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Marketing Management_Kotler


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Marketing Management : 

Marketing Management Basic Concepts: A generally accepted set of ideas, which are practically oriented from real life experince.

What is Marketing? : 

What is Marketing? Marketing is a social & managerial process by which individuals & groups obtain what they need & want through creating, offering & exchanging products of value with others. The marketing mix include price, place, promotion and product.

Needs, Wants, & Demands : 

Needs, Wants, & Demands Needs: A human need is a state of deprivation of some basic satisfaction. People require food, clothing, shelter, safety, belonging & esteem. These are not created by society or marketers. They exist in the very texture of human biology & condition.

Wants : 

Wants Desires for specific satisfiers of needs. Although needs are few, wants are many & are continually shaped & reshaped by social forces & institutions.

Demands : 

Demands Wants for specific products that are backed by an ability & willingness to buy them. Wants become demand when supported by purchasing power.

Products : 

Products Goods Services Ideas “A product is anything that can be offered to satisfy a need or a want” A marketer’s job is to sell the benefits or services built into physical products.

Markets : 

Markets Consist of all the potential customers sharing a particular need or want who might be willing & able to engage in exchange to satisfy the need or want.

Marketing : 

Marketing Is a social & managerial process by which individuals & groups obtain what they need & want through creating, offering, & exchanging products of value with others. Business_Line_TIan_plans_to_retail_leather_14102011.docx Marketing Management is the process of planning & executing the conception, pricing, promotion & distribution of ideas, goods, & services to create exchanges that satisfy individual & organizational goals.

Relationship Marketing : 

Relationship Marketing The practice of building long-term satisfying relations with key parties – customers, suppliers, distributors – in order to retain their long-term preference & business.

Marketing Concept : 

Marketing Concept Holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of being more effective than competitors in integrating marketing activities toward determining & satisfying the needs & wants of target markets.

Selling vs. Marketing : 

Selling vs. Marketing Selling focuses on the needs of the seller, marketing on the needs of the buyer. Selling is preoccupied with the seller’s need to convert his product into cash, marketing on the other hand deals with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by means of the product & the whole cluster of things associated with creating, delivering & finally consuming it. Selling is “push”, Marketing is “pull”.

Societal Marketing : 

Societal Marketing Societal Marketing Concept holds that the organization’s task is to determine the needs, wants & interests of target markets & to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively & efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer’s & society’s well-being.

Marketing Mix : 

Marketing Mix Set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market: Product Price Promotion Place Also known as the 4 P’s of Marketing

Product : 

Product Variety Quality Design Features Brand name Packaging Sizes Warranties

Price : 

Price List price Discounts Allowances Payment period Credit terms

Promotion : 

Promotion Sales promotion Advertising Sales force PR DM (Direct Marketing)

Place : 

Place Channels Coverage Assortments Locations Inventory Transport

4 P’s vs. 4 C’s : 

4 P’s vs. 4 C’s Product – Customer needs/wants Price – Cost to customer Place – Convenience Promotion - Communication

Strategic Business Unit (SBU) : 

Strategic Business Unit (SBU) It is a single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned separately from the rest of the company. It has its own set of competitors. It has a manger who is responsible for strategic planning & profit performance & who controls most of the factors affecting profit.

BCG Model : 

BCG Model Growth-share matrix Market growth rate on the vertical axis indicates the annual growth rate of the market in which the business operates. Relative market share (horizontal axis) refers to the SBU’s market share relative to that of its largest competitor. Growth-share matrix is divided into 4 cells, each indicating a different type of business.

BCG Model : 

BCG Model Question marks: Businesses that operate in high-growth markets but have low relative market shares. Most businesses start off as question marks as the company tries to enter a high-growth market in which there is already a market leader. A question mark requires a lot of cash because a company has to spend a lot of money on overtaking the leader (& has to think hard before doing so).

BCG Model : 

BCG Model Stars: If the question mark business is successful, it becomes a star. A star is the market leader in a high-growth market. A star does not necessarily produce a positive cash flow for the company. The company must spend substantial funds to keep up with the high market growth & fight off competitors’ attacks.

BCG Model : 

BCG Model Cash cows: When a market’s annual growth rate falls to less than 10%, the star becomes a cash cow if it still has the largest relative market share. A cash cow produces a lot of cash for the company. The company does not have to finance a lot of capacity expansion because the market’s growth rate has slowed down. Since the business is the market leader, it enjoys economy of scale & higher profit margins. Company uses cash cows to pay bills & support other businesses.

BCG Model : 

BCG Model Dogs: Businesses that have weak market shares in low-growth markets. They typically generate low profits or losses, although they may generate some cash. Dogs often consume more management time than they are worth & need to be phased down or out

SBU Strategies : 

SBU Strategies Build: Objective is to increase the SBU’s market share, even forgoing short-term earnings. Appropriate for question marks whose market shares must grow if they are to become stars. Hold: Objective is to preserve SBU’s market share. Appropriate for strong cash cows if they are to continue yielding a large positive cash flow.

SBU Strategies : 

SBU Strategies Harvest: Objective is to increase the SBU’s short-term cash flow regardless of long-term effect. Involves a decision to eventually withdraw from a business by implementing a program of continuous cost retrenchment. Company plans to milk its business. Hope is to reduce costs at a faster rate than any potential drop in sales thus increasing company’s cash flow. Appropriate for weak cash cows.

SBU Strategies : 

SBU Strategies Divest: Here the objective is to sell or liquidate the business because resources can be better used elsewhere. Appropriate for dogs & question marks that are dragging down company’s profits. SBUs start as question marks, become stars, then cash cows & finally dogs.

GE Model : 

GE Model Each business is rated in terms of market attractiveness & business strength. Companies are successful to the extent that they enter attractive markets & possess the required business strengths to succeed in those markets. If 1 of the factors is missing, the business will not produce outstanding results (strong company in unattractive market or weak company in attractive market will not do well).

SWOT Analysis : 

SWOT Analysis S – Strength W – Weakness O – Opportunities T – Threats Remember - SW are internal, OT are external

Strengths/Weaknesses : 

Strengths/Weaknesses Marketing: Company reputation Market share Product/service quality Pricing/distribution/promotion/sales force effectiveness Geographical coverage “Core competencies”

Finance : 

Finance Deep pockets Cash flow Financial stability Manufacturing: Economies of scale Latest technology Dedicated work force

Organization : 

Organization Visionary capable leadership Dedicated employees Entrepreneurial orientation Flexible/responsive

Opportunities : 

Opportunities A marketing opportunity is an area of buyer need in which a company can perform profitably. Opportunities can be classified according to attractiveness & success probability. Company’s success probability depends on whether its business strengths not only match key success requirements for operating in target market but also exceed those of competitors.

Threats : 

Threats A challenge posed by an unfavorable trend or development that would lead, in the absence of defensive marketing action, to deterioration in sales or profit. Threats should be classified according to their seriousness & probability of occurrence.

Porter’s generic strategies : 

Porter’s generic strategies 3 game plans

Porter’s generic strategies : 

Porter’s generic strategies Overall cost leadership – business works hard to achieve lowest production & distribution costs so that it can price lower than competition & win a large market share. Firms pursuing this strategy must be good at engineering, purchasing, manufacturing & physical distribution (they need less marketing skills). Problem is competition operating with even lower costs (e.g. the Chinese Dragon!).

Porter’s generic strategies : 

Porter’s generic strategies Differentiation – business concentrates on achieving superior performance in an important customer benefit area valued by a large part of the market. So the firm seeking quality leadership must make products with best components, put them together expertly etc. (It’s a Sony!). Intel inside, idiot outside!

Porter’s generic strategies : 

Porter’s generic strategies Focus – business focuses on 1 or more narrow market segments, gets to know these segments intimately & pursues either cost leadership or differentiation within the target segment (niche marketing).

Marketing Plan : 

Marketing Plan Executive summary & table of contents – presents a brief overview of the proposed plan Current marketing situation – presents relevant background data on the market, product, competition, distribution & macro-environment Opportunity & issue analysis – SWOT Objectives – defines the plan’s financial & marketing goals in terms of sales volume, market share & profits

Marketing Plan : 

Marketing Plan Marketing strategy – presents the broad marketing approach that will be used to achieve the plan’s objectives Action programs – presents the special marketing programs designed to achieve the business objectives Projected PL statement – forecasts the plan’s expected financial outcomes Controls – plan monitoring

Marketing Information System (MIS) : 

Marketing Information System (MIS) MIS consists of people, equipment, & procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate & distribute needed, timely & accurate information to marketing decision makers. Internal Records System: Order-to-Payment Cycle – heart of internal records system; Salespeople, dealers & customers dispatch orders to firm. Order dept. prepares invoices & sends copies to various departments. Shipped items are accompanied by shipping & billing documents etc.

Marketing Information System (MIS) : 

Marketing Information System (MIS) Sales Reporting Systems - marketing managers need up-to-date reports of their current sales. Sales reps now have immediate access to information about prospects/customers & can give their companies immediate feedback & sales reports.

Marketing Information System (MIS) : 

Marketing Information System (MIS) Marketing Intelligence System: Set of procedures & sources used by managers to obtain their everyday information about pertinent developments in the marketing environment. Reading books, newspapers, trade publications, talking to customers, suppliers, distributors, talking with other managers & personnel within the company etc. are some methods used to gather intelligence. Company trains sales-force, motivates channel, purchases info & uses staff for this purpose.

Marketing Information System (MIS) : 

Marketing Information System (MIS) Marketing Research System: Systematic design, collection, analysis & reporting of data & findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company.

Marketing Research Process : 

Marketing Research Process Define the problem & research objectives: Exploratory – to gather preliminary data to shed light on the real nature of the problem & suggest possible solutions/new ideas Descriptive – to ascertain certain magnitudes Causal – to test a cause-and-effect relationship

Developing the Research Plan : 

Developing the Research Plan Calls for decisions on data sources, research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan, & contact methods. Data sources – can be primary (gathered for specific project) or secondary (already existing). Research approaches: Observational research – gathered by observing relevant sample & settings.

Developing the Research Plan : 

Developing the Research Plan Focus-group research – focus group is a gathering of 6-10 people who are invited to spend a few hours with a skilled moderator to discuss a product, service etc. It is a useful exploratory step to take before designing a large-scale survey. Survey research – best suited for descriptive research, to learn about people’s knowledge, beliefs, preferences etc.

Developing the Research Plan : 

Developing the Research Plan Experimental research – most scientifically valid research. Best suited for causal research, calls for selecting matched groups of subjects, subjecting them to different treatments, controlling extraneous variables & checking whether observed response differences are statistically significant.

Developing the Research Plan : 

Developing the Research Plan Research instruments: Questionnaires – Open-end questions allow respondents to answer in their own words, while close-end questions specify all possible answers & respondents make a choice among them. Open-end questions reveal more while close-end questions provide answers that are easier to interpret & tabulate.

Developing the Research Plan : 

Developing the Research Plan Mechanical instruments – galvanometers measure arousal/interest by exposure to specific ad/picture, tachistoscope flashes an ad repeatedly to measure recall/specific points of interest, audiometer is attached to TV sets to record channel viewing ( to calculate TRPs).

Developing the Research Plan : 

Developing the Research Plan Sampling Plan: Sampling unit – target population that will be sampled. Once sampling unit is determined, a sampling frame must be developed so that everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being sampled. Sampling procedure – to obtain a representative sample, a probability sample of the population should be drawn. This allows calculation of confidence limits for sampling error.

Probability & Nonprobability Samples : 

Probability & Nonprobability Samples Probability Sample: Simple random sample – every member has an = chance of selection Stratified random sample – population divided into mutually exclusive groups (age etc.) & random samples drawn from each Cluster sample – 2 + sample groups drawn for interview

Nonprobability Sample : 

Nonprobability Sample Convenience sample – select most accessible population Judgment sample – good prospects for accurate information Quota sample – prescribed no. of people in each of several categories

Developing the Research Plan : 

Developing the Research Plan Contact methods: Mail questionnaire Telephone interviewing Personal interviewing – arranged & intercept. Most versatile method, since interviewer can study body language too. But this is also the most expensive & is also subject to interviewer bias or distortion.

Collect the information : 

Collect the information Respondents may not be at home, may refuse to cooperate, may give biased/dishonest answers & even some interviewers may be biased or dishonest. Technology has helped in making this task easier (thanks to computers & telecom).

Analyze the information : 

Analyze the information Researcher tabulates the data & develops frequency distributions. Averages & measures of dispersion are calculated for major variables. Advanced statistical techniques are applied to extract pertinent findings from the collected data.

Present the findings : 

Present the findings Researcher should not overwhelm management with lots of numbers & fancy statistical techniques, but should present major findings that are pertinent to the major marketing decisions facing management.

Characteristics of good MR : 

Characteristics of good MR Scientific method Research creativity Multiple methods Interdependence of models & data Value & cost of information Healthy skepticism Ethical marketing

Market Demand : 

Market Demand Market demand for a product is the total volume that would be bought by a defined customer group in a defined geographical area in a defined time period in a defined marketing environment under a defined marketing program. Market Forecast – only one level of industry expenditure will actually occur. The market demand corresponding to this level is market forecast.

Market Potential : 

Market Potential The limit approached by market demand as industry marketing expenditures approach infinity, for a given environment. Company Demand – the company’s estimated share of market demand at alternative levels of company marketing effort. Company Sales Forecast – expected level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan & an assumed marketing environment.

Company Sales Potential : 

Company Sales Potential The sales limit approached by the company demand as company marketing effort increases relative to competitors. The absolute limit of company demand is the market potential. The 2 would = if company achieved 100% market share. Sales Quota – sales goal (target) set for a product line, division, or SE. Sales Budget – estimate of expected sales volume, used for purchase, production etc.

Estimating Demand : 

Estimating Demand Survey of buyers’ intentions – surveys measure purchase probability by asking buyers questions like: Do you intend to buy an automobile within the next 6 months? These surveys also inquire into the consumers’ present & future personal finances etc. These data are then combined to arrive at a purchase probability scale.

Estimating Demand : 

Estimating Demand Composite of sales force opinions – each sales rep estimates how much each current & prospective customer will buy of each of company’s products. Management then uses its judgment to make the necessary modifications. Sales force should be trained & incentivised for this purpose. Expert opinion – obtaining forecasts from experts like dealers, suppliers, consultants, trade associations etc.

Estimating Demand : 

Estimating Demand Market test method – where buyers do not plan their purchases carefully or experts are not available/reliable, direct market test is advisable (esp. in forecasting new-product sales). This method is also known as test marketing.

PEST Analysis : 

PEST Analysis Analysis of macro-environment, of external factors usually beyond firm’s control (sometimes threats). Usually performed for countries. Political Analysis Political stability Risk of invasion Legal framework for contract enforcement

PEST Analysis : 

PEST Analysis IPR protection Trade regulations & tariffs Anti-trust laws Pricing regulations Taxation policy Wage legislation Mandatory employee benefits Industrial safety regulations

PEST Analysis : 

PEST Analysis Economic Analysis Economic system Govt. intervention Comparative advantages Exchange rate & stability of currency Infrastructure quality Workforce skill level

PEST Analysis : 

PEST Analysis Labor costs Economic growth rate Discretionary income Unemployment rate Inflation rate Interest rates Business cycle stage (prosperity, recession etc.)

PEST Analysis : 

PEST Analysis Social Analysis Demographics Class structure Education Culture Attitudes Leisure interests

PEST Analysis : 

PEST Analysis Technological Analysis Recent techno development Technology impact Impact on cost structure Rate of techno diffusion (spread of technology)

VALS System : 

VALS System Divides US adults into 8 groups: High resources Actualizers – Successful, sophisticated, active, take-charge. Favor upscale/niche products. Fulfilleds – Mature, satisfied, comfortable. Favor durability, value. Achievers – Successful, career & work oriented. Favor established, prestige products. Experiencers – Young, vital, enthusiastic, rebellious. Spend on clothing, fast food, music, movies.

VALS System : 

VALS System Lower resources Believers – Conservative, traditional. Favor familiar products, established brands. Strivers – Uncertain, insecure, resource-constrained. Favor stylish products to emulate superiors.

VALS System : 

VALS System Makers – Practical, self-sufficient, family-oriented. Favor practical, functional products (tools etc.) Strugglers – Elderly, resigned, passive. Loyal to favorite brands

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs : 

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological needs (roti/kapda/makaan) Safety needs (security) Social needs (belonging, love) Esteem needs (recognition, status) Self actualization (realization/moksha)

Herzberg’s Theory : 

Herzberg’s Theory Dissatisfiers – factors that cause dissatisfaction Satisfiers – factors that cause satisfaction Absence of dissatisfiers is not enough, satisfiers must be actively present to motivate a purchase

Buying Decision Process : 

Buying Decision Process Buying roles: Initiator – person who first suggests the idea Influencer – person whose advice influences the decision Decider – person who decides on any component of buying decision Buyer – person who makes actual purchase User – person who uses or consumes

Stages : 

Stages Problem recognition Information search Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Post-purchase behavior

Business markets & business buying behavior : 

Business markets & business buying behavior Participants in business buying: Initiators – those who request purchase (users or others) Users – those who will use product Influencers – influence buying decision, define specs, etc. (technical persons) Deciders – those who decide on product requirements/suppliers

Business markets & business buying behavior : 

Business markets & business buying behavior Approvers – those who authorize proposed actions of buyers Buyers – people with formal authority to select supplier & arrange purchase terms (Purchase Managers) Gatekeepers – those who have the power to prevent sellers/info from reaching buyers (receptionists)

Business markets & business buying behavior : 

Business markets & business buying behavior Cultural factors: France – apologize for not speaking French! Germany – sticklers for titles Japan – flexible agenda Korea – sensitive about their Japanese connection Latin America – Use liaison agents

Business markets & business buying behavior : 

Business markets & business buying behavior Types of purchasing processes: Routine products – office supplies Leverage products – high value but low risk (pistons) Strategic products – high value & high risk (mainframes) Bottleneck products – low value but some risk (spares)

Business markets & business buying behavior : 

Business markets & business buying behavior Stages in purchasing process: Problem recognition Product specs Supplier search Proposal solicitation Supplier selection Order-routine specs Performance review (suppliers)

Institutional/Govt. Markets : 

Institutional/Govt. Markets Schools Hospitals Prisons Hotels Corporate bodies Govt. organizations Etc.

Dealing with competition : 

Dealing with competition Porter’s Model: Threat of intense segment rivalry – segment unattractive if it contains numerous strong & aggressive competitors Threat of new entrants – most attractive segment has high entry & low exit barriers

Porter’s Model : 

Porter’s Model Threat of substitute products – segment unattractive when there are actual/potential substitutes for product (placing limit on prices) Threat of buyers’ growing bargaining power – segment unattractive if buyers possess strong bargaining power Threat of suppliers’ growing bargaining power

Dealing with competition - market leader : 

Dealing with competition - market leader Expanding total market – New users – market penetration, new-market segment, geographical expansion New uses – soap/cream More usage - shampoo

Dealing with competition - market leader : 

Dealing with competition - market leader Defending market share – Position defense – make the brand impregnable (Heinz) Flank defense – P&G (Tide) Preemptive defense – Seiko with 2300 watch models, has left nothing to chance! Counteroffensive defense – Frontal, flank or pincer

Dealing with competition - market leader : 

Dealing with competition - market leader Mobile defense – through a) broadening (Reliance from petrochemicals to petrol, LPG etc) & b) diversification into unrelated industries (Tata) Contraction defense – Withdrawing from non core areas (HLL from agrovet etc.)

Dealing with competition - market leader : 

Dealing with competition - market leader Expanding market share – Best example is P&G, thru: Customer knowledge Product innovation Quality Line/Brand extension/Multibrand Heavy advertising/sales promo Aggressive sales force etc

Dealing with competition – market challenger : 

Dealing with competition – market challenger Frontal attack Flank attack Encirclement attack – grand offensive on several fronts Bypass attack – diversifying into unrelated products/new markets/new technologies Guerilla warfare - Shivaji

Market follower : 

Market follower Counterfeiter – sells fake look-alikes Cloner – emulates with slight variations Imitator – Copies with slight variations Adapter – adapts from leader & improves

Market nicher : 

Market nicher Before you look for a niche in the market, make sure there is a market in the niche. Instead of being a follower in a large market, it is sometimes better to be a leader in a small market Example – Logitech has become the king of niche markets by making every variation of computer mouse!

Segmentation : 

Segmentation Market segment is a group of customers sharing a similar set of wants. To be useful, a segment must be: Measurable - in terms of size, purchasing power etc. Substantial – large/profitable Accessible – can be effectively reached & served Differentiable/Actionable

Segmentation : 

Segmentation Steps: Needs-based segmentation – group customers on similar needs Segment identification – which demographics, lifestyles & usage behavior make segment actionable Segment attractiveness – market growth, access

Segmentation : 

Segmentation Segment profitability – determine Segment positioning – create a value proposition Segment Acid Test – to test positioning efficacy Marketing-Mix – 4 P’s

Segmentation : 

Segmentation Geographic: Nation State Region City Climate Density (urban/rural)

Demographic : 

Demographic Age/Family size/Life cycle Education Income Religion/Race/Generation Nationality/Social class Gender Occupation

Demographic : 

Demographic Baby Boomers – 1946-1965 Gen X – 1966-1976 Gen Y – 1977-1999 Yuppies Puppies DINKS SINKS SILKS

Psychographic : 

Psychographic Lifestyle – culture, sports, outdoor, Page 3 etc Personality – introvert, extrovert, compulsive, ambitious, authoritarian etc

Behavioral : 

Behavioral Occasions – regular, special Benefits User status – non user, regular Usage rate – light, heavy Loyalty status – medium, strong Readiness stage – unaware, aware Attitude toward product – positive, indifferent

Business Market Segmentation : 

Business Market Segmentation Demographic – industry, company size, location Operating Variables – technology, user/nonuser/customer capability Purchasing Approaches – purchasing style, power structure, existing relationships Situational Factors – urgency, specific application, order size Personal Characteristics – loyalty etc

Targeting : 

Targeting Single segment concentration – small car only Selective specialization – FM channel targeting all age groups with different programs Product specialization – one product selling to different segments (paint) Market specialization – many needs of 1 group – selling only to schools Full market coverage - Coke

Positioning : 

Positioning Presentation on Ries & Trout

PLC : 

PLC Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

Marketing Strategies : 

Marketing Strategies Introduction stage: The pioneer advantage The competitive cycle – Sole supplier Competitive penetration Share stability Commodity competition Withdrawal of competition

Marketing Strategies : 

Marketing Strategies Growth stage: Improve product quality Add new products Enter new segments Increase coverage Lower price

Marketing Strategies : 

Marketing Strategies Maturity stage: Most products are in maturity stage! Convert nonusers Enter new segments Win customers from competition Modify product (quality/features) Modify the 4 P’s (price cut, new outlets, sales promo, services etc)

Marketing Strategies : 

Marketing Strategies Decline stage: Increase the firm’s investment Maintain investment level Decrease the investment Harvesting (milking) Divesting

New product development : 

New product development Idea generation – is the idea worth considering? Idea screening – is the product idea compatible with company objectives, strategies & resources? Concept development & testing – can we find a good concept for the product that consumers would try?

New product development : 

New product development Conjoint Analysis: A method for deriving utility values that consumers attach to varying levels of a product’s attributes. Respondents are shown various hypothetical offers formed by combining varying levels of attributes & are asked to rank them to identify most appealing offer.

New product development : 

New product development Marketing strategy development – can we find a cost-effective, affordable marketing strategy? Business analysis – will this product meet our profit goals? Product development – have we developed a technically & commercially sound product?

New product development : 

New product development Market testing – have product sales met expectations? Commercialization – are product sales meeting expectations?

Market testing : 

Market testing Sales wave research – consumers who initially try the product at no cost are reoffered the product at slightly reduced prices (3 to 5 times) to check their level of satisfaction Simulated test marketing – 30-40 qualified shoppers are found & questioned about brand familiarity & preferences in a particular product category (to check ad effectiveness)

Market testing : 

Market testing Controlled test marketing – allows company to test impact of in-store factors & limited advertising on buying behavior by putting products in test stores. Test markets – how many cities, which cities, length of test, what info, what action?

Consumer adoption process : 

Consumer adoption process Stages: Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption

Adopter categorization : 

Adopter categorization Innovators – venturesome (2.5%) Early adopters – opinion leaders (13.5%) Early majority – deliberate (34%) After average person: Late majority – skeptical (34%) Laggards – traditional (16%)

Global market offerings : 

Global market offerings The world is fast becoming a global village! “Glocal” is the new buzzword – think global, act local! So many mega corps bit the dust, because they forgot this rule! There are some golden rules for competing globally!

Global market offerings : 

Global market offerings 5 modes of entry: Indirect & direct export Licensing – management contracts, contract manufacturing (job work), franchising (Big Mac) JV – DCM Benetton Direct investment – Direct ownership of a foreign company (bought or built)

The 4 P’s : 

The 4 P’s Product – straight extension, product adaptation, product invention Promotion – adaptation is the key! Price – set uniform price everywhere, set market-based price, set cost-based price Place – MNC prefers to work with local companies first, but eventually opt for own channel

Global market offerings : 

Global market offerings Organization of effort – Export department International division Global organization














WIDTH How many different product lines the company carries in the case of P&G, we just saw 5 such lines. P&G produces many more lines, in fact.


LENGTH Refers to the total no. of items in the mix. In the P&G case, there are 25 in all. Average length = total length/no. of lines. For P&G it is 5 (in this case)


DEPTH How many variants are offered of each product in the line. In the case of Crest (say): 2 flavors * 3 sizes = 6 SKUs So depth = 6


CONSISTENCY How closely related the product lines are in end use, production, distribution etc. For P&G, consistency is high, since it operates in the FMCG segment.


PRODUCT LINE DECISIONS Product line analysis 1. Sales & profits (80/20 rule) 2. Market profile (positioning)


4 TYPES OF PRODUCTS IN PCs Core : basic pc Staples : CPU Specialties : on site training Convenience items : printers


PRODUCT-LINE LENGTH Line stretching 1. Down-market stretch Introducing a lower priced line: *Sony did it with Vega Trinitron, to take on LG golden eye


UPMARKET STRETCH Entering the high end of the market for more growth, higher margins or simply to plug the full line *E.g. Maruti


2 WAY STRETCH Stretching the line in both directions *E.g. Marriott 1. economy 2. comfort 3. luxury


LINE FILLING Extending product line by adding more items within present range - for incremental profits, to satisfy dealers, to utilize extra capacity etc. *E.g. ice creams (more flavors, same price)


WHAT IS A BRAND? Name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination intended to identify & differentiate

6 levels of meaning : 

6 levels of meaning MERCEDES 1. Attributes (Expensive) 2. Benefits (Durability) 3. Values (Prestige) 4. Culture (German) 5. Personality (Lion) 6. User (Top Exec.)

Building brand identity : 

Building brand identity Name, Logo, Colors, Tagline, Symbol *Example: Name: Sony Logo: Nike Colors: Coke Tagline/Punchline: Nokia Symbol/Mascot: Asian Paints

Brand bonding : 

Brand bonding Occurs when customers experience the company as delivering on its benefit promise. Advertising alone does not build brands, the brand experience does. Advertising may create recognition, recall or even preference, but ultimately the brand has to deliver.

Brand Equity : 

Brand Equity *Brand Loyalty: Customer will change brand for price – no loyalty Customer is satisfied, may not change Customer is satisfied & feels there would be cost incurred on change Customer values brand & sees it as a friend Customer is devoted to brand

Brand Equity : 

Brand Equity Apart from loyalty, it is also the degree of brand-name recognition, perceived brand quality, strong mental & emotional associations & other assets such as patents, trademarks & channel relationships.

Advantages of Brand Equity : 

Advantages of Brand Equity More trade leverage Higher price Extensions Defense against competition (in terms of price etc.)

Most valuable brands (2001) : 

Most valuable brands (2001) 1. Coke 2. Microsoft 3. IBM 4. GE 5. Nokia 6. Intel 7. Disney 8. Ford 9. McDonald’s 10. AT & T

Branding Decisions : 

Branding Decisions Brand or not to brand? Most will brand, exception could be: Carrefours, the French hypermarket pioneer sells a line of unbranded common products like spaghetti, paper towels, canned peaches etc. @ 20-40% lower prices.

Brand Sponsor Decision : 

Brand Sponsor Decision Manufacturer/National brand (Kellogg/Benetton) 2. Distributor/Reseller brand (Whirlpool – Sears Kenmore) 3. Licensed brand (Hart, Schaffner & Marx sell clothes under the Pierre Cardin & Christian Dior names)

Brand name decision : 

Brand name decision Individual names e.g. HLL/P&G

Blanket family names : 

Blanket family names Heinz G E Separate family names for all products Sears – Kenmore (for appliances) & Craftsman (for tools) *Tata would be an Indian example

Corporate name combined with individual product names : 

Corporate name combined with individual product names Kellogg Dabur

Desirable qualities of a brand name : 

Desirable qualities of a brand name Should suggest something about product benefit (Friendly Wash) Should suggest product/service category (Business Today) Should suggest “high imagery” (Mercedes)

Desirable qualities of a brand name : 

Desirable qualities of a brand name Should be easy to spell, pronounce, recognize & remember (Tide) Should be distinctive (Kodak) Should not carry negative connotations (Nova/ car in Spanish means “doesn’t go”)

Brand building tools : 

Brand building tools Public relations & press releases Sponsorships Clubs Factory visits Trade shows Event marketing

Brand building tools (Cont.) : 

Brand building tools (Cont.) Public facilities Social cause marketing High value for the money Celebrity endorsement Telemarketing

Brand strategy decision : 

Brand strategy decision Line Extensions Introducing additional items in the same product category under the same brand name (Cadbury)

Brand Extensions : 

Brand Extensions Company can use its existing brand name to launch new products in other categories: E.g. Nike Shoes Clothing Sports equipment Watches

Multibrand : 

Multibrand Titan Titan regular Fast Track Tanishq * Cannibalization risk

Co-Brand : 

Co-Brand Also called dual branding - 2 or more well known brands are combined in an offer e.g. Maruti using Ceat tyres, Reliance using Nokia Each hopes to gain from associating with the other brand

Packaging : 

Packaging All activities of designing & producing the container for a product. Many call it the 5th P, due to its importance. Best example: Tetra Pak

Labeling : 

Labeling Identifies product or brand Describes product Promotes product Labels may become outdated & so need to be freshened up once in a while.

Services : 

Services Any act or performance that is essentially intangible & does not result in ownership of anything. Its production may or may not be tied to a physical product.

Categories : 

Categories Pure tangible good: soap, toothpaste Tangible good with accompanying services: cars, computers Hybrid: Equal parts of goods & services: Restaurants Major service with accompanying minor goods & services: airlines Pure service: psychotherapy, massage

Characteristics : 

Characteristics Intangibility: Cannot be seen, tested, felt, heard or smelled before they are bought * Challenge: to tangibilize the intangible by adding physical evidence & imagery (e.g. McDonald’s)

Inseparability : 

Inseparability Provider is part of service e.g. *In the field of entertainment, if ShahRukh is indisposed, can you replace him with Saif, to provide the same service as an actor?

Variability : 

Variability Unlike a standard toothpaste or soap, you do not have standard doctors. The reputation decides the no. of prospective patients, based on the doctor’s skills. This varies from doctor to doctor.

Perishability : 

Perishability Services cannot be stored. When demand fluctuates, there is a problem. *e.g. When there is peak demand, staff utilization is optimum. When demand slumps, the same staff become excessive.

The 7 P’s : 

The 7 P’s Product: Physical good features Quality level Accessories Packaging Warranties Product lines Branding

Place : 

Place Channel type Exposure Intermediaries Outlet locations Transportation Storage Managing channels

Promotion : 

Promotion Promotion blend 2. Salespeople Number Selection Training Incentives

Cont. : 

Cont. 3. Advertising Targets Media types Types of ads Copy thrust 4. Sales Promotion 5. Publicity

Price : 

Price Flexibility Price level Terms Differentiation Discounts Allowances

People : 

People Employees Recruiting Training Motivation Rewards Teamwork Customers Education/Training

Physical Evidence : 

Physical Evidence Facility design Equipment Signage Employee dress Other tangibles Reports Business cards Statements Guarantees

Process : 

Process Flow of activities Standardized Customized Number of steps Simple Complex 3. Customer involvement

Services Triangle : 

Services Triangle Company Providers Customers External Marketing - making promises Interactive Marketing – keeping promises Internal Marketing – enabling promises

Moments of truth : 

Moments of truth From customer’s point of view most vivid impression of service occurs in the service encounter or “moment of truth” when the customer interacts with the service firm. It is in these encounters that customers receive a snapshot of the organization’s service quality & each encounter contributes to customer’s overall satisfaction & willingness to do business with organization again.

Managing demand & capacity : 

Managing demand & capacity Excess demand – demand exceeds max. capacity, resulting in lost business/poor service Demand exceeds optimum capacity – no lost business, but service quality will suffer due to overuse etc Demand & supply are balanced at optimum capacity – ideal situation Excess capacity – demand is below optimum capacity, leading to underutilization of resources

Strategies for matching capacity & demand : 

Strategies for matching capacity & demand Vary the service offering – airlines change configuration of their plane seating to match demand from different market segments (no first class seats on some routes, more such seats on trunk routes etc.).

Communicate with customers : 

Communicate with customers Signs in post offices that let customers know their busiest hours & busiest days of week can serve as warning allowing customers to shift their demand to another time if possible.

Modify time & location of service delivery : 

Modify time & location of service delivery Some banks (HDFC etc) open early & work late to accommodate customer schedules. Some even work on Sundays & holidays to provide convenience of service.

Differentiate on price : 

Differentiate on price Hotels discount prices during the off season to utilize idle capacity & tackle slow demand. Only problem is that customers may expect similar deals even during peak season!

Managing with limited resources : 

Managing with limited resources Stretch existing capacity: Extend hours of service Work longer & harder Expand facilities (add equipment)

Cont. : 

Cont. Align capacity with demand fluctuations: Use part-time employees Outsourcing Rent/share facilities (church with school) Cross-train employees (job rotation)


1. OFFERING Primary service package – what customer expects Secondary service package – what provider can add


EXAMPLE Airlines include movies, merchandise for sale, air-to ground telephone service etc. Hotels offer state-of- the-art fully equipped business centers


2. FASTER & BETTER DELIVERY Reliability Resilience: Better handling of emergencies, product recalls, inquiries Innovativeness: Better MIS, bar coding etc.

3. IMAGE : 

3. IMAGE The American Express example *The equity is such that people the world over know the name & respect the institution.


MANAGING SERVICE QUALITY Reliability Responsiveness Assurance Empathy Tangibles

GAPS! : 

GAPS! Between consumer expectation & mgmt. perception Between mgmt. perception & service-quality specification Between service-quality specification & service delivery Between service delivery & external communication Between perceived & expected service


MANAGING PRODUCTIVITY Hiring more skilful workers Quality-quantity trade off Standardization (Big Mac again) Invent product solution (ATM, so that there is less pressure on bank staff) More effective service Incentivise customers to do their own work (gas stations in USA) Technology (Internet)


MANAGING PRODUCT SUPPORT SERVICES Equipments are becoming more reliable & more easily fixable Customers want unbundling – separate prices for each element & right to select element they want. All services under one roof AMC Little profit on after sale services Quality of call centers


PRICING One of the fundamental P’s


SETTING THE PRICE Segment Example Ultimate Rolls Royce Gold Standard Mercedes Luxury Audi Special Needs Volvo Middle Buick Ease Ford Escort Me too, but cheaper Hyundai Price Alone Maruti 800


SELECTING THE PRICING OBJECTIVE SURVIVAL Due to problems of overcapacity, intense competition, changing consumer wants etc. This is a short run objective. Covers variable cost & a part of fixed cost.


2. MAXIMUM CURRENT PROFIT To choose price that produces maximum current profit, cash flow or ROI. 3. MAXIMUM MARKET SHARE To set lowest price, assuming market is price-sensitive, in the belief that higher sales volume will lead to lower unit cost & higher long-run profit. Also, called market-penetration pricing.


4. MAXIMUM MARKET SKIMMING Companies unveiling a new technology, set high prices to “skim” the market. Sony & Dupont practice this. Done when: Sufficient buyers have a high current demand. Unit cost of small volume is more than offset by the price the traffic will bear. High initial price does not attract more competition. High price communicates superior product.


5. PRODUCT-QUALITY LEADER Company sells higher to competition, by positioning itself as the best in terms of quality & VFM e.g. Chivas Regal


DETERMINING THE DEMAND Price Sensitivity: Customers are more price sensitive to products that cost a lot or are bought frequently & less to low-cost items bought infrequently. Cos. like customers who are less price sensitive.


CONTINUED Estimating Demand Curves: Historical analysis Price experiments Ask buyers


CONTINUED Price elasticity of demand: If demand hardly changes with a small change in price, it is inelastic. If it changes considerably, it is elastic. Sellers will consider lowering price. *Band of indifference


ESTIMATING COSTS Fixed Cost: Do not vary with production or sales revenue Variable Cost: Vary directly with production level Total Cost: Sum of FC+VC for any given production level Average Cost: Cost per unit at that production level


CONTINUED Accumulated production: Learning Curve Decline in average cost with accumulated production experience This is often used by seasoned players to price aggressively. But this may give product cheap image.


DIFFERENTIATED MARKETING OFFERS ABC or Activity-based-cost accounting Tries to identify the real costs associated with serving each customer. Both VC & FC must be tagged back to each customer, to avoid misallocation of marketing effort.


TARGET COSTING MR is used to establish new product’s desired functions. Then price at which it will sell is determined. The desired profit margin is deducted from this price, leaving the target cost. If final cost can be brought within this range, they proceed, else the product is scrapped.


PRICING METHODS Markup Pricing: Suppose the unit cost of a shirt is Rs. 500 You want a markup of 20% Markup price = unit cost/(1-desired profit) = 500/(1-0.2) = 500/0.8 = 625


CONTINUED 2. Target-return pricing: Price that yields desired ROI ROI = Return on investment = Profit/Investment * 100 So target-return price = (unit cost) + ROI * investment/unit sales In the earlier e.g., if investment = 10 lacs You want 20% ROI on expected sales of 5000 shirts. Then price = (500) + .20*1000000/5000 = 500 + 40 = 540


CONTINUED B.E volume = FC/(price-VC) e.g.: VC per unit = 10/- FC = 100000/- Price = 15/- per unit B.E point = 100000/(15-10) = 20000 units


CONTINUED 3. Perceived-value pricing: *DUPONT Price buyers, value buyers & loyal buyers. For first, strip to basics For second, innovate For third, reward through relationships Key is to deliver>competition & demonstrate this to prospects


CONTINUED 4. Value pricing: Wal-Mart: Winning loyal customers by charging a fairly low price for a high-quality offering P&G Did it a few years ago, by reducing prices on a few power brands to offer value prices.


CONTINUED Value pricing is not just a matter of setting lower prices. It involves reengineering of company’s operations to become a low-cost producer without sacrificing quality. EDLP: Every day low pricing: Takes place at retail level. Retailer charges a constant low price with negligible price promos/special sales. Works because constant promos have eroded credibility


CONTINUED 5. Going-rate pricing: Firm bases its price largely on competitors’ prices. The firm may charge same, more or less than major competitor(s). This method is popular because it is thought to reflect the industry’s collective wisdom.


CONTINUED 6. Auction-type pricing: *English auction (ascending bids) *Dutch auction (descending bids) *Sealed bid auction


CONTINUED 7. Group pricing: Internet is facilitating a method whereby consumers & business buyers can join groups to buy at a lower price. “Pool price” is a function of no. of orders received & may fall further if more orders come in.


SELECTING THE FINAL PRICE Psychological pricing: Price is often used as indicator of quality. Image pricing is specially effective with ego-sensitive products like perfumes/cars, which are usually perceived to be higher priced than they actually are. Buyers carry reference prices based on current/past prices or buying context. Sellers use this to put dresses etc. in expensive sections of dept. stores.


CONTINUED 2. Gain-and-risk sharing pricing: Buyers may resist a proposition because of a high perceived level of risk. Seller has option of absorbing all/part of risk, if he does not deliver full promised value. e.g.: “satisfaction guaranteed or your money back”


CONTINUED 3. Influence of other mktg. mix elements: Final price must take into account the brand’s quality & advertising, relative to competition. Consumers are willing to pay more for known product (advtg. matters). High relative quality & high relative advtg. fetches higher prices (quality counts). High price/high advtg. correlate more +ly towards later stages of PLC


CONTINUED 4. Company pricing policies: Price must be consistent with Company pricing policies. 5. Impact of price on other parties: E.g. distributors/retailers/sales force/competition/suppliers/govt. etc.


PRICE ADAPTION Geographical pricing: How to price products to different customers in different locations & countries. Price discounts: Need to be given carefully or value perceptions of offerings will be undermined.


CONTINUED Promotional pricing: Loss-leader – Price drop on well known brands. Special event – Diwali discount etc. Cash rebates – Auto companies. Low interest finance – 0% financing. Longer payment terms – EMI. Warranties. Psychological – First raise, then drop price.


CONTINUED Discriminatory pricing: Customer-segment – students charged lower prices. Product-form – Different versions of product are priced differently, but not proportionately e.g. sachets. Image – Same perfume can be put in 2 different bottles & sold at 2 different prices, based on image. Channel pricing – Coke is priced differently at different channel points.


CONTINUED 5. Location pricing - e.g. pricing in cinema halls. 6. Time pricing - e.g. happy hour pricing.


CONTINUED Product-mix pricing: Product line – e.g. 3 different price points for shirts. Optional-feature – e.g. power steering. Captive product – e.g. high price of razor blade, but low price of system. Two-part – e.g. cellular service – rental + call charges.


CONTINUED 5. By-product – e.g. petrochemical by products may be priced on their value, depending on need. 6. Product-bundling – e.g. Mahesh Bhatt & Vishesh Films.


PRICE CHANGES Price cuts (traps): Consumers will assume low quality. Low price buys market share, not loyalty, so people will shift again. Competitors with deeper pockets may cut to drive you out of the market


CONTINUED Price increases: Good strategy, but it is better to go for gradual increases, instead of sharp, one-time hikes. Sudden hikes are viewed unfavorably. Companies can avoid price hikes, by reducing quantity or removing some features.


COMPETITOR PRICE CHANGE REACTIONS Maintain price Maintain price & add value Reduce price Increase price & improve quality Launch a low-price fighter brand

Marketing Channels : 

Marketing Channels The 3rd P

Marketing Channels : 

Marketing Channels Sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product/service available for use/consumption. Every other P is affected by channel decisions. Today, companies are using multiple channels in a bid to woo customers.

Channel functions : 

Channel functions To gather information about potential & current customers, competitors, etc. To develop & disseminate persuasive communications to stimulate purchasing. To reach agreement on price & other terms so that transfer of ownership can be effected. To place orders with manufacturers. To finance inventories at different levels. To provide storage/movement. To ensure payments.

Channel Levels : 

Channel Levels 0 level – Direct marketing 1 level – One intermediary (retailer) 2 level – Two intermediaries (wholesaler/retailer) 3 level – Three intermediaries (stockist/wholesaler/retailer)

Channel Design : 

Channel Design Analyzing customer needs: Lot size – 1 or many units Waiting time – customers want speed Spatial convenience – degree of ease of purchasing (shopping malls) Product variety Service backup

Channel Design : 

Channel Design Establishing channel objectives: Channel objectives vary with product characteristics. Perishable products require shorter channels while bulky products need channels that minimize channel distance & handling. Non-standardized products (specialized machinery) are sold directly by Company reps etc. etc.

Channel Design : 

Channel Design Identifying major channel alternatives: Types of intermediaries – credit card companies use DM, DSAs, their sales reps etc. to sell their product. No. of intermediaries needed: Exclusive distribution - automobiles Selective distribution – fashion Intensive distribution - FMCG

Channel Design : 

Channel Design Terms: Price policy – producer must establish a price list & a schedule of discounts. Conditions of sale – producer’s payment terms (credit/discounts)/guarantees (for distributors). Territories – producer defines distributors’ territories & terms of appointing other distributors.

Channel Design : 

Channel Design Evaluating major channel alternatives: Economic criteria – choosing between different levels of sales & costs. HDFC/ICICI encourage customers to use ATMs/Internet, because cost is minimum (customers visiting the bank cost much more to service). Control & adaptive criteria – to decide whether company should sell directly (to ensure greater control) or through agents (& risk lesser control).

Channel Management : 

Channel Management Selecting channel members – financials, market reputation, servicing ability Training channel members – esp. dealer salesmen Motivating channel members – carrot/stick Evaluating channel members – target achievement, market servicing, cooperation Modifying channel arrangements – effecting changes when necessary

Channel Dynamics : 

Channel Dynamics Vertical marketing Systems (VMS) Comprises producer, wholesaler & retailer acting as a unified system. One channel member (captain) owns the others or franchises them or has so much power that all others cooperate. Captain can be producer (Coke), wholesaler (FMCG) or retailer (superstores like Wal-Mart). VMS achieves economies through size, bargaining power & elimination of duplication (dominant in US).

Channel Dynamics : 

Channel Dynamics Types of VMS: Corporate & Administered – combines successive stages of production & distribution under single ownership. Sears obtains 50% of the goods it sells through companies that it partly or wholly owns. P&G, Kodak, Gillette etc. are able to command high levels of cooperation from retailers due to their clout.

Channel Dynamics : 

Channel Dynamics Contractual – consists of independent firms at different levels of production & distribution integrating their programs on a contractual basis to obtain economies or sales impact. They are of 3 types: Wholesaler-sponsored voluntary chains – to compete with superstores – Sadar Bazaar (Delhi) Retailer cooperatives – Apna Bazaar (Mumbai) & Super Bazaar (Delhi) Franchising – McDonalds etc.

Channel Dynamics : 

Channel Dynamics Horizontal Marketing Systems (HMS) 2 or more unrelated companies put together resources or programs to exploit an emerging market opportunity. Best example is car manufacturers tying up with finance/insurance companies or airlines tying up with credit card companies. Superstores also offer a host of services by tying up with banks etc. to offer in-house ATM service etc.

Channel Dynamics : 

Channel Dynamics Multichannel Marketing Systems Occurs when a single firm uses 2 or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments. Credit card companies use DM, DSA etc. to target potential customers. Banks use their in-house staff, ATM & the Net. Important benefits include: Increased market coverage Lower channel cost More customized selling

Channel Conflict : 

Channel Conflict Types of conflict: VMS conflict – conflict between different levels within same channel e.g. Coke conflicting with its bottlers HMS conflict – conflict between members at same level in the channel e.g stockists complaining of undercutting/infiltration Multichannel conflict – when multiple channels come into conflict (e.g. targeting the same customer)

Channel Conflict : 

Channel Conflict Causes: Goal incompatibility – company’s aims vs. dealer interests Unclear roles & rights – stockist territories ambiguously defined Differences in perception – manufacturer & dealers may differ on market outlook

Channel Conflict : 

Channel Conflict Adoption of superordinate goal – survival, market share etc. Exchanging persons between 2 or more channel levels – dealer salesman may work as company officer & vice versa to understand the other side of the coin. Cooptation – including leaders of other organizations on advisory panels, board of directors etc. Joint membership in & between trade associations.

Channel Conflict : 

Channel Conflict When conflict is acute, there are 3 solutions: Diplomacy – each side sends a person/group to meet with its counterpart to resolve conflict Mediation – resorting to a neutral third party who is skilled in conciliating their interests Arbitration – when 2 parties agree to present their arguments to 1 or more arbitrators & accept their decision as final & binding.

Legal/Ethical Issues : 

Legal/Ethical Issues Exclusive dealing involves exclusive territorial agreements wherein dealer will not carry competing lines & will get sole selling rights to a particular area. Producers are free to appoint dealers, but terminating the dealerships could involve legal issues. Dealers too need to be ethical in their approach by avoiding undercutting & infiltration, while producers need to respect their territorial rights.

Retailing : 

Retailing All activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final customers for personal, non-business use. Any organization selling to final customers is retailing.

Types of retailers : 

Types of retailers Specialty Stores Narrow product lines with deep assortment (Body Shop) 2. Department Store Several product lines, with each line operated as a separate department. 3. Supermarket Relatively large, low-cost, low-margin, high-volume, self-service operation

Cont. : 

Cont. Convenience Store Relatively small store located near residential area, open long hours, 7 days a week & carrying a limited line of high-turnover convenience products at slightly higher prices with take-out sandwiches, coffee, soft drinks (7/11) 5. Discount Store Standard merchandise sold at lower prices with lower margins & higher volumes (Wal-Mart)

Cont. : 

Cont. Off price Retailer Factory outlets etc. which sell at prices lower than regular outlets & include sales of seconds etc. Superstore About 35000 sq. ft of retailing space aimed at meeting consumer’s total need for routine items + services such as laundry, shoe repair, check cashing etc (e.g. hypermarket)

Cont. : 

Cont. Hypermarkets Range between 80000 & 220000 sq. ft & combine supermarket, discount & warehouse retailing. Assortment includes furniture, appliances, clothing etc. There is bulk display & minimum handling by store personnel, with discounts for customers willing to carry heavy items out of the store. Concept originated in France (Carrefour).

Catalog showroom : 

Catalog showroom Broad selection of high-markup, fast-moving, brand-name goods at discount prices. You order through a catalog & then pick up the goods at a merchandise pickup area in the store Best example : Burlington’s

Non-store retailing : 

Non-store retailing Growing faster than store retailing Direct selling – Amway Direct marketing – Telemarketing, Asian Sky Shop, Automatic vending – Coffee machines Buying service – storeless retailer selling to specific clientele through membership discounts from a list of retailers

Franchising : 

Franchising Franchiser owns a trade or service mark & licenses it to franchisees in return for royalty payments. Franchisee pays for the right to be part of the system. Franchiser provides franchisees with a system for doing business. * Best example – Big Mac

Wal-Mart : 

Wal-Mart Started by Sam Walton Operates 2363 discount stores in US, including 454 supermarkets Annual sales exceed $165 billion Largest US private employer World’s largest retailer Movement of goods – 474000 pairs of shoes, 279000 boxes of diapers & 208000 undergarments a day!

4 P’s of Retailing *Product assortment & procurement : 

4 P’s of Retailing *Product assortment & procurement Feature exclusive national brands not available with competition – Saks Feature mostly private branded merchandise – Benetton Feature blockbuster distinctive merchandise events – Bloomingdale’s “India” sale Feature surprise or ever-changing merchandise - Benetton

Cont. : 

Cont. 5. Feature latest/newest merchandise first 6. Offer merchandise customizing services – Harrods 7. Offer a highly targeted/specific assortment – Lane Bryant stocks lingerie for larger women

Price : 

Price Most retailers fall into 2 groups: High-markup, lower-volume group (fine specialty stores) Low-markup, higher-volume group (mass-merchandisers & discount stores) Most retailers put a low price on some products to ensure high footfall They run “sales” They give discounts on slow-moving items

Promotion : 

Promotion Ads Discount coupons Reward programs In-shop campaigns Etc.

Place : 

Place General business districts Regional shopping centers Community shopping centers Strip malls – “walk the mall” Location within a larger store – “shop within a shop”

Retailing trends : 

Retailing trends New retail forms & combinations: e.g. Bancafe, Cha – bar etc. Growth of intertype competition: different types of stores all competing for the same customer by stocking the same type of merchandise. Growth of giant retailers: K-Mart, Wal-Mart etc. are crowding out smaller retailers. In India Shopper’s Stop, Westside, Pantaloons are annihilating the standalone smaller stores.

Cont. : 

Cont. 4. Growing investment in technology. 5. Global presence of major retailers: Marks & Spencer, Benetton, Carrefour etc. 6. Selling an experience, not just goods: adding fun to the shopping experience through in-house coffee shops, music, contests, rock shows, celebrity appearances etc. 7. Competition between store-based & non store-based retailing.

Wholesaling : 

Wholesaling Includes all activities involved in selling goods/services to those who buy for resale or business use. Excludes manufacturers, farmers, retailers. Different from retail, because: They deal with business customers (not final customers). Transactions are larger in volume & area. Taxes/legalities differ in the 2 cases.

Why Wholesalers? : 

Why Wholesalers? More contacts/rapport More assortment Customer benefits from bulk sales/buying Warehousing Transportation Financing (through market credit) Risk sharing/bearing Market information Counseling retailers/industrial customers

Major wholesaler types : 

Major wholesaler types Merchant wholesalers: Independently owned businesses that take title to the merchandise they handle (distributors). 2 types are: Full service wholesalers (stockist) Limited service wholesalers Both sell to retailers, but style/scope of operation is different.

Cont. : 

Cont. Brokers & agents: Do not take title to goods & perform only a few functions. Facilitate buying/selling for which they earn a commission on the transaction amount. Brokers bring buyer & seller together & assist in negotiations. Do not carry inventory or get involved in financing etc. (real estate). Agents represent either buyer or seller on more permanent basis. Formal agreement with producers for selling, purchasing in toto or on part/commission basis.

Cont. : 

Cont. Manufacturer/retailer branch/office: Wholesaling conducted by seller/buyer themselves & not through independent wholesalers. Compaq setting up own branch offices to sell direct to end-user/customer. Miscellaneous wholesalers: Agricultural wholesalers, auction companies etc.

4 P’s of wholesaling : 

4 P’s of wholesaling Product: It is basically their “assortment”. Price: Their profit margin is usually in the 2-3% range because they operate on high turnover & low margin basis.

Cont. : 

Cont. Promotion: Rely primarily on their salespeople/staff. Need to develop overall promotion strategy in terms of advertising, sales promotion & publicity. Place: Were usually located in low rent commercial areas but are becoming more up-market now with computerized operations.

Market Logistics (SCM) : 

Market Logistics (SCM) Deciding on company’s value proposition to customers. Deciding on best channel design/network to reach customers. Operational excellence in sales forecasting, warehouse management, transportation & materials management. Implementing solution with best MIS, equipment, policies & procedures.

Objectives : 

Objectives M = T + FW + VW + S M = total market logistics cost of system T = total fright cost of system FW = total fixed warehouse cost VW = total variable warehouse cost S = total cost of lost sales due to delays/glitches Objective = minimize M

Market logistics decisions : 

Market logistics decisions Order processing: Most companies try to shorten the order-to-payment cycle * GE case – operates an info system that checks customer’s credit standing upon receipt of order & determines stock availability. Computer issues an order to ship, bills the customer, updates inventory records, sends production order for new stock & relays message back to sales rep that customer’s order is on the way – all in 15 seconds!

Cont. : 

Cont. Warehousing: Company must decide on no. of inventory stocking locations. To reduce warehousing & inventory duplication costs the company may centralize its inventory in one place & use fast transportation to fulfill orders. Some inventory is kept at/near plant & rest is located in warehouses in other locations. Trend is “automated” warehousing where computers handle everything from moving goods to loading docks & issuing invoices!

Cont. : 

Cont. Inventory: When to order (reorder point) How much to order Inventory carrying cost Optimal order qty. or EOQ – determined by observing how order-processing costs & inventory-carrying costs sum up at different reorder levels, to arrive at the lowest point. JIT

Cont. : 

Cont. Transportation: 5 types – rail, air, truck, waterway, pipeline. Criteria – speed, frequency, dependability, capability, availability, traceability, cost. * Using combi-transportation modes (containers) Piggyback – use of rail & trucks Fishyback – water & trucks Trainship – water & rail Airtruck – air & truck

Golden rules : 

Golden rules Appoint a senior logistics person to be single window for all logistical elements. This person must hold periodic review sessions with sales & operations. New software & systems are the key to competitive logistical benefits.

Integrated Marketing Communication : 

Integrated Marketing Communication The 4th P

Integrated Marketing Communication : 

Integrated Marketing Communication A & SP PR Personal Selling Direct Marketing

A & SP : 

A & SP Print & broadcast ads Packaging – outer Packaging inserts Motion pictures Brochures/booklets Posters/leaflets Directories Reprint of ads

Cont. : 

Cont. Billboards Display signs POP displays A/V Symbols & logos Videos

Sales Promotion : 

Sales Promotion Contests & Games Premiums & Gifts Sampling Fairs & trade shows Exhibits Demos Coupons

Cont. : 

Cont. Rebates Low-interest financing Entertainment Trade-in allowances Continuity programs Tie-ins

PR : 

PR Press kits Speeches Seminars Annual reports Charitable donations Sponsorships Publications

Cont. : 

Cont. Community relations Lobbying Identity media Company magazine Events

Personal Selling : 

Personal Selling Sales presentations Sales meetings Incentive programs Samples Fairs & Trade Shows

Direct Marketing : 

Direct Marketing Catalogs Mailings Telemarketing Electronic Shopping TV Shopping Fax mail E-mail Voice mail

8 steps in communication : 

8 steps in communication Identify the target audience: Image Analysis Major part of audience analysis is assessing current image of company, its products & its competitors. Image is the set of beliefs, ideas & impressions a person holds regarding an object (peoples’ attitudes/actions toward object are highly conditioned by its image). To measure target audience’s knowledge, we use the familiarity scale.

Image Analysis : 

Image Analysis If most respondents say: Never heard of Heard of only *Then the challenge is to build greater awareness. Favorability scale: Very unfavorable Somewhat unfavorable Indifferent Somewhat favorable Very favorable

Image Analysis : 

Image Analysis Again, if most choose 1 or 2 * Then the organization must overcome a negative image problem ** The familiarity & favorability scales can be combined to develop insight into nature of communication challenge.

Image Analysis : 

Image Analysis Exercise What comes to mind when you think of: Shahrukh Aishwarya Sachin

Determine the communication objective : 

Determine the communication objective Cognitive: put something into consumer’s mind Affective: change an attitude Behavioral: get consumer to act Low vs. High Cognition

Hierarchy-of-effects model : 

Hierarchy-of-effects model Awareness: if most of target audience is unaware, communicator’s task is to build awareness, with simple messages repeating the product name. Knowledge: target audience might have product awareness but not know much more, so product knowledge becomes the communication objective. Liking: if target members know the product, then how do they feel about it? +ve or –ve?

Cont. : 

Cont. Preference: target audience may like product, but may not prefer it to others, so communicator must try to build consumer preference by promoting quality, value, performance etc. Conviction: target audience may prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it, so the communicator has to build conviction. Purchase: some target members may have conviction but may not get around to making the purchase, so communicator must induce the final step by offering some incentive.

Design the message : 

Design the message AIDA Model: A – gain attention I – hold interest D – arouse desire A – elicit action Effective messages are like ---------

Cont. : 

Cont. Message content: Rational appeal – USP Emotional appeal – ESP Moral appeal – e.g. AIDS campaign * Helene Curtis hair care ad campaign: British women wash hair frequently Spanish women seldom do so Japanese women fall in between ** So Helene Curtis adjusts its ad message

Cont. : 

Cont. Message structure: Best ads ask questions & allow readers/viewers to form their own conclusions. Two-sided messages are more appropriate, esp. if some negative association must be overcome. “Listerine tastes bad twice a day” Order of presentation of argument is also important – for one-sided message presenting strongest argument first is important, for two-sided, play “devil’s advocate”.

Cont. : 

Cont. Message source: Celebrity endorsement Doctors’ testimony Expertise, trustworthiness, likeability are important for source credibility. “Principle of congruity” implies that communicators can use their good image to reduce some negative feelings toward a brand but might lose self-esteem in the process. AB & Dabur is a good example.

Select the communication channels : 

Select the communication channels Personal channels: Identify influential individuals/companies & devote extra effort to them Create opinion leaders by supplying some people with product on attractive terms Work through community influentials Use testimonial advertising Develop ads with high conversation value e.g “cheetah bhi peeta hai”

Cont. : 

Cont. Develop WOM referral Establish electronic forum Use viral marketing

Nonpersonal channels : 

Nonpersonal channels Media Atmospheres (Environment/Ambience) Events “Cliques” Small groups whose members interact frequently, are similar & their closeness facilitates effective communication, but also insulates them from new ideas.

Establish total marketing communications budget : 

Establish total marketing communications budget Affordable method: Set promotion budget at what they think company can afford. % of sales method: Drawbacks are – does not allow for flexibility in terms of what is actually required by the brand(s), since % is pre-decided. Competitive-parity method: To achieve SOV parity with competition.

Cont. : 

Cont. Objective –and-task method: Establish market-share goal Determine % of market that should be reached by advertising Determine % of aware prospects that should be persuaded to try brand Determine % trial rate desired

Deciding on the marketing communications mix : 

Deciding on the marketing communications mix As brands move to the more mature phase of PLC, managers allocate less to advertising When brand is well differentiated from competition, managers allocate more to advertising When managers are rewarded on short-term results, they allocate less to advertising As retailers gain more power, managers allocate less to advertising As managers gain experience they tend to allocate proportionatey

Promotional tools : 

Promotional tools Advertising: Public presentation Pervasiveness Amplified expressiveness Impersonality

Cont. : 

Cont. Sales Promotion: Communication Incentive Invitation

Cont. : 

Cont. PR & Publicity: High credibility Ability to catch buyers off guard Dramatization

Cont. : 

Cont. Personal Selling: Personal confrontation Cultivation Response

Cont. : 

Cont. Direct Marketing: Nonpublic Customized Up-to-date Interactive

Factors in mktg. communication mix : 

Factors in mktg. communication mix Type of product market: Consumer marketers spend more on sales promotion, advertising, personal selling & PR (in this order). Business marketers spend more on personal selling, sales promotion, advertising & PR (in this order). Buyer readiness stage: Advertising & publicity help awareness, comprehension is affected by advertising & personal selling, conviction is influenced by personal selling, closing sale by personal selling & sales promotion etc.

Cont. : 

Cont. PLC stage: In the intro stage, advertising & publicity are most cost effective. In growth stage WOM plays a critical role. In the maturity stage, SP, advertising & personal selling all become important (in this order). In the decline stage, SP continues strongly, advertising & publicity are reduced & salespeople give the product minimal attention.

A & SP, PR & DM : 

A & SP, PR & DM A & SP

Advertising : 

Advertising Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation & promotion of ideas, goods, services by an identified sponsor 5 M’s: Mission – sales goals/advtg. objectives Money – how much to spend? Message – what message? Media – what media to use Measurement – how to evaluate results?

Cont. : 

Cont. Setting advtg. objectives: Informative – awareness/knowledge Persuasive – liking/preference/conviction/ purchase Reminder – stimulate repurchase Reinforcement – reinforce choice “yehi hai right choice, baby”

Cont. : 

Cont. Deciding advtg. budget: Stage in PLC – new products receive more budget, established brands get less. Market share & consumer base – High market share brands require less money & low market share brands require more. Competition & clutter – More the clutter, more the budget reqd. Advertising frequency – More the frequency reqd., more the budget. Product substitutability – Commodities need more budget.

Cont. : 

Cont. Choosing the advtg. message: Message generation – how many alternative ad themes should the advertiser create before making a choice? There is always a trade off between creativity & cost. Message evaluation & selection – a good ad normally focuses on 1 core selling proposition. Research indicates which appeal will work best. Then advertiser prepares a creative brief.

Cont. : 

Cont. Creative Brief: Typically covers 1 or 2 pages. Is an elaboration of the positioning statement & includes: Key message Target audience Communication objectives Benefits/promises Media choice

Cont. : 

Cont. Message execution: Communicator must choose appropriate tone for ad. Memorable & attention-getting words must be found. Some ads aim for rational & others for emotional positioning. Book – Man Woman & Child Positioning – “tugs wonderfully at your heartstrings”

Cont. : 

Cont. Some more examples : 7 up is not a cola – the un-cola Our technology can help you do almost anything – where do you want to go today? (Microsoft) We don’t rent as many cars – we try harder (Avis)

Deciding on media : 

Deciding on media Reach, frequency & impact: Reach – No. of different persons or households exposed to a particular media schedule at least once during a specified time period. Frequency – No. of times within the specified time period that an average person or household is exposed to the message. Impact – Qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium (Revlon in Cosmo)

Cont. : 

Cont. Media selection is finding the most cost-effective media to deliver the desired no. & type of exposures to target audience. The effect of exposures on audience awareness depends on reach, frequency & impact.

Relationship between R, F & I : 

Relationship between R, F & I Total no. of exposures (E) = R X F This is called GRP (gross rating point). Example: If a given media schedule reaches 80% of homes with average exposure frequency of 3, it is said to have a GRP of 240 Weighted no. of exposures (WE) = R X F X I

Cont. : 

Cont. Media planner has to figure out most cost-effective combination of reach, frequency & impact. Reach is most important when launching new products, flanker brands, extensions of well-known brands, or infrequently purchased brands. Frequency is most important when there are strong competitors, complex story, high consumer resistance or frequent-purchase cycle.

Choosing media types : 

Choosing media types Newspapers: Pros – flexibility, timeliness, good local market coverage, broad acceptance, high credibility Cons – short life, poor reproduction quality, small “pass-along” audience TV: Pros – combines sight, sound & motion, appealing to senses, high reach/attention

Cont. : 

Cont. Cons – high absolute cost, high clutter, fleeting exposure, less audience selectivity Direct mail: Pros – audience selectivity, flexibility, no ad competition within same medium, personalization Cons – relatively high cost, “junk mail” image

Cont. : 

Cont. Radio: Pros – mass use, high geographic & demographic selectivity, low cost Cons – audio only, lower attention than TV, nonstandardized rate structure, fleeting exposure

Cont. : 

Cont. Magazines: Pros – high geographic & demographic selectivity, credibility & prestige, high-quality reproduction, long life, good “pass-along” readership Cons – long ad purchase lead time, waste circulation, no guarantee of position

Cont. : 

Cont. Outdoor: Pros – flexibility, high repeat exposure, low cost, low competition Cons – limited audience selectivity, creative limitations Yellow Pages: Pros – excellent local coverage, high credibility, wide reach, low cost Cons – high competition, long ad purchase lead time, creative limitations

Cont. : 

Cont. Newsletters: Pros – very high selectivity, full control, interactive opportunities, relative low costs Cons – costs could run away Brochures: Pros – flexibility, full control, can dramatize messages Cons – overproduction can lead to runaway costs

Cont. : 

Cont. Telephone: Pros – many users, opportunity to give a personal touch Cons – relative high cost unless volunteers are used Net: Pros – high selectivity, interactive possibilities, relatively low cost Cons – new media, low no. of users

Advertorials & Infomercials : 

Advertorials & Infomercials Advertorial: Print ads that offer editorial content & are difficult to distinguish from newspaper or magazine contents. Infomercials: TV commercials that appear to be 30 minute TV shows but are product ads.

Selecting specific media vehicles : 

Selecting specific media vehicles Circulation: No. of physical units carrying the ad Audience: No. of people exposed to vehicle Effective audience: No. of people with target audience characteristics exposed to vehicle Effective ad-exposed audience: Effective audience which actually saw ad.

Costing of media vehicle : 

Costing of media vehicle Media planners calculate cost per thousand persons reached by a vehicle. If a full page color ad in India Today costs 5 lacs & its estimated readership is 15 lacs, then cost of exposing ad to 1000 persons is approx. Rs. 333/-. If it costs 4 lacs in Outlook, with 13 lac readership, cost per 1000 people will work out to Rs. 300/-. So media guy may choose Outlook as more cost effective.

Media timing : 

Media timing Timing pattern should consider 3 factors: Buyer turnover is rate at which new buyers enter market – higher the rate more the advtg. reqd. Purchase frequency is no. of times during period that average buyer buys product – higher the freq., higher the advtg. reqd. Forgetting rate is rate at which buyer forgets brand – higher the rate, higher the advtg. reqd.

For new product launches : 

For new product launches Continuity: achieved by scheduling exposures evenly throughout a given period. Concentration: spending all ad money in a single period. Flighting: advertising for some period, followed by a hiatus with no advertising, followed by a second period of advertising activity. Pulsing: continuous advertising at low-weight levels, reinforced periodically by waves of heavier activity.

Evaluating advertising effectiveness : 

Evaluating advertising effectiveness Consumer feedback method Portfolio test Laboratory test * SOV (share of voice): Share of advertising expenditures produces a share of voice (% of company advertising of that product to all advertising of that product) that earns a share of consumers’ minds & hearts & a share of market.

Sales Promotion : 

Sales Promotion Consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short term, designed to stimulate quicker or greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or trade. Advertising offers “reason” to buy whereas sales promotion offers “incentive” to buy. Includes consumer promotion, trade promotion & business & sales force promotion. Earlier a to sp ratio was 60:40, now in many cases it is 30:70!

Purpose : 

Purpose Stimulates trial Increases repurchase Rewards loyal customers Promotes greater consumer awareness of prices Leads to blips in sales volumes Leads to consumer satisfaction *Warning: excessive use may dilute brand equity!

Major consumer promotion tools : 

Major consumer promotion tools Samples: free amount delivered D-T-D, sent in mail, picked up in store, attached to another product or featured in advertising offer Coupons: certificates entitling bearer to stated saving on purchase of specific product: mailed, enclosed in other products, inserted in newspapers/magazine ads Rebates: consumer sends “proof of purchase” to manufacturer who refunds part of purchase price by mail (not at retail shop).

Cont. : 

Cont. Price-packs: offers to consumers of savings off regular price of product, flagged on label or package (2 for 1, banded pack i.e. toothbrush free with toothpaste etc.) Premiums (gifts): merchandise offered at relatively low cost or even free as an incentive to purchase a particular product Frequency programs: frequent flyer, loyalty programs etc.

Cont. : 

Cont. Prizes (contests, sweepstakes, games): sweepstakes is a lucky draw Free trials: inviting prospective purchasers to try product without cost, as incentive to purchase Product warranties Tie-in promos: 2 or more brands/companies tie up on offers Cross promo: using one brand to promote another non-competing brand POP

Major trade promotion tools : 

Major trade promotion tools Price-off – straight discount on invoice/list price. Also known as primary scheme in India. Allowance – Window displays, in-shop campaign etc. Free goods – Incentive for meeting targets or target-linked schemes.

Major business & sales-force promos : 

Major business & sales-force promos Trade shows & conventions Sales contests Specialty advertising – Ballpoint pens, calendars, key chains, torches, writing pads, tote bags etc.

Major SP decisions : 

Major SP decisions Establishing objectives: For consumers – trial, purchase of bigger units, attracting switchers etc. For trade – to carry new items & higher levels of inventory, encourage off-season buying & stocking of related items, offsetting competitive promos, building loyalty & gaining entry into new outlets. For sales force – driving sales.

Cont. : 

Cont. Selecting consumer promo tools: Some tools are consumer-franchise building tools, which reinforce brand preference (free samples, coupons & other freebies related to product). Others like price-off packs, premiums, sweepstakes, etc. do not build franchise.

Selecting trade promo tools : 

Selecting trade promo tools More of the promo pie goes to trade & less to consumers! This is due to the increased clout of trade & the necessity of their support. Sales force argue that trade needs to be incentivised more than consumers, whereas brand managers feel that the reverse applies. But policing trade promos is never easy given the widespread ramping. So it is usually a nightmare for manufacturers!

Developing program : 

Developing program Key parameters: Size of incentive Conditions Duration Distribution vehicle Timing Total budget

Pretesting, implementing, control & evaluation : 

Pretesting, implementing, control & evaluation Lead time Sell-in time – begins with launch & ends when roughly 95% of merchandise is in hands of consumers Consumer surveys Sales data Experiments

PR : 

PR Involves a variety of programs designed to promote or protect a company’s image or individual products. Consists of: Press relations Product publicity Corporate communication Lobbying Counseling – advising mgmt during crisis etc.

MPR : 

MPR Assisting in new product launches Assisting in repositioning Building interest in product category Influencing specific target groups Defending products in crisis Building favorable corporate image

Major MPR decisions : 

Major MPR decisions Establish the objective: Awareness Credibility Enthusiasm (trade/sales force) Decrease in promo cost

Choose message & vehicles : 

Choose message & vehicles Publications Events Sponsorships News Speeches Public service

Implement plan & evaluate : 

Implement plan & evaluate No. of exposures (we do not know unduplicated exposures) Change in product awareness, comprehension, attitude resulting from MPR campaign (better than 1) Sales & profit impact (best method)

DM : 

DM Use of consumer-direct (CD) channels to reach & deliver goods/services to customers without marketing middlemen. Includes: Direct mail Catalogs Telemarketing Interactive TV Kiosks Websites Mobile

Major DM Channels : 

Major DM Channels Face-to-face selling – Amway, Avon, Insurance companies etc. Direct mail – fax mail, e-mail, voice mail Carpet bombing – mass mailing Database marketing – datamining to identify high interest prospects Interactive marketing – telephone no., website etc. included & recipients can contact company with questions

Constructing a DM campaign : 

Constructing a DM campaign Objectives: Most aim to receive orders from prospects. An order-response rate of 2% is normally considered good. Target market: R-F-M formula – recency (time lapse since last purchase), frequency (how many times they have purchased), monetary amount (how much they have spent after becoming a customer).

Cont. : 

Cont. Other factors are age, sex, income, education, previous purchases, occasions, lifestyle Offer elements: Product, offer, medium, distribution method & creative strategy Outside envelope, sales letter, circular, reply form, reply envelope

Cont. : 

Cont. Testing elements: To derive a comprehensive estimate of promo impact, some companies are measuring DM impact on awareness, intention to buy & WOM Measuring campaign success: Returned merchandize causes need to be analyzed

Catalog marketing : 

Catalog marketing $100 billion business in US. Success depends on company’s ability to manage its customer lists so as to avoid duplication, bad debts, control inventory, offer quality merchandize & project a distinctive image. Internet increasingly used for CM.

Telemarketing/m-commerce : 

Telemarketing/m-commerce Inbound – call centers Outbound – initiating calls * 4 types: Telesales – taking orders from catalogs, ads & doing outbound calling Telecoverage – calling customers to nurture key accounts Teleprospecting – generating new leads for closure by another channel Customer service – handling queries

E-marketing : 

E-marketing Internet today functions as information source, entertainment source, communication channel, transaction channel & even a distribution channel. Provides marketers with interaction & individualization. Guidelines include: Reason to respond Personalization Unique offers Easy “unsubscribe” facilities

Managing the sales force : 

Managing the sales force Designing the sales force

Sales force objectives & strategy : 

Sales force objectives & strategy Objectives: Prospecting Targeting Communicating Selling Servicing Information gathering Allocating

Sales force structure : 

Sales force structure Territorial: Each sales rep is assigned an exclusive territory. Territories can be designed to provide equal sales potential or equal workload. Product: Sales force is structured along product lines, esp. where products are technically complex.

Cont. : 

Cont. Market: Separate sales force can be set up for different industries & even customers. Complex: Motorola has 4 types of sales force: Strategic market sales force of technical, applications & quality engineers & service personnel assigned to major accounts.

Cont. : 

Cont. Geographic sales force calling on thousands of customers in different territories. Distributor sales force calling on & coaching Motorola distributors. Inside sales force doing telemarketing & taking orders via phone & fax.

Sales force size : 

Sales force size Customers are grouped into size classes according to annual sales volume Desirable call frequencies are established for each class No. of a/cs in each size class x corresponding call frequency to arrive at total workload (sales calls per year) Average no. of calls a sales rep can make per year is determined No. of sales reps needed is determined by dividing total annual calls reqd. by avg. annual calls made by a sales rep.

Sales force compensation : 

Sales force compensation Fixed amount (salary for stability) Variable amount (incentives/bonus) Expense allowance (TA/DA) Benefits (LTA/Medical) *Most companies use a combination of fixed & variable compensation, though % of fixed vs. variable may vary from company to company. So a mix of stability & incentive is required.

Managing sales force : 

Managing sales force Recruitment & selection: Desirable traits include: High energy level Self confidence Ambition Problem solving bent Care for customer Planning skills Decision making skills Empathy

Training sales reps : 

Training sales reps Need to know & identify with company Need to know company’s products Need to know customer & competitor characteristics Need to know how to make effective presentations Need to understand field procedures & responsibilities

Norms for customer calls : 

Norms for customer calls `Prospect calls: At least 25% prospecting & stop calling after 3 unsuccessful calls Using sales time efficiently: Preparation Travel Food & breaks Selling Admin.

Inside Sales Force : 

Inside Sales Force Technical support people Sales assistants Telemarketers * Inside sales force frees outside reps to spend more time on selling activities. *Another breakthrough is use of technology, resulting in time saving.

Motivating sales reps : 

Motivating sales reps Sales Quotas: Called sales targets in India. Developed from annual marketing plan. First sales forecast is prepared. This becomes basis for planning production, workforce size & financial requirements. Then targets are prepared for regions/territories (usually greater than forecast). Targets are usually greater than forecast so that salespeople perform at their best levels (under pressure) & forecast is achieved.

Cont. : 

Cont. NSM sets targets for RSM. RSM sets targets for ASM. ASM sets targets for Sales Rep. 3 types of target setting: High quota – higher than what most reps will achieve, but attainable Modest quota – majority can achieve Variable quota – high for some, modest for others, depending on individual ability

Cont. : 

Cont. General view: Salesperson’s quota should at least be = the person’s last year ‘s sales + some growth over last year. % of growth fraction should be higher for people who deliver better under pressure.

Pros & cons of quotas : 

Pros & cons of quotas Quota is a useful tool, but there are some cons: If company underestimates sales potential, sales reps will easily achieve their quotas, indicating that company has overpaid its reps. If sales rep sells 50 products, should he concentrate on a few important products or sell everything in the bag? Reps are unlikely to achieve quotas when company is launching several new products at the same time, because new products need more selling effort.

Supplementary motivators : 

Supplementary motivators Sales meetings: Important for education, communication & motivation. Sales contests: Used to spur sales force to a special selling effort above what is normally expected. Should present reasonable opportunity for enough salespeople to win. Contest period should not be intimated in advance (will lead to deferred sales). Reward should be commensurate with achievement.

Evaluating sales reps : 

Evaluating sales reps Sources of information: Most important source is sales reports, apart from personal observation, customer letters & complaints, customer surveys & conversations with other sales reps. PJP Annual territory marketing plan consisting of program for developing new a/cs & developing business from existing a/cs.

Key performance indicators : 

Key performance indicators Average no. of sales calls per person per day Average sales call time per contact Average revenue per sales call Average cost per sales call Entertainment cost per sales call % of orders per 100 sales calls No. of new customers per period No. of lost customers per period Sales-force cost as % of total sales

Formal Evaluation : 

Formal Evaluation Quarterly appraisals Annual appraisal *Parameters include: **Performance obviously, but also: Knowledge of company, products, customers, competitors, territory & responsibilities Personality characteristics like general appearance, attitude, speech, temperament etc. Integrity, ethics etc.

Personal Selling : 

Personal Selling Very Important Concept: SPIN selling Developed by Neil Rackham Follows the customer-oriented approach to selling *4 questions to prospects: Situation 2. Problem 3. Implication 4. Need-payoff

Cont. : 

Cont. Situation questions: These ask about facts or explore the buyer’s present situation. “What system are you using to invoice your customers?” Problem questions: These deal with problems, difficulties & dissatisfactions. “What parts of the system create errors”?

Cont. : 

Cont. Implication questions: These ask about the consequences or effects of a buyer’s problems, difficulties or dissatisfactions. “How does this problem affect your peoples’ productivity?” Need-payoff questions: These ask about the value or usefulness of a proposed solution. “How much would you save if the errors were reduced by 80%?”

Major steps in effective selling : 

Major steps in effective selling Prospecting & qualifying: Leads can be qualified by assessing their level of interest & financial capacity. They can then be categorized as hot, warm or cool prospects, with hot prospects turned over to salespeople & warm ones to telemarketing unit. Preapproach: Salesperson needs to learn max. possible about prospect company & its buyers.

Cont. : 

Cont. 3. Approach: Salesperson should know how to get the buyer relationship off to a good start. So appearance, courtesy, attention, empathy, positive approach etc. are important traits. 4. Presentation & Demo: Salesman tells the product story to the buyer, following the AIDA formula & uses the FABV approach (features, advantages, benefits & value)

Cont. : 

Cont. 3 different styles of sales presentations: Canned approach: based on stimulus-response thinking i.e. the buyer is passive & can be moved to purchase by use of right words, pictures, terms & actions. Formulated approach: Also based on stimulus-response, but first identifies buyer’s needs & buying style & then uses formulated approach.

Cont. : 

Cont. 3. Need-satisfaction approach: Starts with search for customer’s real needs by encouraging customer to do most of the talking. Salesperson becomes a “consultant”. *Technology plays an important role in sales presentations.

Cont. : 

Cont. 5. Overcoming objections: Customers pose objections during presentation or when asking for order. Salesperson handles these by maintaining a positive approach, asking buyer to clarify, denying validity of objection or turning objection into reason for buying. 6. Closing: Toughest part. Salesperson needs to study body language & look for clues. May ask for order, recapitulate points, ask whether buyer wants A or B option etc. 7. Follow up & maintenance: For customer satisfaction & repeat business.

Negotiation : 

Negotiation Acting crazy – get emotional to show your commitment Big pot – make high demands at the start, so that you still end up with large gains, even after making concessions Get a prestigious ally Well is dry – tell the opponent you have no more concessions to make Limited authority – when you are ready to sign deal, say you have to check with your boss

Cont. : 

Cont. 6. Whipsaw/Auction – let several competitors know you are negotiating with them at the same time 7. Divide & conquer – sell one member of the team on your proposals, he will sell it to the others 8. Get lost – leave the nego completely for a while & then come back to renegotiate 9. Be patient

Cont. : 

Cont. 10. Wet noodle – give no verbal or emotional response & sit with a “poker face” 11. Let’s split the difference – person first suggesting this has the least to lose 12. Trial balloon – release your possible decision through a so called reliable source to test the reaction before actually deciding. 13. Surprises

Managing total marketing effort : 

Managing total marketing effort Recent corporate trends

Trends in company organization : 

Trends in company organization Reengineering Outsourcing Benchmarking Supplier partnering Customer partnering M & A Globalizing Flattening Focusing Empowering

Marketing organization : 

Marketing organization Evolution: Simple sales department – only a VP (Sales) Sales department with ancillary marketing functions – VP (Sales) hires a MR Manager or a Marketing Director to manage marketing functions Separate marketing department – CEO appoints a VP (Marketing) - so VP (Sales) & VP (Marketing) both report to CEO Modern marketing department/marketing organization – VP (Marketing & Sales) heads both sales & marketing departments to reduce friction between Marketing & Sales. Reports to CEO

Organizing Marketing Dept. : 

Organizing Marketing Dept. Functional organization: Functional specialists reporting to a Marketing VP, who coordinates their activities. Specialists will include: Marketing admin. Manager A & SP Manager Sales Manager MR Manager Product Manager

Cont. : 

Cont. Geographic organization: NSM will have 4 RSM, who in turn will have ASM reporting to them. Sales reps will report to ASM. Most common form in India. There could be some Regional Marketing Managers too, to provide local marketing expertise.

Brand Management Organization : 

Brand Management Organization Tasks of Brand Managers: Developing long range/competitive strategy for products Preparing annual marketing plan & sales forecast Working with ad agencies Stimulating product support amongst sales force & distributors Gathering market intelligence Initiating product improvements

“Ye mera India” : 

“Ye mera India” Indian structure is an amalgam. CEO VP(Sales & Marktg.) VP(Finance) VP(Ops) VP(HR) NSM GM(Mktg.) RSM GPM ASM PM SE PE Marketing interfaces with all other departments on various aspects. Cannot function in isolation.

Marketing Controls : 

Marketing Controls Sales Analysis: Measuring & evaluating actual sales in relation to goals Market-share analysis: Overall market share = Customer penetration X Customer loyalty X Customer selectivity X Price selectivity *Penetration = % of all customers who buy from company *Loyalty = purchases from your company as % of total from suppliers of same products

Cont. : 

Cont. *Customer selectivity = size of avg. customer purchase from your company as % from avg. company *Price selectivity = avg. price charged by company as % of avg. price charged by all companies Marketing expense to sales ratio: Sales force to sales Advtg. to sales Sales admin. to sales

Cont. : 

Cont. Financial analysis: ROI Market-based scorecard: % of new customers % of lost customers % of customers with brand awareness/recall Average perception of company’s product quality Average perception of company’s service

Profitability Control : 

Profitability Control Marketing –profitability analysis: Identifying functional expenses Assigning functional expenses Preparing P/L Statement for each channel

Efficiency Control : 

Efficiency Control Sales force efficiency Advertising efficiency: Cost per 1000 target buyers reached by media % of exposure Opinion polls on ad effectiveness No. of inquiries stimulated by ad Sales promotion efficiency: % of sales sold on promo Cost per sales rupee Inquiries resulting from demos Distribution efficiency

Strategic Control : 

Strategic Control Marketing Audit: a) Environment Audit Macro-environment PEST analysis Task Environment Markets Customers Competitors Distribution Suppliers Facilitators/Service providers Public

Cont. : 

Cont. b) Strategy Audit: Business mission Marketing goals Strategy c) Organization Audit: Formal structure Functional efficiency Interface efficiency

Cont. : 

Cont. d) Systems Audit: MIS Marketing planning systems Marketing control systems New product development systems e) Productivity Audit: Profitability analysis Cost effectiveness analysis

Cont. : 

Cont. Function Audits: Products Price Distribution IMC Sales force

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