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SENSORS TECHNOLOGY Authors: N.Lakshmi S ravya M.Laxmi pravallika


INTRODUCTION A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument Example: A mercury in glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against known standards..

What is a sensor??: 

What is a sensor?? A sensor is a device which receives and responds to a signal. A sensors sensitivity indicates how much the sensors output changes when the measured quantity changes. Sensors are a new solution for measuring currents and voltages needed for protection and monitoring in medium voltage power systems. Typical ex: transformer including instrument transformers

Sensors in nature: 

Sensors in nature Light, motion, temperature, magnetic field, gravity, humidity, moisture Physical aspects of internal environment, such as stretch Environmental molecules, including toxins, nutrients & pheromones Estimation of bio molecules interaction and some kinetics parameters Internal metabolic milers, such as glucose level Internal signal molecules, such as hormones& cytokines


USES Sensors are used in every day objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. These are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware Applications include cars, machines, aero space medicine, manufacturing and robotics...

Rules for good sensor: 

Rules for good sensor It is sensitive to the measured property only. It is sensitive to any other property likely to be encountered in its applications.. Does not influence the measured property Ideal sensors are designed to be linear Some simple mathematical function of the measurement typically logarithmic..

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The output signal of such a sensor is linearly proportional to the value or simple function of the measured property The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between output signal and measured property.. Ex: If a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage out put, the sensitivity is a constant. Units[v/k] Sensor is linear because the ratio is constant at all points of measurement..


R esolution The resolution of a sensor is smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is measuring.. In a digital display, the least significant digit will fluctuate, indicating the changes of that magnitude are only just resolved. Resolution is related to precision. Ex: A scanning tunnelling probe resolves into atoms and molecules.

Types of sensors: 

Types of sensors There are many types of sensors the main are Bio sensor


Bio-sensor In bio medicine, and bio technology, sensors which can detect analyses thanks to a biological component, such as cells, proteins, nucleic acid or biometric polymers, are called bio sensors.

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A non biological for both sensor, even organic=carbon chemistry, for biological analyses is referred to as sensor or nano sensor. This terminology applies for both in vitro and in vivo applications. The encapsulation of the biological component in bio sensors, presents with a slightly different problem that ordinary sensors.

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This can be done by means of a semi permeable barrier, such as a dialysis membrane or a hydrogen, a 3d polymer matrix which either physically constrains the sensing macro molecule or chemically.


properties The natural properties of the soft iron core, as maximal flux density and lack of linearity in the excitation curve, have sets limits for the possibilities to reduce the transformer size and to use the transformer in a wider range of applications These principles are far from new, they are generally as old as the principles of conventional inductive instrument transformers.

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