Pheromone application in IPM

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Pheromone Traps and their Application in Management of Insect Pests:

Pheromone Traps and their Application in Management of Insect Pests S. N. Tiwari , Department of Entomology A.K Agnihotri, Department of Soil Science G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pantnagar-263 145, Udham Singh Nagar Uttaranchal, India

What is pheromone?:

What is pheromone? Pheromone are exocrine secretions of insects which are used for commu-nication among different individuals of the species.

Types of pheromones insect produce:

Types of pheromones insect produce Sex Pheromone: brings together opposite sexes for mating. Aggregation pheromone: attracts both sexes generally for feeding on food source or for mating. Alarm Pheromone: alerts other individuals to some source of danger. Trail pheromone: marks a trail laid by pioneering individuals towards a source of food or refuge. Other individuals follow it to reach the source. Social pheromone: governs interaction among organized societies.

Chemical constituents:

Chemical constituents Helicoverpa armigera (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (97:3) Pectinophora gossypiella cis cis and cis trans isomers of hexa decadienyl acetate and (EE)-7,11-hexadecadiene-1-ol-acetate (1:1) Spodoptera litura (Z,E) 9, 11 tetra decadienyl acetate and (Z,E) 9, 12 tetra decadienyl acetate (10:1)

Chemical constituents:

Chemical constituents Scirpophaga incertulas (Z)-9-hexadecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal (1:3) Sesamia inferens (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol and (Z)-11-hexadecenal (4:1:0.1)

Chemical constituents:

Chemical constituents Mythimna separata (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z)-11-hexadecenal-1-ol(8:1) Agrotis ypsilon (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (3:1:15)

Chemical constituents:

Chemical constituents Sitotroga cerealella (Z,E)-7,11-hexadecediene 1-ol-acetate Plodia interpunctella (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecediene 1-ol-acetate (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecediene 1-ol

Chemical constituents:

Chemical constituents Sitophilus oryzae (R,5)-4-methyle-5-hydroxy 3-heptanone Rhyzopertha dominica 1-methylbutyl(e)-2methyl-2-pentenoate1-methyl butyl (e)-2,4-dimethyl-22-pentenoate

Fly water trap :

Fly water trap

Plastic moth trap:

Plastic moth trap

Funnel trap :

Funnel trap

Sleeve trap:

Sleeve trap

Sleeve trap:

Sleeve trap

Delta trap :

Delta trap

Liquibaitor fruitfly trap :

Liquibaitor fruitfly trap

Use of pheromones in IPM:

Use of pheromones in IPM Monitoring of insect pests Control of pest by mass trapping or male annihilation technique Control of pest by mating disruption Control by “Lure and Kill” method

Monitoring of insect pests --- orchards:

Monitoring of insect pests --- orchards Codling moth USA, Europe, Asia, Australia Summer fruit tortrix Europe Plum fruit tortrix Europe Oriental fruit moth USA, Europe, Australia, S.Africa Grape moth Europe, USA Olive moth Spain, Greece, Itly Olive fly Spain, Greece, Itly Mediterranean fruit fly Worldwide Oriental fruit fly Worldwide Melon fly Worldwide California red scale USA, Israel Yellow scale USA San Jose Scale USA

Monitoring of insect pests --- forest pests:

Monitoring of insect pests --- forest pests Spruce budworm Canada Gypsy moth Canada, USA Pine beauty moth UK Leopard moth Europe, Israel South pine beetle USA Spruce pine beetle USA Ambrosia beetle USA Spruce bark beetle Europe Pine beetle Europe

Monitoring of insect pests --- field crop pests:

Monitoring of insect pests --- field crop pests Pea moth UK, Europe Diamond back moth USA, Europe, India, SE Asia Pink bollworm USA, Peru, Israel, Egypt, India, Pakistan Tobacco budworm USA Corn earworm USA American bollworm India, Egypt, Pakistan, Australia Spiny bollworm Egypt, India, Pakistan Spotted bollworm India, Pakistan Tobacco caterpillar India, Japan Boll weevil USA Sweet potato weevil USA Fruit fly India Brinjal fruit & shoot borer India Sugarcane early shoot borer India Rice yellow stem borer India, Pakistan, Bangladesh

Monitoring of insect pests --- storage and household pests:

Monitoring of insect pests --- storage and household pests Warehouse moth Indian meal moth Grain moth Maize weevil Rice weevil Lesser grain borer Larger grain borer Dermestid beetle Rust red flour beetle Cigarette beetle Saw toothed grain beetle Cockroaches House fly

Control of pest by mass trapping or male annihilation technique :

Control of pest by mass trapping or male annihilation technique Spruce bark beetle , Ips typographus in forest(Scandinavia) Fir beetle , Dendroctomus sp.in forest(USA,Canada) Boll weevil , Anthonomus grandis in cotton(USA) Palm weevil , Rhynchophorus palmarum in oil palm(Costa Rica) Japanese beetle , Popillia japonica in turf grass(USA) Olive fly , Dacus oleae in olives(spain, Greece) Housefly , Musca domestica in household(worldwide) Cockroaches , Blatella germanica, Periplaneta Americana in household(worldwide) Gypsy moth , Lymantria dispar in forest(USA, Canada) Coco pod borer , Conopomorpha cramerella in cocoa(Malayasia) Beet army worm, Spodoptera litura in vegetables(Japan) Yellow stem borer , Scirpophaga incertulas in rice(India)

Control of pest by mating disruption:

Control of pest by mating disruption Pink bollworm , Pectinophora gossypiella in cotton(USA) Grape moth in grapes (Germany, France, Spain, Italy) Oriental fruit moth , Grapholitha molesta in peaches (Australia, France, Italy, S.Africa, USA) Codling moth, Laspeyresis pomonella in apples (Switzerland, Germany, USA, Australia) Rice stem bore , Chilo suppressalis in rice (Spain) Tomato pinworm , Keifera lycopersicella in tomatoes(USA, Mexico) Articoke plume moth , Platyptilia carduidactyla in artichokes(USA) Tea tortrix , Homona magnanima , Adoxophytse spp. in tea(Japan) Tree borer , Synathethedon spp. in apricots(Japan )

Control using the “Lure and Kill” method:

Control using the “Lure and Kill” method Pectinophora gossypiella in cotton(USA, Egypt) Housefly , Musca domestica in household (worldwide) Olive fly , Dacus oleae in olives(Greece, Spain) Mediterranean fruitfly , Ciratitis capitata in soft fruits (Hawaii, USA, Japan, Greece, Spain)

A case study:

A case study Management of yellow stem borer of rice through pheromone mediated mass trapping of male

PowerPoint Presentation:

Different stages of Yellow Stem Borer Female Egg mass Larva White head White head

PowerPoint Presentation:

White heads

White heads(%) in insecticide-treated plots of Pant Dhan 12 :

White heads(%) in insecticide-treated plots of Pant Dhan 12 Chlorpyriphos Chlorpyriphos 1000+500 Cartap 800+300 Fipronil 75+50 CFN 750+ MC400 UT Rs.1450/ha Rs.2150/ha Rs.2850/ha Rs.1772/ha Rs.2334/ha Rs.2896/ha Rs.3115/ha Rs.4055/ha Rs.4995/ha Rs.1904/ha Rs.0000/ha All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project: Pantnagar Center

Dead hearts and white heads(%) in Basmati rice installed with pheromone traps (CRC 01):

Dead hearts and white heads(%) in Basmati rice installed with pheromone traps (CRC 01) August 2001 September 01 October 2001 Rs. 600/ha Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar

Dead hearts and white heads(%) in Basmati rice installed with pheromone traps (CRC 02):

Dead hearts and white heads(%) in Basmati rice installed with pheromone traps (CRC 02) August 02 September 02 October 2002 Rs. 700/ha Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar

White heads(%) in Basmati rice installed with pheromone traps (Pratappur):

White heads(%) in Basmati rice installed with pheromone traps (Pratappur) Rs. 600/ha only Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar

Dead hearts and white heads(%) in rice installed with pheromone trap (Univ.Farm):

Dead hearts and white heads(%) in rice installed with pheromone trap (Univ.Farm) Rs. 600/ha only Basmati 1 Pant Dhan 4 Ratna Ratna Pusa 44 Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar

Cost of different protection measures:

Cost of different protection measures Protection Measures Cost of Protection (Rs./ha) Insecticide application 1 Granule + 2-3 spray 2000-5000 Trichocard @ 2 lakh/ha for 6 wks (Rs.50/20000 ) 3000 Pheromone trap @ 20/ha (Rs.30-35/trap) 600-750 Frontline Demonstrations by GBPUAT, Pantnagar

Male annihilation technique:

Male annihilation technique Rate : 20 traps/ha Lure : 3,5 & 10mg Lure effect 3mg-3 week 5mg-1 month 10mg- Full season Installation : Row 25X20 Height : 50cm…….100cm

To ensure the effectiveness…:

To ensure the effectiveness… Ascertain the quality of lure Ascertain the quantity of pheromone Install the trap at right time Endemic pockets: with in 1-2 weeks Others: after monitoring Install the trap at straight stick/log Maintain proper distance between traps Maintain proper height of the traps

To ensure the effectiveness…:

To ensure the effectiveness… Take care of the polythene sleeve puncture lower end tie lower end to log replace damaged sleeve Relocate the traps displaced in bad weather Replace lure timely

Effectiveness of different protection measures:

Effectiveness of different protection measures Parameters Chemical control Biological control Pheromone trap Spectrum Broad Specific Specific Efficacy to YSB High Low due to heavy mortality, poor searching capacity, partial parasitization High Verification Easy Difficult Easy

Effectiveness of different protection measures:

Effectiveness of different protection measures Parameters Chemical control Biological control Pheromone trap Application Granular-easy Spray-difficult Very difficult 200 spots/ha - 6 times Very easy 20 spots/ha - 2 times Plant damage Very high - whole field Very high 200 spots/ha Very low - on bunds Acceptability due to pt. damage Very low in latter stage of crop Very low in latter stage of crop High due to low plant damage

Effectiveness of different protection measures:

Effectiveness of different protection measures Parameters Chemical control Biological control Pheromone trap Shelf life Longer 2-3 days Longer Transport Easy, less expensive Difficult, more expensive Easy, less expensive Labor involvement Low Very high Very low Reusability Used only once Used only one 2-3 times at half price

Effectiveness of different protection measures:

Effectiveness of different protection measures Parameters Chemical control Biological control Pheromone trap Compatibility Low with biological control Low with chemical control Compatible with all methods Health hazards Very high Nil Nil Environmental hazards Very high Nil Nil

Management of yellow stem borer through pheromone mediated mass trapping of male:

Management of yellow stem borer through pheromone mediated mass trapping of male Highly effective Most eco-friendly Cheapest Best

PowerPoint Presentation:

THANKS