Speciation

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evolution- speciation

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education Dr. P. ANIL KUMAR LECTURER IN ZOOLOGY P.R.GOVT.COLLEGE(A) KAKINADA

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Eastern Meadowlark ( Sturnella magna ) Western Meadowlark Sturnella neglecta

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2 Species of Evening Prime rose

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Overview: The “Mystery of Mysteries” Darwin explored the Galápagos Islands And discovered plants and animals found nowhere else on Earth Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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€ JeÚ\qT ç¿=Ôáï C²ÔáT\T>± >·T]ï+#áT³Å£” M\T¿£\T>·TÔáT+~. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Species/subspecies Race Deme :

Species/subspecies Race Deme Species is a Collection of Demes Deme – Smallest population groups

Speciation:

Speciation Quantum Evolution– Simpson,1944 Sympatric Speciation – Stebbins,1950 Quantum Speciation – Grant,Carson,1963, Formation of Species – Mayr,1970 Parapatric Speciation – Murray,1972 Saltatorial Speciation – Ayala,1975

Conditions needed for Genetic Equilibrium:

Conditions needed for Genetic Equilibrium Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

SPECIATION:

SPECIATION THE FORMATION OF NEW SPECIES AS NEW SPECIES EVOVLVE, POPULATIONS BECOME REPRODUCTIVELY ISOLATED REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION – MEMEBERS OF 2 POPULATIONS CANNOT INTERBREED & PRODUCE FERTILE OFFSPRING.

3 ISOLATING MECHANISMS……..:

3 ISOLATING MECHANISMS…….. BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION- CAPABLE OF BREEDING BUT HAVE DIFFERENCES IN COURTSHIP RITUALS (EX. MEADOWLARKS) GEOGRAPHICAL ISOLATION – SEPARATED BY GEOGRAPHIC BARRIERS LIKE RIVERS, MOUNTAINS, OR BODIES OF WATER (EX. SQUIRREL) TEMPORAL ISOLATION – 2 OR MORE SPECIES REPRODUCE AT DIFFERENT TIMES.

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Tigon Result of male tiger and female lion mating incaptivity. Offspring are infertile . Separated both geographically and ecologically. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Liger:

Liger Result of male lion and female tiger mating in captivity. Offspring are infertile . Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Table 23.1b:

Table 23.1b Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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A summary of reproductive barriers between closely related species Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Fig. 23.6:

Fig. 23.6 Four species of leopard frogs: differ in their mating calls. Hybrids are inviable. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Gene Pool:

Gene Pool Combined genetic info. of all members Allele frequency is # of times alleles occur Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Variation in Populations:

Variation in Populations 2 processes can lead to this: Mutations - change in DNA sequence Gene Shuffling – from sexual reproduction

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Sexual selection:

Sexual dimorphism : secondary sex characteristic distinction Sexual selection : selection towards secondary sex characteristics that leads to sexual dimorphism Sexual selection Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Genetic Drift changes populations…….:

Genetic Drift changes populations……. Random change in allele frequency causes an allele to become common Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Natural Selection : differential success in reproduction; only form of microevolution that adapts a population to its environment Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits:

Natural Selection on Polygenic Traits Shifts to middle range Shifts to 2 extremes Shifts to 1 extreme

Single-Gene vs. Polygenic Traits:

Single-Gene vs. Polygenic Traits Single-Gene : 2 Distinct Phenotypes Polygenic : Many Phenotypes (EG: tongue rolling) Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Courtship ritual as a behavioral barrier between species. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Nonrandom mating : inbreeding and assortive mating (both shift frequencies of different genotypes) Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Evolution of Populations:

Evolution of Populations Occurs when there is a change in relative frequency of alleles Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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These squirrels live on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon . This is an example of allopatric speciation. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education White tailed Antelope Squirrel Harris Antelope Squirrel

Possible types of barriers in allopatric speciation:

Possible types of barriers in allopatric speciation Mountain ranges The sea (for terrestrial species), or bodies of freshwater The land (for aquatic, especially freshwater species) Glacial masses Valleys

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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A. harrisi A. leucurus Once geographic separation has occurred One or both populations may undergo evolutionary change during the period of separation Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Postzygotic reproductive isolation:

Postzygotic reproductive isolation - for example via hybrid sterility, e.g. in horse and donkey - mother horse, father donkey: offspring is a mule (sterile) - mother donkey, father horse: offspring is a hinny (sterile) - Hybrid inviability eg. sheep-goat embryos Commissionerate of Collegiate Education Mule Hinny

Another case of prezygotic reproductive isolation: Mimulus flowers and pollinators :

Another case of prezygotic reproductive isolation: Mimulus flowers and pollinators The two closely related flower species differ in multiple ways so that one species is best adapted to bumblebee pollination, the other to hummingbird pollination; differences concern morphology (including placement of reproductive organs), colour, nectar content. Several of these may be genetically linked (after Bradshaw & Schemske) Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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In cichlid fish Sympatric speciation has resulted from nonrandom mating due to sexual selection Researchers from the University of Leiden placed males and females of Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei together in two aquarium tanks, one with natural light and one with a monochromatic orange lamp. Under normal light, the two species are noticeably different in coloration; under monochromatic orange light, the two species appear identical in color. The researchers then observed the mating choices of the fish in each tank. EXPERIMENT P. nyererei Normal light Monochromatic orange light P. pundamilia Under normal light, females of each species mated only with males of their own species. But under orange light, females of each species mated indiscriminately with males of both species. The resulting hybrids were viable and fertile. RESULTS The researchers concluded that mate choice by females based on coloration is the main reproductive barrier that normally keeps the gene pools of these two species separate. Since the species can still interbreed when this prezygotic behavioral barrier is breached in the laboratory, the genetic divergence between the species is likely to be small. This suggests that speciation in nature has occurred relatively recently. CONCLUSION Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Hawaiian Honeycreepers:

Hawaiian Honeycreepers An example of adaptive radiation – these species all diverged from a common ancestor (founder species) Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers Prezygotic barriers impede mating or hinder fertilization if mating does occur Individuals of different species Mating attempt Habitat isolation Temporal isolation Behavioral isolation Mechanical isolation HABITAT ISOLATION TEMPORAL ISOLATION BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION MECHANICAL ISOLATION (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Sympatric speciation in maggot flies (Rhagoletis pomonella):

Sympatric speciation in maggot flies ( Rhagoletis pomonella ) apples hawthornes Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Postzygotic reproductive isolation:

Postzygotic reproductive isolation Platy fish and swordtail: F2hybrids show higher probability of contracting cancer. Platyfish/swordtail inviability has been localised to an X-linked oncogene and receptor for tyrosine kinase with an autosomal inhibitor in Platyfish, where the system generates spots. There is no inhibitor in the swordtail, with consequent melanoma in the F2 generation Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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d¾+|ŸàHŽ B““ Âs+&ƒT sÁ¿£eTT\T>± |s=ØH•&ƒT. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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¿±Ç+³yŽT |Ÿ]DeTeTT : ‡ sÁ¿£|ŸÚ |Ÿ]eÖDeTT –q•Ôá e¯Z¿£sÁDeTTqÅ£” dŸ+‹+~óºq ç¿£eÖ\, $uó²>±\Å£” #î+<ŠTÔáT+~. $T¿ìØ* yû>·e+ÔáyîT®q ýñ<‘ €¿£d¾ˆ¿£eÖsÁTÎ\T ÈsÁT>·T³ e\q Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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ÿ¿£ ÈHuó² jáT+<Š* C²ÔáT\T “sˆD²Ôሿ£eTT>± ç¿=Ôáï dŸeTԐd¾œÜ“ sÁÖbõ+~+#áTÅ£”+{²sTT. ‚$ |ŸÚ¯Ç¿£ sÁÖ|ŸeTT\ qT+& dŸÎwŸ’yîT®q uóñ<ó‘\T ¿£*Ðq ç¿=Ôáï sÁÖbÍ\qT @sÁÎsÁ#áT¿=+{²sTT. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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An autopolyploid Is an individual that has more than two chromosome sets, all derived from a single species 2 n = 6 4 n = 12 2 n 4 n Failure of cell division in a cell of a growing diploid plant after chromosome duplication gives rise to a tetraploid branch or other tissue. Gametes produced by flowers on this branch will be diploid. Offspring with tetraploid karyotypes may be viable and fertile—a new biological species. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Sympatric speciation by autopolyploidy in plants. Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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An allopolyploid Is a species with multiple sets of chromosomes derived from different species Meiotic error; chromosome number not reduced from 2 n to n Unreduced gamete with 4 chromosomes Hybrid with 7 chromosomes Unreduced gamete with 7 chromosomes Viable fertile hybrid (allopolyploid) Normal gamete n = 3 Normal gamete n = 3 Species A 2 n = 4 Species B 2 n = 6 2 n = 10 Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

Adaptive Radiation:

Adaptive Radiation Is the evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to new environmental opportunities Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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Heterochrony Has also played a part in the evolution of salamander feet Ground-dwelling salamander. A longer time peroid for foot growth results in longer digits and less webbing. Tree-dwelling salamander. Foot growth ends sooner. This evolutionary timing change accounts for the shorter digits and more extensive webbing, which help the salamander climb vertically on tree branches. ( a) (b) Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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In paedomorphosis The rate of reproductive development accelerates compared to somatic development The sexually mature species may retain body features that were juvenile structures in an ancestral species Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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The evolution of vertebrates from invertebrate animals Was associated with alterations in Hox genes The vertebrate Hox complex contains duplicates of many of the same genes as the single invertebrate cluster, in virtually the same linear order on chromosomes, and they direct the sequential development of the same body regions. Thus, scientists infer that the four clusters of the vertebrate Hox complex are homologous to the single cluster in invertebrates. 5 First Hox duplication Second Hox duplication Vertebrates (with jaws) with four Hox clusters Hypothetical early vertebrates (jawless) with two Hox clusters Hypothetical vertebrate ancestor (invertebrate) with a single Hox cluster Most invertebrates have one cluster of homeotic genes (the Hox complex), shown here as colored bands on a chromosome. Hox genes direct development of major body parts. 1 A mutation (duplication) of the single Hox complex occurred about 520 million years ago and may have provided genetic material associated with the origin of the first vertebrates. 2 In an early vertebrate, the duplicate set of genes took on entirely new roles, such as directing the development of a backbone. 3 A second duplication of the Hox complex, yielding the four clusters found in most present-day vertebrates, occurred later, about 425 million years ago. This duplication, probably the result of a polyploidy event, allowed the development of even greater structural complexity, such as jaws and limbs. 4 Commissionerate of Collegiate Education

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