergarten Playground Section #N Parents Check Parents Check Safety System for Students or Kid CCTV CO #N CCTV CO #1 CCTV CPE #1 CCTV CPE #N Image Storage Management/Control PC Switch/Hub Monitoring Internet Network Telephone Line Max. ~5Km Today’s CCTV Systems : Today’s CCTV Systems Tomorrow’s CCTV Systems : Tomorrow’s CCTV Systems Limitation of CCTV : Limitation of CCTV Analog systems focus on small scale jobs, all cameras home run to a single point. SUMMARY : SUMMARY There is a lot we can learn from different types of evaluations We can greatly improve the effectiveness of security measures We are helping organisations to better assess risks and implement better and more cost-effective solutions Slide 42: THANK YOU Slide 43: QUESTIONS ??? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.