Introduction To Cell Organelles: Introduction To Cell Organelles By; Ayesha Shaukat Organelles Of Cell: Organelles Of Cell Nucleus Ribosomes Endoplasmic reticulums Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Peroxisomes Cytoskeleton Nucleus:: Nucleus: Nucleus: : Nucleus: Most genes located in nucleus Average 5um in diameter Double membrane Pore complex (entry and exit) Chromatin Chromosome Nucleolus Important Components Of Nucleus: : Important Components Of Nucleus: Chromatin: DNA is organized along with the proteins into a fibrous material is called chromatin In humans 46 chromosomes in its nucleus. Nucleolus: Non dividing part of nucleus, here rRNA is synthesized and assembled here with proteins imported from cytoplasm into the main component of ribosomes , called ribosomal unit. Nuclear Pores: Transport of different particles Pore complex. Nuclear Envelop : Double membranes. Ribosomes Build A Cell’s Proteins: : Ribosomes Build A Cell’s Proteins: Ribosomes General Features: : Ribosomes General Features: Ribosomes particles made of ribosomal RNA and proteins, are the organelle that carry out protein synthesis; each composed of two subunits. Ribosomes and Nucleoli, unlike most of the organelles are not membrane bounded structures. Ribosomes build proteins in two cytoplasmic locales: Free Ribosomes : Suspended in cytoplasm Bound Ribosomes: Attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelop. Function of their proteins:: Function of their proteins: Most proteins made from free Ribosomes will function within the cytosole Bound Ribosomes generally make proteins that are destined either for insertion into membrane, for packing within certain organelles such as Lysosomes, or for export from the cell (secretion). Cells that specialized in protein secretion for instance, the cell of the pancreas and other gland that secrete digestive enzymes. Both structurally same differ in functions. Endomembrane system: Endomembrane system Many different membranes of the eukaryotic cell are part of Endomembrane system. These membranes are related either through direct physical continuity or my transfer of membrane segment as tiny vesicle s Despite these relationship , various membranes are not identical in structure and function . Moreover thickness, molecular composition and metabolic behavior of the membrane are not fixed. Endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell : Endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell Many of the different membranes of the eukaryotic cell are part of an endomembrane system. These carries out a variety of tasks in the cell including synthesis of proteins and their transport into membranes and organelles or out of the cell. Metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons. The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory : The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is such an extensive network of membranes that it accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells. (The word endoplasmic means" within the cytoplasm ,~ and reticulum is Latin for " little net ~) The ER consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae (from the Latin cisterna, a reservoir for a liquid). The ER membrane separates the internal compartment of the ER, called the ER lumen (cavity) or cisternal space, from the cytosole. Further the ER membrane is continuous with the nuclear envelope, the space between the two membranes of the envelope is continuous with the lumen of the ER PowerPoint Presentation: There are two distinct, though connected, regions of the ER. These differ in structure and function: smooth ER and rough ER. Smooth ER is so named because its outer surface lacks Ribosomes. Rough ER has Ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane and thus appears rough through the electron microscope. Ribosomes are also attached to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear envelope's outer membrane, which is continuous with rough ER. Functions of Smooth ER : Functions of Smooth ER The smooth ER functions in diverse metabolic processes, which vary with cell type. These processes include synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, and detoxification of drugs and poisons. Enzymes of the smooth ER are important in the synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids, and steroids. Among the steroids produced by the smooth ER in animal cells are the sex hormones of vertebrates and the various steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal glands. The cells that synthesize and secrete these hormones-in the testes and ovaries , for example -are rich in smooth ER, a structural feature that fits the function of these cells. PowerPoint Presentation: Enzymes of the smooth ER help detoxify drugs and poisons, especially in liver cells. Detoxification usually involves adding hydroxyl groups to drug molecules, making them more soluble and easier to flush from the body. The sedative phenobarbital and other barbiturates are examples of drugs metabolized in this manner by smooth ER in liver cells. In fact, barbiturates, alcohol, and many other drugs induce the proliferation of smooth ER and its associated detoxification enzymes, thus increasing the rate of detoxification. This, in turn, increases tolerance to the drugs, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve a particular effect, such as sedation. Also, because some of the detoxification enzymes have relatively broad action, the proliferation of smooth ER in response to one drug can increase tolerance to other drugs as well. Barbiturate abuse, for example, can decrease the effectiveness of certain antibiotics and other useful drugs PowerPoint Presentation: The smooth ER also stores calcium ions. In muscle cells, for example , a specialized smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol into the ER lumen. When a muscle is stimulated by a nerve impulse Calcium ions rush back across the ER membrane into the cytosol and calcium ion release from the smooth ER triggers different responses. PowerPoint Presentation: Association of tropomyosin and troponins with actin filaments (A) Tropomyosin binds lengthwise along actin filaments and, in striated muscle, is associated with a complex of three troponins : troponin I ( TnI ), troponin C ( TnC ), and troponin T ( TnT ). In the absence of Ca2+, the tropomyosin-troponin complex blocks the binding of myosin to actin . Binding of Ca2+ to TnC shifts the complex, relieving this inhibition and allowing contraction to proceed. (B) Cross-sectional view.