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Beaubien, Providence College Modified by Wutnipong Warakraisawad John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Wireless Devices and their ApplicationsMobile Commerce : 2 Mobile Commerce Typical Applications include: Financial applications Inventory management Field Service management Product locating Real Estate M-commerce and m-business is any e-commerce or e-business activities performed in a wireless environment. It is not merely a variation on existing Internet services; it is a natural extension of e-business creating new opportunities.Mobile Computing Basic Terminology : 3 Mobile Computing Basic Terminology Personal digital assistant (PDA) . A small portable computer, such as Palm handhelds and Pocket PC devices. Short Message Service (SMS). A technology, in existence since 1991, that allows sending short text messages. Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS). An extension of SMS that is capable of simple animation, tiny pictures, and short melodies. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). The next generation of wireless messaging, this technology will be able to deliver rich media Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). A technology that offers Internet browsing from wireless devices. Smartphones. Internet-enabled cell phones that can support mobile applications. Wi-Fi ( Wireless Fidelity ). Refers to a standard 802.11b which most of the wireless local area networks are based on. Global positioning system (GPS) . A satellite based tracking system that enables the determination of a GPS device ’ s location. WLAN . Wireless local area networkMobile Computing – Characteristics: 4 Mobile Computing – Characteristics Mobility implies portability based on the fact that users carry a mobile device everywhere they go. Therefore, users can initiate real-time contact with other systems from wherever they happen to be. Broad reach is the characteristic that describes the accessibility of people. They can be reached at any time. Mobile computing has two major characteristics that differentiate it from other forms of computing: mobility and broad reach.Mobile Computing – Attributes: 5 Mobile Computing – Attributes Ubiquity refers to the attribute of being available at any location at any given time. A mobile terminal in the form of a smartphone or a PDA offers ubiquity. Convenience. It is very convenient for users to operate in the wireless environment. All they need is an Internet enabled mobile device such as a smartphone. Instant connectivity. Mobile devices enable users to connect easily and quickly to the Internet, intranets, other mobile devices and databases. Personalization. Personalization refers to customizing the information for individual consumers. Localization of products and services . Knowing the users physically location at any particular moment is key to offering relevant products and services. The characteristics of M-commerce, mobility and broad reach break the barriers of geography and time. Creating unique value added attributes.Mobile Computing – Drivers: 6 Mobile Computing – Drivers Widespread availability of mobile devices. The number of cell phones exceeds 1.3 billion No need for a PC. The Internet can be accessed via smartphone or other Internet-enabled wireless devices. The handset culture. The widespread use of cell phones Vendors are pushing m-commerce. Both mobile communication network operators and manufacturers of mobile devices. Declining prices and increased functionalities. Improvement of bandwidth. To properly conduct m-commerce, it is necessary to have sufficient bandwidth. 3G (third-generation) technology provides the necessary bandwidth, at a data rate of up to 2 Mbps . The development of mobile computing and m-commerce is being driven by number of factors.Mobile Computing – Value Chain: 7 Mobile Computing – Value Chain M-commerce is a complex process involving a number of operations and entities (customers, merchants, mobile operators, etc.). Link Function Provider Transport Maintenance and operation of the infrastructure supporting data communication between mobile users and application providers Technology platform vendors Enabling services Server hosting, data backup, and system integration Infrastructure equipment vendors Transaction support Mechanisms for assisting with transactions, security, and billing Application platform vendor Presentation services Conversion of content of Internet-based applications to applications suitable for mobile devices Application developer Personalization support Gathering of users’ preferences, information, and devices in order to provide individualized applications Content developer User applications General and specialized applications for mobile users Mobile service provider Content aggregators Design and operation of portals that offer categorized information and search facilities Mobile portal providerMobile Computing Infrastructure – WWAN’s: 8 Mobile Computing Infrastructure – WWAN’s At the core of most mobile computing applications are mobile networks . These are of two general types: the wide area and the local area . The wide area networks for mobile computing are known as wireless wide area networks (WWAN). Mobile Phone (terminal) Mobile Phone Communication Tower Base Station Controller (BSC) Mobile Switching Station (MSC) Fixed Telephone Infrastructure Mobile Network Mobile Network Wireless transmissionMobile Computing Infrastructure – WWAN’s: 9 Mobile Computing Infrastructure – WWAN’s The success of mobile computing depends on the capabilities of the WWAN communication systems 1G. The first generation of wireless technology. It was an analog-based technology, in effect from 1979 to 1992. 2G . The second generation of digital wireless technology. In existence today, 2G is based on digital radio technology and mainly accommodates text. 2.5G. An interim technology based on GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evaluation) that can accommodate limited graphics. 3G. The third generation of digital wireless technology, which supports rich media such as video clips. It started in 2001 in Japan, and reached Europe in 2002 and the United States in 2003. 4G. The expected next generation after 3G. 4G will provide faster display of multimedia and is expected between 2006 and 2010.Mobile Computing Infrastructure – Protocol’s: 10 Mobile Computing Infrastructure – Protocol’s Through multiplexing protocols mobile communication system providers will be able to service extremely large numbers of users. Three main protocols: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). Used by 1G systems, this protocol gives each user a different frequency to communicate on. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Used with some of the more popular 2G systems, this protocol assigns different users different time slots on a given communications channel. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Used with most 2.5G and 3G systems, this protocol separates different users by assigning different codes to the segments of each user ’ s communications.Problems with Wi-Fi : 11 Problems with Wi-Fi Roaming – users cannot roam from hotspot to hotspot if the hotspots use different Wi-Fi network services Security – because Wi-Fi uses radio waves, it is difficult to protect Cost – commercial Wi-Fi services are low cost but not free and each service has its own fees and separate accounts for users to logonMobile Computing Infrastructure – WLAN’s: 12 Mobile Computing Infrastructure – WLAN’s Wireless local area networks (WLAN) - another technology, has been making its way to the forefront as the market factors impeding its growth are being addressed. It is like a wired LAN but without the cables transmitting and receiving data over the airwaves. Wireless access point - a transmitter with an antenna, connected to a wired LAN that provides an Internet connection. (A wireless access point provides service to a number of users within a small geographical perimeter known as a “hot spot”) Wireless network card incorporated with laptops, desktops, or PDAs will provide access WLAN’s employ the Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) standard developed by the IEEE 802.11b Speeds up to 11Mbps 802.11a and 802.11g Speeds up to 54 Mbps Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP) a built-in security system in Wi-Fi encrypts the communications between a client machine and a wireless access point.WiMax: 13 WiMax Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access , popularly known as WiMax , is the name for IEEE standard 802.16 Wireless access range of up to 31 miles; Data transfer rate of 75 Mbps; Secure system that offers voice and video.Mobile Computing Infrastructure – WWAN’s: Chapter 6 14 Mobile Computing Infrastructure – WWAN’sMobile Computing – Financial Services: 15 Mobile Computing – Financial Services Mobile financial applications include: Banking: offer mobile access to financial and account information. Wireless payments: provides mobile phones with a secure purchasing tools capable of instantly authorizing payments Micropayments: electronic payments for small-purchase amounts (generally less than $10) Wireless wallets: Software (e-wallet) that stores an online shopper’s credit card numbers and other personal information. Bill payment services: Paying bills directly from a mobile device Brokerage services: stock trades and quotes Money transfers: from one account to anotherMobile Computing – Shopping: 16 Mobile Computing – Shopping Some shopping applications include: Restaurant chains enabling consumers to place an order for pick up or delivery virtually any time, anywhere. eBay offers “anywhere wireless” services as does Amazon.com Purchasing movie tickets by wireless device Shopping from wireless devices enables customers to perform quick searches, compare prices, use a shopping cart, order, and view the status of their order using their mobile wireless devices.Mobile Computing – Advertising: 17 Mobile Computing – Advertising This location-sensitive advertising, will informing a user about: sales at a specific shop or mall today’s specials at a restaurant loyalty programs and much more all when a potential buyer is within close proximity. Knowing the current location of mobile users (using GPS) and their preferences or surfing habits, marketers can send user-specific advertising messages to wireless devices. The most promising avenues of success for wireless advertising will incorporate it with other advertising media, Web sites or physical locations.Mobile Computing – Mobile Portals : 18 Mobile Computing – Mobile Portals The services provided by mobile portals include: News Sports E-mail Entertainment Travel information Restaurant s Event information Leisure-related services (e.g., games, TV and movie listings) Community services Stock trading. These are customer channels, optimized for mobility, that aggregates and provides content and services to mobile users.Mobile Intrabusiness and Enterprise Applications: 19 Mobile Intrabusiness and Enterprise Applications Support Of Mobile Workers: are those working outside the corporate premises. Service technician ’ s, Sales personnel, Delivery workers, etc. Wearable Devices. Employees may be equipped with a special form of mobile wireless computing devices Camera. Screen. Keyboard/Touch-panel display. Speech translator Today’s m-commerce applications are mainly used within organizations.Mobile Computing – Enterprise Applications continued: 20 Mobile Computing – Enterprise Applications continued Job Dispatch . To assign jobs to mobile employees, along with info about the task. transportation (delivery of food, oil, newspapers, cargo, courier services) Utilities measurement (gas, electricity, phone, water) Field service (computer, office equipment, home repair) Health care (visiting nurses, doctors, social services) Security (patrols, alarm installation). Supporting Other Types of Work. Tractors Mystery shoppers CollaborationMobile Computing – Intrabusiness Applications: 21 Mobile Computing – Intrabusiness Applications Wireless networking , used to pick items out of storage in warehouses via PCs mounted on forklifts Delivery-status updates , entered on PCs inside distribution trucks Collection of data such as competitors ’ inventories and prices in stores using a handheld (but not networked) device, from which data were transferred to company headquarters each evening. Taking physical inventories Wireless applications in the non-Internet environment have been around since the early 1990s.Mobile Computing – Mobile B2B: 22 Mobile Computing – Mobile B2B By integrating the mobile device into the supply chain, it is possible to make mobile reservations of goods check availability of a particular item in the warehouse order a particular product provide security access to confidential financial data reduce clerical mistakes and improve operations Mobile computing solutions (B2B and supply chain management) enable organizations to respond faster to disruptions by shifting resources related to critical events as they occur. The wireless environment has enhanced these c-commerce transactions.Mobile Computing – Mobile B2C Continued: 23 Mobile Computing – Mobile B2C Continued Wireless telemedicine storage of data and transferring of digital images from one location to another videoconferencing used for “ real-time ” consultation between a patient in one location and a medical specialist in another. Services News Weather Sports online language translationMobile Computing – L-Commerce Applications: Chapter 6 24 Mobile Computing – L-Commerce ApplicationsMobile Computing – Location-based Commerce: 25 Mobile Computing – Location-based Commerce The L-commerce services revolve around five key areas: Location : determining the basic position of a person or a thing (e.g., car or boat). Navigation : plotting a route from one location to another. Tracking : monitoring the movement of a person or a thing (e.g., a package or vehicle). Mapping : creating maps of specific geographical locations. Timing : determining the precise time at a specific location. online language translation Location-based commerce (l-commerce) refers to the localization of products and services. From a consumer’s viewpoint, l-commerce offers safety. From a business supplier’s point of view, l-commerce offers an opportunity to provide services that meet customers’ needs.Mobile Computing – L-Commerce Applications: 26 Mobile Computing – L-Commerce Applications There are many applications related to Location Based Commerce: Location-based advertising. The wireless device is detected, and similar to a pop-up ads on a PC, advertising is directed towards the PC. A dynamic billboard ad will be personalized specifically for the occupant of an approaching car. Ads on vehicles (taxicabs, trucks, buses) will change based on the vehicles location. E-911 emergency cell phone calls Telematics and telemetry applications: integration of computers and wireless communications in order to improve information flow (OnStar system by GM)Managerial Issues: 27 Managerial Issues Comparing wireless to synchronized mobile devices. In many cases, transmitting data in the evening or using a docking device is sufficient. In others, real time communication is needed, justifying a wireless system. Timetable. Although there has been much hype about m-commerce, only a small number of large-scale mobile computing applications have been deployed to date. The most numerous applications are in e-banking, stock trading, emergency services, and some B2B tasks. Companies still have time to carefully craft an m-commerce strategy. Setting applications priorities. Finding and prioritizing applications is a part of an organization’s e-strategy. Although location-based advertising is logically attractive, its effectiveness may not be known for several years. Therefore, companies should be very careful in committing resources to m-commerce. For the near term, applications that enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of mobile workers are likely to have the highest payoff.Managerial Issues (Continued): 28 Managerial Issues (Continued) Just a buzzword? In the short run, mobile computing, m-commerce, and especially l-commerce, may be just buzzwords due to the many limitations they now face. However, in the long run, the concepts will be increasingly popular. Management should monitor the technological developments and make plans accordingly. Choosing a system. The multiplicity of standards, devices, and supporting hardware and software can confuse a company planning to implement mobile computing. An unbiased consultant can be of great help. Checking the vendors and products carefully, as well as who is using them, is also critical. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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