CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION: CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION BY: BINI P SAMUEL CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION: CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION DEFINITION: DEFINITION “ Continuing education of health workers includes the experiences after initial training which help health care personnel to maintain and improve existing, and acquire new competencies relevant to the performance of their responsibilities. Appropriate continuing education should reflect community needs in health and lead to planned improvements in the health of the community”. FEATURES: FEATURES Unified Approach Relationships with other systems Comprehensiveness Accessibility for woman health workers Integration with the management process Analysis of needs as a basis for learning continuity Internally coordinated Relevance in planning Credibility and economic Appropriateness in implementation NEED: NEED Safe and effective nursing care. Meet the need of the population. Update the knowledge. Career advancement. Acquire specialized skills of personnel and meet technologic adjuncts. Prepare in administrative and leadership positions. Shape their own destiny. FUNCTIONS: FUNCTIONS To meet the health needs and public expectations. To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse. Recruitment function. Recognize gaps in their knowledge. To improve the communication between the participants, faculty, community, and health sector. Functions………: Functions……… To test the participants ability to do formal academic study. To shape or support university educational policies and practices. To ensure the quality of education. To grant budget for extension studies. To maintain academic standards. To meet educational requirements. PHILOSOPHY: PHILOSOPHY Nurse`s philosophy of life, nursing and education, belief, etc. will influence the philosophy of continuing nursing education. It focuses on individual learner. The thoughtful teacher recognizes that one`s philosophy of education is always an emerging one, rather than a static one. Philosophy…….: Philosophy……. Learning must be a continuous process throughout the lifespan, not limited to formal courses of study. Nursing is based on knowledge of the physical and psychological functioning of man within his environment, expanding the knowledge related to man and his dynamic, proliferating fields of operation is of concern. ELEMENTS: ELEMENTS Learner Teacher/ Educator Role of Educator: Role of Educator Guide and counselor to the learner. An arranger and organizer of learning experiences. Motivator and an encourager of students. Evaluator of programmes. Involving resources experts for teaching the students. Role of educator……..: Role of educator…….. Providing instructional materials. Select and evaluate materials prepared by others. Administrative role (planning, directing, budgeting and evaluation). Public relations role to change the image of nursing and in recognizing the contributions and potentials of nurses. Educational preparation : Educational preparation Master`s degree in his area of nursing expertise or with a doctorate in adult education. Credentials with more publications. Writing and organizing skills. A continuing learner. Clinical expertisedness . Educational preparation: Educational preparation Depth of nursing knowledge and skill in its application. Interest in the subject, enthusiasm in teaching. Skill in working with adult learners. Adequate knowledge about teaching skills and methods of teaching. Broad base knowledge. Competencies and other characteristics : Competencies and other characteristics Concern for people. Flexibility. Sensitive to group response. Willing to travel. Detailed advance preparation and organization for teaching. Resourcefulness. Determination. Competencies and other characteristics: Competencies and other characteristics Self-confidence. A sense of humour. Broader outlook. A zest for life. An innate curiosity. Love of Adventure. Desire to search the unknown. Interest in self-development and in others development. PRINCIPLES : PRINCIPLES Provision for school and nursing faculty involvement in planning and teaching the continuing nursing education courses tends to maintain high educational standards for the programme. An adequate staff is essential to planning, implementing and evaluating a programme which is based on learning needs and which has an impact on the quality of nursing care provided. Responsibilities of the director of continuing nursing education are: -Determination of learning needs of the nurse population. -Development and implementation of a programme to meet these needs. -Evaluation of results. Principles………..: Principles……….. Staff services are required with sufficient talents and numbers to implement the planned programme: - Advisory. -Secretarial. - Administrative. - Supportive - Assistance with research, publicity, questionnaire, evaluation tools, data analysis, computer programming. Principles………..: Principles……….. An advisory committee has to be appointed, which includes: -Faculty members from a variety of areas of nursing practice. -Directors of hospital nursing services. -Representatives from the state licensing authority, health department and voluntary agencies. -Extended care facilities -Hospital association. -Medical and allied health professionals. -Regional medical programme. Principles……….: Principles………. Other agencies involved in the delivery of health care in the community. The community may serve as a liaison between the school of nursing and the health community and fulfill a communication and public relations function for the university. Continuing nursing education programme may be decentralized or centralized. Principles………: Principles……… Decentralization is characterized by programming within each academic department, faculty involved in consultation and surveys with the public interested in their subject field were most knowledgeable about the needs for continuing nursing education. Centralization is characterized by a separate department or extension division. Financial support is by either university grants or self-supporting. Faculty may be assigned to continuing education as a regular part of the normal teaching load, but for periods they will get extra-remuneration or non-university faculty may hired on a contract basis to teach specific courses. PLANNING: PLANNING A successful continuing nursing education programme is the result of careful and detailed planning. Aspects of continuing nursing education planning: Broad planning by institution and agencies responsible for continuing nursing education. Specific planning by individuals for their own continuing education. Planning……: Planning…… Planning is essential to: -Meet the nursing needs. -Use available resources. -Meet needs at all levels i.e., local, state, regional, national, and international. -Avoid duplication and fragmentation of efforts. -Help keep at a minimum any gaps in meeting the continuing education needs of the nurses. Planning………: Planning……… -The selection of teaching faculty may depend on the availability of the person rather than his expertise or teaching ability. The content of the programme is designed around faculty knowledge and learning needs of the participants. -In interdisciplinary approach requires representation of all the groups involved; determination of common and compatible goals for successful programming. Planning is an ongoing process, the rapid technologic advances and proliferation of knowledge demands continuous planning to meet ever changing learning needs. PLANNING PROCESS: PLANNING PROCESS 1.Plan 2. Establishing goals and objectives. 3. Determining needs and priorities. 4. Assess the available resources. 5. Plan the budget appropriate for the programme . EVALUATE THE RESULTS AT STATED INTERVALS : EVALUATE THE RESULTS AT STATED INTERVALS Evaluation is needed to assess the effectiveness of the programme or the progress in order to find out to what extent pre-set goals have been achieved evaluations should be done at different stages of the programme. E.g. Preparatory stage; Implementation stage; the impact of programmes; the process of programme operation, the management systems, efforts and performance evaluation. Purpose of evaluation: : Purpose of evaluation: To identify the areas which require greater attention in-terms of participation of trainees, academic activities and management (at planning stage). To identify bottlenecks in various activities carried out during the operation of the programme (implementation stage). To assess the applicability of training in field or actual situation. Qualitative improvement in instruction, promotes better learning, determines future changes and needs. For quality control or qualitative improvement. What to evaluate? : What to evaluate? Evaluation should cover: The growth and satisfaction of participants. The outcome course and the whole programme/activity/task. Effectiveness of faculty members. Transfer of knowledge. Effect on the system. Procedures for evaluation: Procedures for evaluation Pre-test and post-test. Attitude tests. Observation of skills. Questionnaire. Audio or visual tapes. Evaluation Design : Evaluation Design Focus of evaluation- what do you want to find out? Device the instrument- collection of information. Organize the formation-coding, organizing, storing and retrieving. Analyze the information. Report the findings. Reassessing the goals. Updating, modifying the plan periodically based on needs. Evaluate the design for validity, reliability, credibility, timeliness and pervasiveness. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE: CORRESPONDENCE COURSE LIBERAL EDUCATION: LIBERAL EDUCATION DEFINITION: DEFINITION "It is the education of grown up men and women who are more than 18yrs old. Education for adults mainly those who could not get any formal education in the early days of their lives". Purpose of adult education : Purpose of adult education i ) Individuals point of view : From individual's point of view the purpose of adult education are, Remedial Development of physical health Vocational development Development of social skills Self development Recreational aim Purpose of adult education : Purpose of adult education ii ) Social point of view: Promotion of social cohesion Conservation and Improvement of national resources Building Co-operative groups Inculcation of social ideology NEED & IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION: NEED & IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION A new hope for the illiterate to wider intellectual horizon of partially illiterate adults. to broaden the political horizon of the adults ie . value of vote. to complete India's political awakening. to set the cultural tone of the community. to make adult life a happy and joyous living. to satisfy the recreational needs of rural adults. to train the adult in co-operative living. to compulsory primary education. Continuing education - Education does not end with schooling. It is a life long process. ORGANIZATION OF ADULT EDUCATION : ORGANIZATION OF ADULT EDUCATION i ) Village level: Youth clubs and Mahila mandals are organized for this purpose. In village panchayats , secretary of co-operative society if any, primary school teachers should combine their efforts. ii) Block level: 2 full time officers at the block level 1 - one man & one women. iii) District level: district social education officer. iv) State level: the rank of a joint or Deputy director at the state level to look after the administration of all aspects of adult education. v) Central level: Ministry of education is in-charge of all the programmes of adult education. So all these programmes are directly implemented by it either through central scheme of through the state education department. The changing concept of adult education: : The changing concept of adult education: MATERIALS FOR ADULT EDUCATION: MATERIALS FOR ADULT EDUCATION 1. Reading Materials: Books and pamphlets Daily Newspapers: All adults are interested in news, and all over the world the daily news - sheet provides the chief reading matter for adults. Periodicals, Charts, Graphs and Maps were also used. 2. Audiovisual Materials: The main A.V. aids used are black board, bulletin board, film, film strips, maps, graphs, charts, Records. METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS: : METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS: 1. Learner - dominated methods : In these methods the learner dominates. He initiates and mostly depends upon himself. These are following 3 subgroups within these methods. Trial & Error Method: drill and practice. Individual investigation method: Here the process involves thinking out a thing or learning by insight, supplemented by use of library, use of laboratory, Questionnaire, survey and field trips. Project method: It combines the essentials of first two methods. METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS….. : METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS ….. 2. Teacher - dominated methods: Here the teacher is more active and dominates the learning process. It includes a) Lecture Method b) Counseling c) Case work - Here the teacher goes into the history of an individuals case and teaches him the way to lead a happy and satisfying life. METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS …. : METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS …. d) Demonstration: This is of 2 types. Method demonstration - pupils are shown how to do a thing. Eg : Washing a baby's sore eyes. Result demonstration - adults are shown the start and end of an demonstration. METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS …. : METHODS OF TEACHING ADULTS …. 3. Co-operative methods: Apprenticeship - a student learns through working in close co-operative with his teacher. Group discussion AGENCIES OF ADULT EDUCATION: : AGENCIES OF ADULT EDUCATION: Classes of people like teachers, government servants, volunteers, social education workers etc. Regular educational institution like schools, colleges, universities, libraries, museums, correspondence schools, community centres, agriculture extension groups. Informal educational device like forums, study circles, discussion groups, listening groups, camps etc. Recreational educational bodies like theatres. Institutions whose primary function is not education. Eg : Religious bodies. PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION: PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION 1. Non co-operation of adults: 2. Problem of social education workers: 3. Problem of attendance : 4. Problem of vocational training: 5. Problem of Equipment: 6. Problem of social backwardness: 7. Problems of suitable literature 8. Problem of Finance: TEACHER EDUCATION: TEACHER EDUCATION INSERVICE EDUCATION: INSERVICE EDUCATION THANK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!: THANK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!