GLOBALIZATION: GLOBALIZATION PowerPoint Presentation: ► Globalization : the expanding scale, growing magnitude, speeding up and deepening impact of transcontinental flows and patterns of social interaction (Held and McGrew, Globalization/Anti-Globalization , p. 1) PowerPoint Presentation: (Economic) Globalization: “…(the) integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, direct foreign investment…short-term capital flows, international flows of workers and humanity generally, and flows of technology…” ( Bhagwati , p. 3) PowerPoint Presentation: Globalization (PGE W05).pdf Globalisation: Globalisation Globalisation could involve all these things! PowerPoint Presentation: Video: Emerging Powers: India What did you find informative about this film? What is the basic argument that the film presents about India and about globalization? How does the film interpret such things as India’s widespread poverty and its periodic flare-ups of ethnic and religious strife? Why are India and China so important? PowerPoint Presentation: “Globalization in its current phase has been described as an unprecedented compression of time and space reflected in the tremendous intensification of social, political, economic, and cultural interconnections and interdependencies on a global scale.” Stegler, p. ix time-space compression deterritorialization and supraterritoriality PowerPoint Presentation: One way to approach this: think about the world before globalization Distance mattered—space often measured in time Territorial boundaries more or less kept things in and out Society and culture had spatial referents Everything had its “place” (literally) PowerPoint Presentation: In a world of deterritorialization and supraterritoriality: Distance becomes almost irrelevant (the end of distance) Boundaries are increasingly permeable. Groups and cultures increasingly don’t have a territorial basis A new kind of non-physical “place” is emerging PowerPoint Presentation: Bosworth and Gordon: A survey of some key processes of globalization Technological advances Expansion of international commerce (exports and imports) Rising importance of private capital flows (stock markets and multinational corporations) Increasing travel and migration (international tourism and domestic diversity) Increased communication and interaction between peoples (through all sorts of media) Integration of Economies: Integration of Economies The increasing reliance of economies on each other The opportunities to be able to buy and sell in any country in the world The opportunities for labour and capital to locate anywhere in the world The growth of global markets in finance Stock Markets are now accessible from anywhere in the world! Copyright: edrod, stock.xchng Integration of Economies: Integration of Economies Made possible by: Technology Communication networks Internet access Growth of economic cooperation – trading blocs (EU, NAFTA, etc.) Collapse of ‘communism’ Movement to free trade Trade versus Aid?: Trade versus Aid? Benefits of Trade: Increased choice Greater potential for growth Increase international economies of scale Greater employment opportunities Trade has led to massive increases in wealth for many countries. Copyright: budgetstock, stock.xchng Trade versus Aid?: Trade versus Aid? Disadvantages of trade: Increase in gap between the rich and the poor Dominance of global trade by the rich, northern hemisphere countries Lack of opportunities for the poor to be able to have access to markets Exploitation of workers and growers How far does trade help children like these? Copyright: clesio, stock.xchng Corporate Expansion: Corporate Expansion Multi-national or trans-national corporations (MNCs or TNCs) – businesses with a headquarters in one country but with business operations in a number of others. No matter where you go in the world, certain businesses will always have a presence. Copyright: mkeky, stock.xchng Corporate Expansion: Corporate Expansion Characteristics: Expanding revenue Lowering costs Sourcing raw materials Controlling key supplies Control of processing Global economies of scale Controlling supplies may be one reason for global expansion. Copyright: rsvstks, stock.xchng Corporate Domination: Corporate Domination Key Issues: Damage to the environment? Exploitation of labour? Monopoly power Economic degradation Non-renewable resources Damage to cultures Shell and Nike’s activities have come under severe criticism in some quarters. Copyright: Homsel, stock.xchng Other Issues:: Other Issues: Accountability of Global businesses? Increased gap between rich and poor fuels potential terrorist reaction Ethical responsibility of business? Efforts to remove trade barriers There are plenty of people who believe that globalisation is a negative development, protests at the G8 summits, pollution, poverty and concern over GM crops are just some of the issues. Copyright: stock.xchng PowerPoint Presentation: Thomas Loren Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist and author. He writes a twice-weekly column for The New York Times . He has written extensively on foreign affairs including global trade, the Middle East, and environmental issues and has won the Pulitzer Prize three times. Ten flatteners Friedman defines ten "flatteners" that he sees as levelling the global playing field: : Ten flatteners Friedman defines ten "flatteners" that he sees as levelling the global playing field: #1: Collapse of the Berlin Wall – 11/9/89 : Friedman called the flattener, "When the walls came down, and the windows came up." The event not only symbolized the end of the Cold War , it allowed people from other side of the wall to join the economic mainstream. "11/9/89" is a discussion about the Berlin Wall coming down, the "fall" of communism, and the impact that Windows powered PCs (personal computers) had on the ability of individuals to create their own content and connect to one another. At this point, the basic platform for the revolution to follow was created: IBM PC, Windows, a standardized graphical interface for word processing, dial up modems, a standardized tool for communication, and a global phone network. #2: Netscape – 8/9/95 : Netscape went public at the price of $28. Netscape and the Web broadened the audience for the Internet from its roots as a communications medium used primarily by "early adopters and geeks" to something that made the Internet accessible to everyone from five-year-olds to ninety-five-year olds. The digitization that took place meant that everyday occurrences such as words, files, films, music and pictures could be accessed and manipulated on a computer screen by all people across the world. PowerPoint Presentation:
#3: Workflow software : Friedman's catch-all for the standards and technologies that allowed work to flow. The ability of machines to talk to other machines with no humans involved, as stated by Friedman. Friedman believes these first three forces have become a "crude foundation of a whole new global platform for collaboration". There was an emergence of software protocols (SMTP – simple mail transfer protocol; HTML – the language that enabled anyone to design and publish documents that could be transmitted to and read on any computer anywhere) Standards on Standards. This is what Friedman called the "Genesis moment of the flat world." The net result "is that people can work with other people on more stuff than ever before." This created a global platform for multiple forms of collaboration. The next six flatteners sprung from this platform. #4: Outsourcing : Friedman argues that outsourcing has allowed companies to split service and manufacturing activities into components which can be subcontracted and performed in the most efficient, cost-effective way. This process became easier with the mass distribution of
cables during the introduction of the World Wide Web.
PowerPoint Presentation: #5: Offshoring : The internal relocation of a company's manufacturing or other processes to a foreign land to take advantage of less costly operations there. China's entrance in the WTO (World Trade Organization) allowed for greater competition in the playing field. Now countries such as Malaysia, Mexico, Brazil must compete against China and each other to have businesses offshore to them. #6: Uploading : Communities uploading and collaborating on online projects. Examples include open source software, blogs, and Wikipedia . Friedman considers the phenomenon "the most disruptive force of all". PowerPoint Presentation: #7: Supply-chaining : Friedman compares the modern retail supply chain to a river, and points to Wal-Mart as the best example of a company using technology to streamline item sales, distribution, and shipping. #8: Insourcing : Friedman uses UPS as a prime example for insourcing, in which the company's employees perform services – beyond shipping – for another company. For example, UPS repairs Toshiba computers on behalf of Toshiba. The work is done at the UPS hub, by UPS employees. PowerPoint Presentation: #9: In-forming : Google and other search engines are the prime example. "Never before in the history of the planet have so many people – on their own – had the ability to find so much information about so many things and about so many other people," writes Friedman. The growth of search engines is tremendous; for example take Google, in which Friedman states that it is "now processing roughly one billion searches per day, up from 150 million just three years ago". #10: "The Steroids" : Wireless, Voice over Internet, and file sharing. Personal digital devices like mobile phones, iPods, personal digital assistants, instant messaging, and voice over Internet Protocol ( VoIP ). Digital, Mobile, Personal and Virtual – all analog content and processes (from entertainment to photography to word processing) can be digitized and therefore shaped, manipulated and transmitted; virtual – these processes can be done at high speed with total ease; mobile – can be done anywhere, anytime by anyone; and personal – can be done by you. PowerPoint Presentation: Bosworth and Gordon also point to some of the key public controversies over globalization: What are they? “Can globalization be harnessed so that all citizens and countries benefit and not just the lucky few?” PowerPoint Presentation: Frank Lechner: Empirical Debates Process vs. Project New Era vs. Nothing New (Globabaloney) Hard vs. Soft 4. End vs. Revival of Nation State 5. Cultural Sameness vs. Difference PowerPoint Presentation: 1. Is globalization Westernization? Is it a threat to non-western societies? What is the right question to ask about globalization and the poor? What are the “legitimate” questions that “anti-globalization” protestors ask? Amartya Sen: How to Judge Globalization (Normatively) PowerPoint Presentation: “Our global civilization is a world heritage... The idea of an immaculate Western conception is an imaginative fantasy.” “Globalization has much to offer, but even as we defend it, we must also, without any contradiction, see the legitimacy of many questions that the antiglobalization protestors ask.” “The world powers bear an awesome responsibility for helping in the subversion of democracy in Africa and ofr all the far-reaching negative consequences of that subversion.” PowerPoint Presentation: “Over the past decade globalization has been driven by technological advances…..But globalization has also been driven by policies and ideas…” Bosworth & Gordon Next time: globalization as a neoliberal project Performance of acquisitions: Copyright NUS Business School 2008 Performance of acquisitions We used an event study methodology Sample - Indian companies had cross- border acquisitions during 2002-2006. 224 transactions: 127 different companies from 33 industries. We used BSE-500 ( represents nearly 93% of the total market capitalization on Bombay Stock Exchange Limited) as the market index for the calculations. Calculating CAR Used the following formula to calculate the abnormal returns - The CAR was calculated using the following formula - α ^ β ^ AR it = R it - i - i R mt , (t = -7 to t= +7) CAR i = å t = -7 t = +7 AR it Summary: Copyright NUS Business School 2008 Summary Acquisitions a prominent part of OFDI from India Good distribution across industries and regions Achieving an increased prominence, strong growth Important component to OFDI and strategy of MNCS from India Strategy and performance Performance strong on an absolute and a comparative basis Several market expansion motives related to good performance Market clearly rewarding international expansion strategy of Indian firms Need comparative analysis to other modes Need deeper analysis of strategy and performance of acquisitions