What is Motivation A

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What is Motivation? :

What is Motivation? The willingness to do something, conditioned by this action’s ability to satisfy some need for the individual


NEED A physiological or psychological deficiency that makes certain outcomes appear attractive

Motivation Process:

Motivation Process Unsatisfied Need Tension Drives Search Behavior Satisfied Need Reduction of Tension

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self- Actualization

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Workers Dislike work Must be threatened with punishment Avoid responsibilities Seek formal direction Require security Little ambition Theory Y Workers View work as natural Self-directed Exercise self-control Accept responsibility Seek responsibility Make innovative decisions

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory:

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory High High Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction 0 Hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction Motivator factors affect job satisfaction Quality of supervision Pay Company policies Physical working conditions Relations with others Job security Promotional opportunities Opportunities for personal growth Recognition Responsibility Achievement

McClelland's Theory of Needs :

McClelland's Theory of Needs Need for achievement (nAch) - drive to excel Need for power (nPow) - the need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise Need for affiliation (nAff) - the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

McClelland's Theory of Needs:

McClelland's Theory of Needs High achievers prefer jobs with personal responsibility, feedback, and intermediate degree of risk. High achievers are not necessarily good managers. Affiliation and power closely related to managerial success Employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement need.

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory Employees weigh what they put into a job situation ( input ) against what they get from it ( outcome ). Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others.

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory If they perceive their ratio to be equal to that of relevant others, a state of equity exists.

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory If the ratios are unequal , inequity exists, either under-reward or over-reward. When inequities occur, employees will attempt to correct them.

Equity Theory:

Equity Theory When employees envision an inequity, they may make one or more of five choices: Distort either their own or others’ inputs or outcomes Behave in some way so as to induce others to change their inputs or outcomes Behave in some way so as to change their own inputs or outcomes Choose a different comparison referent Quit their job

Expectancy Theory:

Expectancy Theory Attractiveness Performance-reward linkage Effort-performance linkage

PowerPoint Presentation:

Individual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Individual Goals Simplified Expectancy Model

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