Effective sentences

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a ppt about english learning

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ielts writing : 

ielts writing Effective Sentences

assessment criteria : 

Task Response Coherence and Cohesion Lexical Resource Grammatical Accuracy assessment criteria

Workshop 1 task review : 

Workshop 1 task review Some people think that university should not provide theoretical knowledge, but to give practical training benefit to the society. Do you agree or disagree? Use your own experience and knowledge to support your idea. TASK:观点是——大学不应该教授理论知识,而应该多注重实践。--同意,还是不同意?--key words:university, theoretical knowledge, practical training.

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Mistakes: 审题: “university”的限定意义。 论证:避免从一个极端到另一个极端: 不同意“不应教授理论知识”=应当教授理论知识; 但不等于应只教授理论知识。 可以适当用“I” “we”,但一定去掉你的“you” 用词不丰富 中式表达,政治课本式口号和空话

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写作格式齐头式(推荐格式)Most universities and colleges spend a rather long period in fundamental theories and elementary courses. But students regard these kinds of knowledge useless, and pay less attention to them....First, fundamental theories, such as math and physics, are the basis of other knowledge.... 缩入式 Most universities and colleges spend a rather long period in fundamental theories and elementary courses. But students regard these kinds of knowledge useless, and pay less attention to them.... First, fundamental theories, such as math and physics, are the basis of other knowledge....

grammatical accuracy : 

grammatical accuracy Accuracy:基本语法错误扣分严格 Diversity:对于简单句/复杂并列句/复杂从句的掌握 对句子的扩展/精简 句式的变型:简单句 复杂从句; 倒装句,强调句,there be,被动语态,形式主语

中国学生最易犯的初级语法错误 : 

中国学生最易犯的初级语法错误 Activity: 请找出下列句子中的语法错误 1. Student can benefit much from using internet tutorials. 错误一:可数名词的单数形式,必须在前面加上a/the/that/my/your等限定词;或将此单数名词换成复数. Students can benefit much from using internet tutorials. Tip: 雅思写作中主语尽量用复数,以显示举例的普遍性。

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2. “Economic development” is nowadays clearly associate (link) with consumerism. 错误二:被动语态(To be done)表达不正确 “Economic development” is nowadays clearly associate(d) with consumerism. NB: 注意某些动词被动语态的不规则变型,i.e. hurt (hurt), rise(raised), lay (laid).

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3. There has been a long time debate as to whether the advantages of the nuclear technology outweighs its disadvantages. 错误三:长句中,特别注意检查谓语的单复数形式是否与主语一致。 There has been a long time debate as to whether the advantages of the nuclear technology outweigh its disadvantages.

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The history of science and technology have accompanied the evolution of human civilisation.Customs and rituals of a nation is always the significant factor that all companies are concern about. The history...has accompanied...Customs and rituals of a nation are always the significant factors that all companies are concerned about.

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4. Learn theoretical knowledge alone cannot satisfy students’ needs for job hunting. 错误四:动词不能做主语,需要改为动名词,或不定式 to do. Learning / To learn theoretical knowledge alone cannot satisfy students’ needs for job hunting.

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However, as far as I concerned, try to keep these traditional skills and way of life really have great value.The final reason, and possibly the most significant one, is that prevents crime and advocates peace should be propagated by government at school and family. Children need to be educated on the dangers of commit crime. However, as far as I am concerned, trying to keep these traditional skills and way of life really has great value....preventing crime....and advocating peace...on the dangers of committing crime.

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5. Nowadays, the internet technology is developing fastly which makes our life convenience. 错误五:词性混乱 is developing fast/ rapidly...makes our life convenient.

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6. Some people believe that it is the government who should take the primary responsibility to protect the environment, others argue that those tasks should be delegated to ordinary citizens. 错误六:每个句子中只能包含一套意思完整的主谓宾,此句中包含两套,应在两句中添加联系词构成复杂句,或断成两个简单句。 ...the environment, while/however others......the environment. Others, on the other hand, argue that......the environment; others argue...

雅思写作中句子的种类 : 

雅思写作中句子的种类 简单句:只包含一个主谓结构的句子Olympic games can boost the economy of the host country. 复杂句:简单句+简单句(+简单句),各分句同等重要,相互独立Some advertisements do give useful information about products, however, more are merely exaggerating or misleading.

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一个主句+一个或多个从句:主句表示主要意思,从句表示 次要意思。There are many jobs that are especially suitable for old people, such as jobs that require more work experiences than the physical power, or jobs that need to be handled with ample patience. FAQ: 句式越复杂越好么? Answer:1/3简单句+1/3并列句+1/3相对复杂难句关键仍在句子表意准确、严密、多样。

5大通用基本句型结构 : 

5大通用基本句型结构 1:主语+系动词+表语 2:主语+不及物动词 3:主语+及物动词+宾语 4:主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 5:主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 最根本句式 主语+谓语

基础扩展1:主语+系动词+表语 : 

基础扩展1:主语+系动词+表语 作用:表示事务的属性IELTS writing test is difficult. 系动词:谓语不能单独表达完整意思,必须连系其他修饰成分--be--感观类:feel, taste, sound, smell, look--变化/不变类:become, turn, stay, remain--确定/不确定类:seem, prove

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系动词扩展 传统的方法在未来有经济价值. Traditional way has economic value in the future.Traditional way is economically valuable in the future. 传统的方法证明在未来有经济价值. Traditional way proves economically valuable in the future.

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传统的方法好像在未来有经济价值.传统方法仍然在未来有经济价值。 Traditional way seems economically valuable in the future.Traditional way remains economically valuable in the future. 核技术仍然是对世界的威胁。远程教育( Distant learning)证明是自学的好帮手 Nuclear technology remains a threat to the world.Distant learning proves to be a helpful tool of self-study.

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表语=名词/形容词/介词结构/不定式/表语从句 名词+be+名词表关键:A balanced diet is the key to (a healthy life). 名词+be+形容词表合适:Employees are suitable/ qualified/ competent for their job.表有益处:Boarding schools are beneficial for parents who are busy.

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名词+be+介词结构我在学校。I am at school.我同意/我反对。I am for/against animal tests for new drugs. 名词+be+不定式(to do)这次课的目的是教会学生学会写出有力的句子。The purpose of this lesson is to teach students how to write effective sentences.

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保持老人身心健康愉悦的最好方法,是允许他们继续工作。The best way______, is_______them keep working. to keep old man in good health condition and high spiritsto allow 解决全球变暖的最有效方法是,限制二氧化碳的排放量。The most effective method______, is ______the emission of carbon dioxide. to solve the problem of global warmingto restrict

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名词+be+表语从句 学生留学的主要原因在于,他们想开阔眼界。 The main reason students go abroad to study is that, they want to broaden their horizon. 保存历史建筑的主要目的在于,它们身上记载着这座城市历史。The main purpose of_______ is that, they ______the history of the city. preserving historical buildingsembody

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Activity:翻译下列句子1. 很多老人即使已经70多岁,但仍然很健康。2. 年轻人对新事物比较好奇。3. 走读制学校(day school)跟大多数寄宿制学校不一样,是男女混校的 (mixed gender).4. 交通堵塞(traffic jams)的最主要问题是,它们会耗费油料(fuel),污染环境。

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Sample Answer:1. Many old people, even in their seventies, are still in good health.2. Young people are curious about new experiences.3. Day schools, unlike most boarding schools, are mixed gender.4. The main problems with traffic jams are that they waste fuels and damage the environment.

基础扩展2:主语+不及物动词 : 

不及物动词:后面不能跟宾语,已经能够表达独立完整的意思。 The door closed.The girl laughed.The scar on Harry Potter’s forehead burned. happen, occur, exist, rise, come, go, lie, function, serve, result, differ, vary... 但可接副词、介词短语、状语从句等。 基础扩展2:主语+不及物动词

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不同的学生出国留学有不同的理由。 Different students have different reasons to study abroad.According to different students, the reasons to study abroad may______. vary The reason to study abroad_____from one student to another. varies

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许多被惯坏的孩子 (spoiled children)在成长中缺乏对他人的足够关心。 Many spoiled children____ without______for the others. grow up; adequate consideration 关于人与自然关系的讨论出现在不同的层面上。Discussions on human and their relationship with the nature_______on several different levels. occur/ exist/ appear/ reflect

基础扩展3:主语+及物动词+宾语 : 

雅思写作考试中最常见句型 及物动词:动词都具有实际的意义,都是主语发出的动作。 但必须后接宾语才能表达完整的意思——表达两个事物间的关系。 基础扩展3:主语+及物动词+宾语

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三种方式:主语+及物动词+宾语 I bought the book.  主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语I give you this book. 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语I bought this book for my IELTS preparation.

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主语+及物动词+宾语 媒体暴力影响小孩的精神健康。Media violence affects children’s mental health. 赌博和酗酒导致犯罪和毁灭。Gambling and alcohol abuse cause crime and destruction. 政府鼓励慈善事业。 Government promotes charities.

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主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 我的父母在我18岁生日那天买了礼物。My parents bought me birthday present on my 18th birthday. 社区服务给做坏事的人一个改过自新的机会。Community services offer wrongdoers an opportunity to correct their misconduct. 政府给毕业生提供更多就业机会。 Government provides more job opportunities to graduates.

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主语+谓语+宾语+补语(名词/介词短语/不定式) 我认为他是一个英雄。I consider/ regard him as a hero. 我们认为贪婪是罪恶源头。We consider greed as a source of evils. 父母应该鼓励孩子参加更多有益的活动。 Parents should encourage their kids to attend more rewarding activities.

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Activity:根据所提示谓语动词,翻译下列句子。1. 经济文化全球化会危机到很多国家人们的工作 (endanger).2. 大学教育也应该具备一些其他功能. (serve)3. 科技进步给每个人带来更好的机会。(grant)4. 这种交通方式为远程旅行者节省了很多麻烦。(spare)5.很少有人会把这些项目看作艺术。(regard)6. 我完全同意这种观点。(find)7.电脑的应用使得人们在家里办公成为可能。(make)

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1. The cultural and economic globalisation will endanger the jobs of people in many countries.2.University education ought to serve other important functions as well.3. The technological advances have granted everyone a better opportunity.4. This mode of transport spares long-distance travellers a lot of troubles.

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5. Very few people regard such projects as arts. 6. I find myself in complete agreement with this opinion.7. The use of computers makes it possible for people to work from home.

基本结构之上的扩展 : 

扩展是指对构成句子各部分(名词/动词)进行一定的修饰限定,以表达更具体、丰富、准确的思想。 Students have problems. Young students who lack social experiences often have problems on how to explore the topics on laws and the society in their IELTS writing tests. 基本结构之上的扩展

名词的扩展 : 

名词的扩展 名词students 形容词 Young 介词结构in the IELTS writing course定语从句who take the IELTS writing course同位语, the most common candidates for the IELTS test,分词结构, having recently attendedthe IELTS writing courses, 不定式to sit the IELTS test + +

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形容词+名词:尝试在每一个名词前添加1-2个形容词Activity: 请将下列句子中的红色字体的词替换成表意更明确的同义词(或词组)。1. A good student knows how to put theories into daily practice. 2. If students have good knowledge of the theories, he will perform better in practices. 3. Without a lot of practices, theories will simply become empty.4. I agree that practical training should play an important role in the higher education.

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1. A good/ smart/ brilliant/ high-achieving student knows how to put theories into daily practice. 2. If students have good/ solid/ substantial/ rich knowledge of the theoretical knowledge, he will perform better/ more efficiently/ effectively/ skillfully/ proficiently in practices.

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3. Without a lot of / plenty of/ adequate/ sufficient/ a variety of practices, theories will simply become empty/ void/ idle/ unconvincing. 4. I agree that practical training should play an important/significant/ indispensable/ essential / crucial role in the higher education.

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Vocabulary List 1: 量多的many, muchnumerous/various/massive itemsample/plenty/maximum opportunitiesenough/sufficient/ adequate supplysubstantial/ considerable pay risea great deal of, dozens of, hundreds/thousands of....

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量少的a few minutes, a little while, several hourssporadic/ minimum disturbanceinsufficient/inadequate water supply;a couple of; a small quantity of; a handful of; a limited number of...

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重要的,主要的important/ significant/ vital/ essential/ crucial/ indispensable factormain/major competitorprincipal/ primary problemchief/ leading role

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不重要的,次要的unimportant/ insignificant/ non-essential/ non-crucial factorminimal levelminor injurya negligible personmarginal/ subordinated statusfunction in a secondary/subsidiary capacity

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好的good/great/ excellent/ amazing/ wonderfulterrific/awesomedistinguished scientist/ remarkable event/ brilliant ideaoutstanding/ fabulous/ marvellous/ spectacular/ superb 差的bad/ poor/ terriblesubstandard/ imperfect/ unsatisfactory productdreadful/ awful situationdefective/ faulty devicedetrimental/ harmful/ negative/ unfavourable effect

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名词+介词结构 基本介词 来自于学生的有用意见反馈同环保专家的足够的咨询初看人类历史在计算机科技领域中的巨大进步促使经济增长的有效措施。

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来自于:useful feedback from the students伴随:adequate consultation with the environmental expert在⋯⋯点:a first glance at human history在⋯⋯里:huge progress in the computer technology目的:effective means to economic development

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难度介词 在⋯⋯之前 普通用法:before高级用法:prior to, pending 在进行动物试验之前,人们需确认该药没有巨大的副作用。 Before (Prior to/ Pending) carrying out animal experiments, people need to make sure the drug to be tested does not have severe side effect.

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在⋯⋯之后普通用法:after高级用法:in the wake of 第二次世界大战过后,许多表现主义运动纷纷涌现。 Many expressionist movement sprang up after (in the wake of )the Second World War. New changes spring up all over the city.

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关于:about/ on/ of 高级用法 1:towards 朝向,面向 走向合作的趋势a tendency towards cooperation随着年龄的增长,你对死亡态度也会发生变化。As you get older, your attitude/ opinion towards death changes.

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高级用法2:over关于此事的讨论 discussions over this issue关于个人所得税的问题problems over the income tax 高级用法3:concerning/ regarding/ respecting/ touching I am writing concerning the position of Assistant Manager that I am due to begin next Monday.

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关于薪酬,在发达国家一个保姆一小时可赚6英镑。Regarding/ with regards to wages, a babysitter in a developed country may earn 6 pounds per hour. 有关财产的立法legislation respecting/ with respect to property 关于城市空气污染的问题problems respecting air pollution in cities 他问了我许多有关家庭和学校的问题He asked many questions touching my house and school.

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根据,按照普通用法:at/ by/ underat sb’s request, at sb’s orderby the rules, by lawunder the agreement, under the circumstances 高级用法:according to/ in accordance with/ in conformity with 教育是遵循本校的原则实施的。

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Education is carried out in accordance with/ according to the principle of the school. 按照法律行事 behave in conformity with the law In conformity with our rules and regulations, I am calling a meeting of our organisation.

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表目的:普通用法: to, in order to, so as to高级用法: for the purpose of, for the sake of, for the benefit of, for fear of, with a view to 她提前一小时离开以免误了火车。She left an hour earlier for fear of missing her train. 为了自己的健康,他打算到海滨去住.He is going to move to the coast for the sake of/ for the benefit of of his health.

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为了维持身体健康,一个人应该吃有益食品,并且经常锻炼身体。 With a view to/ For the purpose of maintaing physically well-being, a person should eat wholesome food and get sufficient exercises.

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名词+不定式最常见用法:the most effective way to allow them...is, the best method to reduce....is…. I cannot fully agree with the claim that international joint efforts are the only way_________(保护环境的。) to protect the environment

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名词+定语从句(⋯⋯的)物+which/ that(⋯⋯的)地点 +where/ that + 介词(⋯⋯的)人 + who / that(⋯⋯的)谁的东西+whose(⋯⋯的)时间+when

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1.危险之一是吸烟,这被普遍认为是导致心脏疾病的最主要原因之一。One of these dangers is smoking, _____is ______as the leading cause for heart disease. which;generally accepted 2. 人类有很多种方法来解决环境问题。There are a lot of ways______people can solve environmental problems. in which

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寄宿制学校对繁忙的家长是理想选择。Boarding school are______parents______are busy. ideal for; who 4. 房奴是中国的一个新词,它指的是由于房价飞涨而用自己薪水的大部分偿还银行贷款的人们。The housing slave is a new expression in China, ____to people_____use most of their salary to________, _____the soaring house price. referring; who; repay bank loans; due to

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高分内容:名词+同位语同位语通常由名词或一个完整的句子构成,是对前面名词的解释说明,可简单理解为破折号的结构。 There are sixty million people who do not have enough food to eat in some remote areas, such as Xinjiang, a province in the northwest part of China. Job satisfaction, a very important part of an employee’s sense of wellbeing, can be promoted in most jobs.

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Activity:使用同位语结构,翻译以下句子。 1. 我一直想见到登叔——传说中帅哥老师。2. BBC网站现在提供各种各样以博客(podcast)为形式的节目——这是可以下载下来离线观看的媒体文件。3.日本——一个狭长而缺乏资源的岛国,拥有世界声誉的经济实力。

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1. I’ve always wanted to meet Uncle Deng, the legendary cute guy teacher.2. The BBC website now offers a variety of programmes through the podcasts, the media files downloadable for offline use. 3. Japan, a narrow and long-sized island without abundant resources, gains a world reputation by his powerful economic status.

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名词+分词将状语从句精简为独立分词结构,使句子更加紧凑。 Everyone is aware of the extra pollution (that is ) involved.People in favour of the early retirement maintain that old people, who have (having) worked for over30 or 40 years, should not go on working.

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Activity:将下列句子中的划线部分转换成分词形式。 1.There may be other factors that contribute to this phenomenon. contributing to 2. As schooling begins earlier and becomes increasingly exam-oriented, play is likely to get even less of a look-in. With school beginning...and becoming....

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3. Smoking is a known handicap to sleep, and one survey shows that ex-smokers got to sleep 18 minutes rather than their earlier average of 52 minutes. as/ with one survey showing....

动词的扩展(动词+副词) : 

Vocabulary List:常用副词总结 频率副词always, usually, often, continually, frequentlyrepeatedly, regularlyonce, twice, sometimes,never, seldom, rarely, 动词的扩展(动词+副词)

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程度副词-表示程度a bit, a little, slightlypartly, partiallyfairly, rather, quite,almost, nearly, mainlyonly, solely, merely, entirely, wholly, exclusively

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表达可能性Certainly--clearly, obviously, undoubtedly, definitely, for sure, without a doubtVery likely--almost certainly/ almost certainLikely--maybe, can, perhaps, probably, potentially, possibly, there are chances/ there’s a good chance that...

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Unlikely--improbably, unconvincingly.Certainly not--cannot, impossible, certainly/definitely not, out of the question.

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正是人类的创造性使得现代科技成为可能。It is________man’s creativity________. preciselythat has made all the modern technologies possible 可以肯定的是,在人与环境问题的战争中,能在国际层面上达成合作是再好不过了。It is________ that in the battle against environmental problems, ____________. certainly true; cooperation at the international level is highly desirable.

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控制电影电视中的暴力内容并不意味着,必须要把它们消灭精光。The control of the amount of violence in films and on television ________to ________it. does not necessarily mean; eradicate 一些人认为,私立学校的孩子会认为自己与生俱来的比其他孩子高人一等。Some people feel that pupils from private schools will ______themselves_______. regard, inherently superior to other pupils

高分内容:句子的精简 : 

高分内容:句子的精简 给你营养过剩的句子减减月巴 =)and also --> either/ alsoco-operate together --> co-operatemore and more- -> increasingly/ morenew breakthrough --> breakthroughover and over --> repeatedlyperiod of time --> period/ timerepeat again --> repeatstill remains --> remains

根本句型之外的变型 : 

根本句型之外的变型 THERE BE IT 形式主语 被动语态 主语+谓语+其他成分

特殊变式1:there be : 

表示一个事物“在某时间,某地点存在有⋯⋯” There(形式主语)+be+ (真正)主语+状语NB: be 可以有各种形式 特殊变式1:there be

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1. be+情态动词:there seems to be;there should be; there should have been; 2. be = there exists; there lies; there lives; there comes; there remains, there stands...

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使用there be结构翻译以下句子:1.人们对广告的需求比以往任何时候都大。2.应当有一个机构来监管动物实验。3. 体育明星挣这么多钱或许是有原因的。4. 世界上不存在所谓的不偏不倚的观察。5.预计将会在2030年有轻微的下降至18%。

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1. There has been a greater need for advertising than ever before.2. There should exist a body to regulate animal tests.3. There may be some reasons why sport stars earn such attractive salaries.4. There is no such thing as an unbiased observation.5. There is expected to be a slight drop to 18% in 2030.

特殊变式2:it形式主语 : 

特殊变式2:it形式主语 It is +形容词+for/toIt is +形容词 +that It is done that/ whether….

Slide 82: 

句子的真正主语为for/to/that 之后的内容 It is very kind of you to lend me a hand in time.It is evident that children sometimes need to be punished when they do something wrong. Not punishing a child is always an option if it is clear that the children understands the error.

Slide 83: 

that从句:评述that之后内容的性质是怎样的 It is possible that; it is clear that; it is undoubtable that;it has often been explained that; it can be concluded that.

Slide 84: 

翻译以下句子:1. 学生该不该给教师评分,这是有争议的。2. 人们建议说,大学教育应当有更重要的作用。3. 人们常说,我们正生活在信息时代。4. 一些人坚持认为,做重要的决定应该是政府的责任。

Slide 85: 

Sample Answer: 1. It is arguable whether students should rate the teachers.2. It is suggested that university education ought to serve other important functions.3. It has often been said that we live in the information age.4. Some people insist that it is the responsibility of the government to make the right decisions.形式主语it避免了以人称开头,使得句型更加多样化。

特殊变式3:被动语态 : 

特殊变式3:被动语态 英文与中文的最主要区别之一 to do-->to be done; could do-->could be done; should do-->should be done; must do-->must be done...

Slide 87: 

主动与被动,强调的重心不同:你打了我。我被打了。我被你打了。 主动语态与被动语态之争 被动语态多省略动作发出者,体现了论证的客观性;主动语态强调动作发出者,体现动作的有力性。

Slide 88: 

Activity: 将下列句子翻成英文,要求使用被动语态。1. 随着更多的人成为大型消费者,有更多的垃圾正在被制造出来。2. 在整个世纪,最大的水量是用于农业目的。3. 对小孩来说,电脑技能所能带来的好处是不能被否认的。4.在未来,电脑将被用来创造更大、甚至更复杂的电脑。

Slide 89: 

1. More rubbish is being produced as more people become big consumers.2. Throughout the century, the largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purpose.3. The obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied.4. In the future, computers will be used to create bigger and even more sophisticated computers.

复杂句式之强调句 : 

复杂句式之强调句 分为强调词,和强调句 强调词 强调名词:very 强调动词:do/ does/ did +动词原形

Slide 91: 

强调名词 他是担任此职位的最佳人选。He is the person for the position. He is the very person for the position. 你就是我要找的女孩。You are the girl I am looking for. You are the very girl I am looking for. 懒惰是通往成功的巨大障碍。Laziness is the block to success. Laziness is the very block to success.

Slide 92: 

1. 这就是我提过给你们雅思备考的教材。2.伏地魔把哈利波特——“活下来的男孩”,当成是他的最大敌人。3.地质资源(Geological resources)有时候能够决定一个国家的财力(financial capability),比如石油之于阿拉伯——沙漠变宝藏的最重要原因。

Slide 93: 

1. This is the very text book I mentioned for your IELTS preparation.2. Lord Voldmort regarded Harry Potter, the Boy Who Lived, as his very enemy. 3. Geological resources can sometimes define the financial capability of a country, such as the oil to the Arab, the very reason the desert turns into a treasury.

Slide 94: 

强调动词 我不能和你在一起,但我确实很在乎你。I cannot be with you, but I do care about you. 1. 他确实曾经是个足球流氓 (hooligan)2. 指数还在上涨,但经济确实在衰退。3.人们确实有从广告业中受益匪浅。 1. He did used to be a hooligan.2. The index is on a rise, but the economy does enter recession.3. People do benefit a lot from advertising.

Slide 95: 

强调句:It is/was+被强调部分+that/ which/ who+句子中其他成分。 Yan teaches the IELTS writing course at the New Channel School. 强调Yan:It is Yan who teaches IELTS writing course at the New Channel School.强调IELTS writing course: It is the IELTS writing course that Yan is teaching at the New Channel School.强调the New Channel School: It is at the New Channel School that Yan is teaching the IELTS writing course.

Slide 96: 

His friend studied engineering at Cambridge University. 分别强调his friend/ engineering/ Cambridge University It was his friend who studied engineering at Cambridge University.It was engineering that his friend was studying at Cambridge University.It was at Cambridge University that his friend was studying. It was studying engineering that his friend was doing at Cambridge University.

Slide 97: 

Activity: 翻译下列句子:1. 我点的菜是膏蟹(creamy crab),不是肉蟹(meat crab)。2.只有在体育行业中达到顶级的人,才能获得高薪水。3. 互联网被普通民众熟悉,只是15年前的事。4. 应该是政府为纳税人(taxpayer)服务,而不是反之亦然。

Slide 98: 

Sample Answer:1. It is the creamy crab I ordered, not the meat crab. 2. It is only those that have reached the very top of the sports profession who can gain high salaries.3. It was only until 15 years ago that the internet has become popular among the ordinary people.4. It is the government who should serve the taxpayers, not vice versa.

复杂句式之倒装句 : 

In this way only this problem can be effectively solved. Only in this way can this problem be effectively solved. Not only +倒装,but also +正常句 在句首:正常语序:The sun not only gives us light, but also it gives us heat.倒装语序:Not only does the sun give us light, but also it gives us heat. 复杂句式之倒装句

Slide 100: 

在句中:We can see that there are not only very large differences between these economies, but also that these gaps are widening. 倒装语序:We can see that not only are there very large differences between these economies, but also that these gaps are widening. 全球化不仅增加了国际贸易,并且它增进了文化交流。 Not only does globalisation increase the international trade, but also it enhances the cultural exchange.

Slide 101: 

乘客绝不(by no means/ under no circumstances)允许在空调车上抽烟。 正常语序:Passengers are by no means/ under no circumstances allowed to smoke on the air-conditioned bus. 倒装语序:By no means are passengers allowed to smoke on the air-conditioned bus.

Slide 102: 

仅只(only前置倒装)在过去的近几年里,技术才进步到有效降低生产成本的地步。 Only in the past few years has the technology improved to the level which effectively reduces the cost of production. 虽然看上去奇怪(形容词前置倒装),父母的关注有时会阻碍学生的学业发展。 Strange as it may seem, parent’s attention sometimes hinder students’ academic development.

从句中的逻辑关系 : 

从句中的逻辑关系 (连词)+主语+谓语+宾语,+(连词)+主语+谓语+宾语 1. 因果关系:because, so 2. 举例关系:for example 3. 对比关系:but; while 4. 递进关系:moreover 5. 让步关系:even though 6. 假设关系: if

1. 因果关系 : 

因为(Because)⋯⋯ because +从句;because of + 短语as/since:后面只能跟从句owing to, due to, thanks to:后面只能跟名词 高级用法in view of, in light of, on account of 1. 因果关系

Slide 105: 

Activity:翻译下列句子1.有些时候很难去衡量艺术的价值,因为它们是无形的资产。 Sometimes it is hard to evaluate arts since/as they are intangible assets. Sometimes it is hard to evaluate arts, which are intangible assets. Intangible assets as arts are, sometimes it is hard to evaluate them.

Slide 106: 

2.由于外资的引进,该地区将会发生很大的变化。 Great changes are in prospect in this area due to/thanks to/ in view of/ in light of foreign investments. 3.煤矿厂终将因为枯竭而关闭。 3. Mines will eventually be closed owing to/ due to exhaustion.

Slide 107: 

所以(So)⋯⋯ hence, thus, therefore, 可用在句首也可用在句中。as a consequence, as a result, consequently, Accordingly,多用在句首;so that, 只能用在句中 Activity:翻译下列句子1. 我们的人口在持续增长,所以我们需要更多的食物。2.我们忘记了这也是一种污染源,因此政府需要提高普通公民的这种意识。3.我已经讲情况告诉你,所以你必须酌情采取措施。

Slide 108: 

Sample Answer:1. Our population is constantly increasing so that more food is needed.2. We forget that this is a source of pollution, therefore the government needs to raise this awareness.3. I have informed you the circumstances. Accordingly, you must take measures.

2.举例关系 : 

2.举例关系 比如(For example) 短语类: for instance, such as, consider ... for example, take ... for example,句子类:This point is illustrated/ demonstrated with the example/ case of...; This point can be confirmed by the example/ case of...拉丁文缩写类:e.g. /i.e.

Slide 110: 

Activity: 翻译下列句子1. 普遍公认,一些人天生就有一定的才能,比如对于运动和音乐的天赋,而另一些人没有。2. 学习德语、英语、法语等现代语言,比学习拉丁语有用。3.一些人认为娱乐界人士(entertainers),比如电影明星,流行歌手,以及体育明星,挣得过多了。4.以理科生(数学系,物理学,化学系,等等)为例,基础理论的教育比实践教育重要的多。

Slide 111: 

1. It is generally believed that some people are born with certain talents, for instance, for sports or music, while others are not.2. Learning modern languages, such as German, English and French, is more useful than learning Latin.3. Some people think that entertainers, e.g. film stars, pop musicians and sport stars, are paid too much.4. Take the science students (i.e. math, physics and chemistry etc.) for example, teaching the foundational theories is much more important than teaching the practices.

3. 对比关系 : 

3. 对比关系 与之相比/但是 用在句首或句中:but, however, yet, while, whilst, whereas只能用在句首:By/in contrast On one hand...; on the other hand...NB: 此短语连接的部分应当为描述同一事物的相反/相对立的两方面

Slide 113: 

我们要一手抓物质文明建设,一手抓精神文明建设。 On one hand we should promote the material civilisation; on the other hand, we should promote the civic and moral education. We should promote the material civilisation on one hand, and the civic and moral education on the other hand.

Slide 114: 

1.一些人把幸福和财富以及物质上的成功联系在一起,另一些人则认为幸福是在情感和美好的人际关系中的。 Some people link happiness to wealth and material success, however/ while/ whilst/ whereas others think it lies in emotions and loving personal relationships. While/ whilst/ whereas some people link happiness to wealth and material success, others think it lies in emotions and loving personal relationships.

Slide 115: 

Happiness, which some people link to wealth and material success, is thought to be lied in emotions and loving personal relationships by others. Happiness, while some people link it to wealth and material success, others thinks it lies in emotions and loving personal relationships.

Slide 116: 

2. 一些城市花巨额建造博物馆和艺术画廊,但他们却忽视了搞好学校建设。 Some cities have spent huge sums of money on museums and art galleries, whereas they have failed to look after their schools. Some cities, which have spent huge sums of money on museums and art galleries, have failed to look after their schools.

Slide 117: 

It is those cities, which have spent huge sums of money on museums and art galleries, that have failed to look after their schools.

Slide 118: 

3.相比之下,老年人更具有生活的睿智。In contrast (with the younger generation), old people are the living fountains of wisdom. living fountain of authority/ knowledge/ experiences/ stories/ fortune

4. 递进关系 : 

平行递进关系:除此之外 (besides; apart from; except for/ save for) 除了成本高,这个生产方法还很耗时。 Apart from involving high cost, this manufacturing method is time-consuming.Apart from, 强调另外还有。 4. 递进关系

Slide 120: 

除了是电影明星,安吉丽娜茱莉还是联合国难民署(United Nations High Commissioner for Refuges/ UNHCR)的大使 (ambassador)。 Apart from being a movie star, Angelina Jolie is also the ambassador of UNHCR.

Slide 121: 

except for/ save for:强调主要情况外的不同细节This manufacturing method is generally satisfying, except for/ save for being a bit time-consuming. This meal is excellent, except for the first course.

Slide 122: 

而且(Moreover, furthermore, in addition, not only...but also...) 这房子太小,并且离地铁也太远了。 This house is too small, moreover/ furthermore/ in addition, it is too far away from the underground.

Slide 123: 

not only, but also... Not only is the house too small, but also it is too far away from the underground. This house, which is too small, is also too far away from the underground.

Slide 124: 

这台电脑能够帮助您完成一切文档处理。并且,它还是家庭主妇最顺从、最勤劳的仆人。 This computer can help you with all the documents processing, moreover/furthermore/ in addition, it is also the most obedient and diligent servant of housewives. Not only... but also... which...

5. 让步关系 : 

5. 让步关系 尽管...(Although) 后接名词或代词:despite, in spite of, notwithstanding后接完整句子:even though

Slide 126: 

尽管已经抓捕了无证作业的电焊工 (unqualified welders),我们仍坚持调查工程负责人的责任。 Although the unqualified welders have been arrested, we still insist calling into investigation the responsibilities of the project contractor. Even though

Slide 127: 

Despite/ In spite of/ Notwithstanding Despite/ In spite of/ Notwithstanding the fact that the unqualified welders have been arrested, we still insist calling into investigation the responsibilities of the project contractor. Despite arresting...Despite the unqualified welders being arrested...

Slide 128: 

...尽管如此 (nonetheless, nevertheless), 放置句中。 无证作业的电焊工已经被抓捕,尽管如此,我们仍坚持追究工程负责人的责任。 The unqualified welders have been arrested, nonetheless/ nevertheless, we still insist calling into investigation the responsibilities of the project contractor.

Slide 129: 

即使(Even if) 区别于Even though. Even though表示为已发生事实的让步,even if表示为对还没有发生事件的假象让步。 即使没有发生大火,工程承包商也应因工作中严重渎职 (gross negligence)而受谴责。 Even if the fire did not break out, the contractors should be accused of their gross negligence in conducting the project.

Slide 130: 

只要(As long as/ so long as) 只要你首先合理的设计问卷,数据就错不了。 As long as/ so long as you design the questionnaire properly in the first place, the data will be fine.

Slide 131: 

不管(no matter, whether..or not, regardless of, irrespective of) 奥运会金牌是所有胸怀志向的奥运会选手的奋斗目标,不论种族、宗教或国籍。 An Olympic gold is the goal of all aspiring Olympians, no matter what their race, religion or nationality is. Regardless of / Irrespective of their race, religion or nationality, an Olympic gold is the goal of all aspiring Olympians.

Slide 132: 

尽管他买不起房,她仍然很爱他。 Although/ Even though he cannot afford (to buy) a house, she still loves him. He cannot afford to buy a house, nevertheless/ nonetheless, she still loves him. Whether he could afford to buy a house or not, she still loves him. Regardless/ Irrespective of the fact that he could not afford to buy a house, she still loves him.

6. 假设关系 : 

6. 假设关系 如果 (If) 万一:in case + 不希望发生的结果在⋯⋯条件下:on the condition that, under the circumstances that..provided that..., given that

Slide 134: 

如果你有什么问题,请不客气写电邮告诉我。 If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to drop me an email.In case... 如果/万一孩子不遵守家庭作业的要求,家长应当寻求教师的意见。 If/ In case children do not obey the homework instructions, parents should seek advices from the teachers.

Slide 135: 

政府应当提倡发展新能源,比如太阳能(solar power)、风能(wind power)和水能(hydraulic power),以预防石油资源提早耗尽。 The government should promote the development of new energy sources, such as the solar power, the wind power and the hydraulic power, in case the oil sources are exhausted earlier.

Slide 136: 

只要你在三天内送货,我就付给你钱。 Provided you could deliver the goods in 3 days, I will pay you the money. 只要资金能被合理应用,政府可以提高对慈善机构的资助。 The government could raise the funds to charities, provided they are used reasonably.Provided being used reasonably, the government could raise the funds to charities. On the condition/ Under the circumstances...

BONUS:句子节奏的处理 : 

BONUS:句子节奏的处理 如何做到长句的节奏抑扬顿挫,错落有秩:-从句中短句+长句-同位语-插入语 “He xie”, the Chinese name for “river crab”, which sounds like the word for “harmonisation”, is a euphemism often used by Chinese authorities for censorship.

Slide 138: 

插入语Step 1: 找到句子的状语(状语修饰谓语,可以是副词、介词短语、分词和不定式,去掉后不影响句子完整性) Some people would surely seek to preserve such traditions. Some people would surely seek to preserve such traditions.

Slide 139: 

Step 2: 把此状语换置到句子里任何非不可分短语的位置上。 Surely, some people would seek to preserve such traditions. Some people, surely, would seek to preserve such traditions. Some people would seek, surely, to preserve such traditions. Some people would seek to preserve, surely, such traditions.

Slide 140: 

Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology. -In terms of technology, their adult world will be changing constantly.-Their adult world will be changing, constantly, in terms of technology.

Slide 141: 

I think it is by no means pointless to try to keep traditions alive with technology. -By no means, I think it is pointless to try to keep traditions alive with technology.-To try to keep traditions alive, I think it is pointless by no means.

Slide 142: 

Vocabulary List 3:常用前置状语surely, certainly, undoubtablyactually, indeed, in practice, as a matter of factideally,theoretically/ in theory, hypotheticallyinterestingly,specially, preciselyessentially/ in essencestrangely enough, oddly enoughsimilarly, likewise, otherwiseobviouslyaccordingly, correspondingly, equally,fortunately, unfortunately

revision task:段落翻译 : 

revision task:段落翻译 即使孩子用电脑来做其他的事情,比如搜集信息或者给朋友发电子邮件,它也不能代替人与人的交流。跟其他孩子在一起,共同拥有一些非虚拟(virtual)世界的经历是每一个孩子成长过程中重要的一部分,而这是电脑所不能提供的。尽管如此,我们不能否认电脑技术能给年轻人带来明显的好处。他们长大以后的世界将会在技术方面日新月异,并且网络是打开当今世界上所有知识和信息的一把钥匙。因此,小孩子在小的时候有热情有信心学习如何使用电脑非常重要,因为他们在以后的学习和工作中将会需要这些技能。

Slide 144: 

考官范文:Even when children use a computer for other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends, it is no substitute for human interaction. Spending time with other children and sharing non-virtual experiences form an important part of a child’s development that cannot be provided by a computer. 让步假设;举例;对比

Slide 145: 

In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied. Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology and the Internet is the key to all the knowledge and information available in the world today. Therefore it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives. 让步;因果解释

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