JAWAHAR NAVODAYA VIDYALAYA : JAWAHAR NAVODAYA VIDYALAYA RAHAMA JAGATSINGHPUR Slide 2: IT IS CERTIFIED THAT MASTER ASHWINI KUMAR MISHRA HAS COMPLETED his PROJECT WORK UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF MR. MUNA MOHAPATRA
SIGN. OF TEACHER CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT : ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I EXTEND OUR VOTE OF THANKS TO MISS L.P BHUYAN AND Mr. MUNA MOHAPATRA FOR THEIR HELP IN THIS PROJECT WITHOUT WHICH THIS PROJECT WOULD NOT HAVE COME FORTH.
Sign of student Slide 4: Prepared by:- .ASHWINI KUMAR MISHRA
CLASS – 10
JAWAHAR NAVODAYA VIDYALAYA RAHAMA, JAGATSINGHPUR Periodic Table of Elements : Periodic Table of Elements Periodic Table : Periodic Table The periodic table organizes the elements in a particular way. A great deal of information about an element can be gathered from its position in the period table.
For example, you can predict with reasonably good accuracy the physical and chemical properties of the element. You can also predict what other elements a particular element will react with chemically.
Understanding the organization and plan of the periodic table will help you obtain basic information about each of the 118 known elements. The History of the Modern Periodic Table : The History of the Modern Periodic Table Slide 9: The history of the periodic table reflects over a century of growth in the understanding of chemical properties, and culminates with the publication of the first actual periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869. While Mendeleev built upon earlier discoveries by such scientists as Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier and Stanislao Cannizzaro, the Russian scientist is generally given sole credit for development of the actual periodic table itself.
The table itself is a visual representation of the periodic law which states that certain properties of elements repeat periodically when arranged by atomic number. The table arranges elements into vertical columns (groups) and horizontal rows (periods) to display these commonalities. During the nineteenth century, chemists began to categorize the elements according to similarities in their physical and chemical properties. The end result of these studies was our modern periodic table. : During the nineteenth century, chemists began to categorize the elements according to similarities in their physical and chemical properties. The end result of these studies was our modern periodic table. Johann Dobereiner : Johann Dobereiner In 1829, he classified some elements into groups of three, which he called triads.The elements in a triad had similar chemical properties and orderly physical properties. (ex. Cl, Br, I and Ca, Sr, Ba) John Newlands : John Newlands 1838 - 1898 Law of Octaves His law of octaves failed beyond the element calcium. John Newlands was an English chemist who in 1865 classified the 56 elements that had been discovered at the time into eleven groups which were based on similar physical properties. John Newlands : John Newlands 1838 - 1898 Law of Octaves In 1863, he suggested that elements be arranged in “octaves” because he noticed (after arranging the elements in order of increasing atomic mass) that certain properties repeated every 8th element. John Newlands : John Newlands 1838 - 1898 Law of Octaves Newlands' claim to see a repeating pattern was met with savage ridicule on its announcement. His classification of the elements, he was told, was as arbitrary as putting them in alphabetical order and his paper was rejected for publication by the Chemical Society. Mendeleev : Mendeleev In 1869, Dmitri Ivanovitch Mendeléev created the first accepted version of the periodic table.
He grouped elements according to their atomic mass, and as he did, he found that the families had similar chemical properties.
Blank spaces were left open to add the new elements he predicted would occur. Dmitri Mendeleev : Dmitri Mendeleev 1834 - 1907 In 1869 he published a table of the elements organized by increasing atomic mass. Lothar Meyer : Lothar Meyer 1830 - 1895 At the same time, he published his own table of the elements organized by increasing atomic mass. Slide 18: Both Mendeleev and Meyer arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass.
Both left vacant spaces where unknown elements should fit. So why is Mendeleev called the “father of the modern periodic table” and not Meyer, or both? Because…………… Slide 19: stated that if the atomic weight of an element caused it to be placed in the wrong group, then the weight must be wrong. (He corrected the atomic masses of Be, In, and U)
was so confident in his table that he used it to predict the physical properties of three elements that were yet unknown. Mendeleev... Slide 20: After the discovery of these unknown elements between 1874 and 1885, and the fact that Mendeleev’s predictions for Sc, Ga, and Ge were amazingly close to the actual values, his table was generally accepted. Slide 21: However, in spite of Mendeleev’s great achievement, problems arose when new elements were discovered and more accurate atomic weights determined. Ar and K Co and Ni Te and I Th and Pa Henry Moseley : Henry Moseley 1887 - 1915 In 1913, through his work with X-rays, he determined the actual nuclear charge (atomic number) of the elements*. He rearranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number. Slide 23: *“There is in the atom a fundamental quantity which increases by regular steps as we pass from each element to the next. This quantity can only be the charge on the central positive nucleus.” Henry Moseley : Henry Moseley His research was halted when the British government sent him to serve as a foot soldier in WWI. He was killed in the fighting in Gallipoli by a sniper’s bullet, at the age of 28. Because of this loss, the British government later restricted its scientists to noncombatant duties during WWII. Glenn T. Seaborg : Glenn T. Seaborg After co-discovering 10 new elements, in 1944 he moved 14 elements out of the main body of the periodic table to their current location below the Lanthanide series. These became knownas the Actinide series. 1912 - 1999 Glenn T. Seaborg : Glenn T. Seaborg He is the only person to have an element named after him while still alive. 1912 - 1999 "This is the greatest honor ever bestowed upon me - even better, I think, thanwinning the Nobel Prize." Periodic Table Geography : Periodic Table Geography Slide 28: The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called PERIODS. Slide 29: The vertical columns of the periodic table are called GROUPS, or FAMILIES. The elements in any group of the periodic table have similar physical and chemical properties! Periodic Law : Periodic Law When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in their physical and chemical properties. Alkali Metals : Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals : Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals : Transition Metals InnerTransition Metals : InnerTransition Metals These elements are also called the rare-earth elements. Halogens : Halogens Noble Gases : Noble Gases The s and p block elementsare calledREPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS. : The s and p block elementsare calledREPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS. Elements : Elements Science has come along way since Aristotle’s theory of Air, Water, Fire, and Earth.
Scientists have identified 90 naturally occurring elements, and created about 28 others. Elements : Elements The elements, alone or in combinations, make up our bodies, our world, our sun, and in fact, the entire universe. The most abundant element in the earth’s crust is oxygen. : The most abundant element in the earth’s crust is oxygen. Key to the Periodic Table : Key to the Periodic Table Elements are organized on the table according to their atomic number, usually found near the top of the square.
The atomic number refers to how many protons an atom of that element has.
For instance, hydrogen has 1 proton, so it’s atomic number is 1.
The atomic number is unique to that element. No two elements have the same atomic number. What’s in a square? : What’s in a square? Different periodic tables can include various bits of information, but usually:
number of valence electrons
state of matter at room temperature. Atomic Number : Atomic Number This refers to how many protons an atom of that element has.
No two elements, have the same number of protons. Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom Wave Model Atomic Mass : Atomic Mass Atomic Mass refers to the “weight” of the atom.
It is derived at by adding the number of protons with the number of neutrons. H This is a helium atom. Its atomic mass is 4 (protons plus neutrons).
What is its atomic number? Atomic Mass and Isotopes : Atomic Mass and Isotopes While most atoms have the same number of protons and neutrons, some don’t.
Some atoms have more or less neutrons than protons. These are called isotopes.
An atomic mass number with a decimal is the total of the number of protons plus the average number of neutrons. Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) : Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) The unit of measurement for an atom is an AMU. It stands for atomic mass unit.
One AMU is equal to the mass of one proton. Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) : Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) There are
6 X 1023 or 600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 amus in one gram.
(Remember that electrons are 2000 times smaller than one amu). Symbols : Symbols All elements have their own unique symbol.
It can consist of a single capital letter, or a capital letter and one or two lower case letters. C Carbon Cu Copper Common Elements and Symbols : Common Elements and Symbols Valence Electrons : Valence Electrons The number of valence electrons an atom has may also appear in a square.
Valence electrons are the electrons in the outer energy level of an atom.
These are the electrons that are transferred or shared when atoms bond together. Properties of Non-Metals : Properties of Non-Metals Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Non-metals are not ductile or malleable.
Solid non-metals are brittle and break easily.
They are dull.
Many non-metals are gases. Sulfur Properties of Metalloids : Properties of Metalloids Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and non-metals.
They are solids that can be shiny or dull.
They conduct heat and electricity better than non-metals but not as well as metals.
They are ductile and malleable. Silicon Families Periods : Families Periods Columns of elements are called groups or families.
Elements in each family have similar but not identical properties.
For example, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and other members of family IA are all soft, white, shiny metals.
All elements in a family have the same number of valence electrons. Each horizontal row of elements is called a period.
The elements in a period are not alike in properties.
In fact, the properties change greatly across even given row.
The first element in a period is always an extremely active solid. The last element in a period, is always an inactive gas. Slide 58: Families Hydrogen : Hydrogen The hydrogen square sits atop Family AI, but it is not a member of that family. Hydrogen is in a class of its own.
It’s a gas at room temperature.
It has one proton and one electron in its one and only energy level.
Hydrogen only needs 2 electrons to fill up its valence shell. Alkali Metals : Alkali Metals The alkali family is found in the first column of the periodic table.
Atoms of the alkali metals have a single electron in their outermost level, in other words, 1 valence electron.
They are shiny, have the consistency of clay, and are easily cut with a knife. Alkali Metals : Alkali Metals They are the most reactive metals.
They react violently with water.
Alkali metals are never found as free elements in nature. They are always bonded with another element. What does it mean to be reactive? : What does it mean to be reactive? We will be describing elements according to their reactivity.
Elements that are reactive bond easily with other elements to make compounds.
Some elements are only found in nature bonded with other elements.
What makes an element reactive?
An incomplete valence electron level.
All atoms (except hydrogen) want to have 8 electrons in their very outermost energy level (This is called the rule of octet.)
Atoms bond until this level is complete. Atoms with few valence electrons lose them during bonding. Atoms with 6, 7, or 8 valence electrons gain electrons during bonding. Slide 73: 5 Alkaline Earth Metals : Alkaline Earth Metals They are never found uncombined in nature.
They have two valence electrons.
Alkaline earth metals include magnesium and calcium, among others. Transition Metals : Transition Metals Transition Elements include those elements in the B families.
These are the metals you are probably most familiar: copper, tin, zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and silver.
They are good conductors of heat and electricity. Transition Elements : Transition Elements Transition elements have properties similar to one another and to other metals, but their properties do not fit in with those of any other family.
Many transition metals combine chemically with oxygen to form compounds called oxides. Boron Family : Boron Family The Boron Family is named after the first element in the family.
Atoms in this family have 3 valence electrons.
This family includes a metalloid (boron), and the rest are metals.
This family includes the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust (aluminum). Carbon Family : Carbon Family Atoms of this family have 4 valence electrons.
This family includes a non-metal (carbon), metalloids, and metals.
The element carbon is called the “basis of life.” There is an entire branch of chemistry devoted to carbon compounds called organic chemistry. Oxygen Family : Oxygen Family Atoms of this family have 6 valence electrons.
Most elements in this family share electrons when forming compounds.
Oxygen is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It is extremely active and combines with almost all elements. Halogen Family : Halogen Family The elements in this family are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
Halogens have 7 valence electrons, which explains why they are the most active non-metals. They are never found free in nature. Halogen atoms only need to gain 1 electron to fill their outermost energy level.
They react with alkali metals to form salts. Noble Gases : Noble Gases Noble Gases are colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive.
One important property of the noble gases is their inactivity. They are inactive because their outermost energy level is full.
Because they do not readily combine with other elements to form compounds, the noble gases are called inert.
The family of noble gases includes helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.
All the noble gases are found in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere. Rare Earth Elements : Rare Earth Elements The thirty rare earth elements are composed of the lanthanide and actinide series.
One element of the lanthanide series and most of the elements in the actinide series are called trans-uranium, which means synthetic or man-made. Matter : Matter All matter is composed of atoms and groups of atoms bonded together, called molecules.
Substances that are made from one type of atom only are called pure substances.
Substances that are made from more than one type of atom bonded together are called compounds.
Compounds that are combined physically, but not chemically, are called mixtures. Elements, Compounds, Mixtures : Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Sodium is an element.
Chlorine is an element.
When sodium and chlorine bond they make the compound sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt. Compounds have different properties than the elements that make them up.
Table salt has different properties than sodium, an explosive metal, and chlorine, a poisonous gas. Elements, Compounds, Mixtures : Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Hydrogen is an element.
Oxygen is an element.
When hydrogen and oxygen bond they make the compound water.
When salt and water are combined, a mixture is created. Compounds in mixtures retain their individual properties. The ocean is a mixture. Elements, compounds, and mixtures : Elements, compounds, and mixtures Mixtures can be separated by physical means.
Compounds can only be separated by chemical means.
Elements are pure substances. When the subatomic particles of an element are separated from its atom, it no longer retains the properties of that element. Slide 89: How to remember periodic table easily AN INTERESTING POEM………… Slide 90: I am the very model of a modern Major-General' from Gilbert & Sullivan's 'Pirates of Penzance'. There's antimony, arsenic, aluminum, selenium, And hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen and rheniumAnd nickel, neodymium, neptunium, germanium, And iron, americium, ruthenium, uranium, Europium, zirconium, lutetium, vanadium And lanthanum and osmium and astatine and radium And gold, protactinium and indium and gallium And iodine and thorium and thulium and thallium. There's yttrium, ytterbium, actinium, rubidium And boron, gadolinium, niobium, iridium And strontium and silicon and silver and samarium, And bismuth, bromine, lithium, beryllium and barium. Slide 91: There's holmium and helium and hafnium and erbium And phosphorous and francium and fluorine and terbium And manganese and mercury, molybdinum, magnesium, Dysprosium and scandium and cerium and cesium And lead, praseodymium, and platinum, plutonium, Palladium, promethium, potassium, polonium, Tantalum, technetium, titanium, tellurium, And cadmium and calcium and chromium and curium. There's sulfur, californium and fermium, berkelium And also mendelevium, einsteinium and nobelium And argon, krypton, neon, radon, xenon, zinc and rhodium And chlorine, carbon, cobalt, copper, Tungsten, tin and sodium. Slide 92: These are the only ones of which the news has come to Harvard, And there may be many others but they haven't been discovered. C There's antimony, arsenic, aluminum, selenium G7 And hydrogen and oxygen and nitrogen and rhenium C And nickel, neodymium, neptunium, germanium G D7 G And iron, americium, ruthenium, uranium.
G7 Cm Europium, zirconium, lutetium, vanadium Bb7 Eb And lanthanum and osmium and astatine and radium G7 Cm And gold and protactinium and indium and gallium Ab7 G7 And iodine and thorium and thulium and thallium Slide 93: C There's yttrium, ytterbium, actinium, rubidium G7 And boron, gadolinium, niobium, iridium C G7 C G7 And strontium and silicon and silver and samarium C F C G7 C And bismuth, bromine, lithium, beryllium and barium
(Isn't that interesting)
C There's holmium and helium and hafnium and erbium G7 And phosphorus and francium and fluorine and terbium C And manganese and mercury, molybdenum, magnesium G D7 G Dysprosium and scandium and cerium and cesium
G7 Cm And lead, praseodymium and platinum, plutonium Slide 94: Bb7 Eb Palladium, promethium, potassium, polonium G7 Cm And tantalum, technetium, titanium, tellurium Ab7 G7 And cadmium and calcium and chromium and curium
C There's sulphur, californium and fermium, berkelium, G7 And also mendelevium, einsteinium, nobelium, C G7 C G7 Slide 95: And argon, krypton, neon, radon, xenon, zinc and rhodium C F C G7 C And chlorine, carbon, cobalt, copper, tungsten, tin and sodium
C G7 C G7 These are the only ones of which the news has come to Harvard C F C G7 C And there may be many others, but the haven't been discovered. Slide 96: The periodic table is the most important tool in the chemist’s toolbox! BIBILIOGRAPHY : BIBILIOGRAPHY THANKS TO :
Paathsalamasti.com Slide 98: History of modern periodic table.
>Dobernier’s triads. Slide 99: THANK YOU