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SUHU dan KALOR KELOMPOK 2 Nama : Ani Revani Kartika Cesar.D . SMA NEGERI 1 MAKASSAR Kelas X.3

Temperature: 

Temperature is the degree of urbanization of hot and cold state of an object and the instrument used to measure temperature is the thermometer. In the daily life of the community to measure the temperature tends to use the sense of touch. But with the development of the technology were created thermometer to measure temperature with a valid . Other types of thermometers include bimetal thermometers,resistance thermometers, thermocouples,gas thermometers ,and pyrometers. Thermometer calibration is the activity of determining the scale of a non-scaled thermometer.The reference fot a thermometer is called a fixed point.There are two fixed points,namely un upper fixed point and a lower fixed point. The Lower fixed is the melting point of pure ice and is assigned the number 0. The upper fixed point is the temperature of vapor above water that is boiling at a pressure of 1 atm and is assigned the number 100. The temperature scale determined based on the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water is called the Celsius scale. Temperature

THE KELVIN SCALE: 

THE KELVIN SCALE Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic of the particles inside an object. The first scientist to purpose meansurement based on the absolute zero temperature was an English physicist named Lord Kelvin (1824-1907). The temperature scale that he proposed is called the Kelvin scale. Temperature on the Kelvin scale are meansured in a unit called kelvin , denoted by K (not K).

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The relationship between the Celsius scale and the Kelvin scale can be the following equation : T= t + 273 The Fahrenheit Scale In the Fahrenheit scale the melting point of ice is given a value of 32 and the boiling point of water a value of 212.This scale is named after the scientist who first devised it,a German physicist named Gabriel Fahrenheit(1686-1736) The ralitionship between the Fahreneheit scale and the Celcius scale is shown . Δ F: Δ C=180 :100 ΔF: Δ C=9:5 (tF-32): tC =9:5

Expansion: 

Expansion Expansion is increasing the size of an object because the influence of temperature changes or increase the size of an object because it receives heat. Expansion of the substance there are 3 types of gas expansion is long (for one demensi ), expansion area (two dimensions) and the expansion volume (for three-dimensional). While in the liquid and gas substances occurs only volume expansion alone, especially at the gas substances are usually taken koofisien value volume expansion equal to 1 / 273 . Long expansionis is increasing the length of an object for receiving heat. In the long expansion of the width and thickness value is very small compared with the long value of the object. So broad and thick, did not exist. Examples of objects that only have a long expansion is just a small wire so long.Length expansion of an object is influenced by several factors namely the early long object, long expansion coefficient and large temperature changes. Coefficient of length expansion of an object itself influenced by the type of object or type of material.

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When a shaft at a certain temperature the length of Lo, if the temperature is increased by Δ t, then the stem length will increase by Δ L can be formulated as follows: expansion coefficient α = length = coefficient of linear expansion defined as: The number that shows how many inches or feet long, each increased 1 cm or 1 m of a trunk if the temperature is raised 1 degree C . So, long expansion coefficient of a substance may vary, depending on the type of the molecule . Length expansion: Δl = α Lo Δt Lt=final length of object T=final temperature of object(°C or K) To=initial temperature of object(°C or K)

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object Expansion is increase the square footage of a body for receiving heat. Extensive expansion occurs in the body that has the length and width, while the thickness is very small and did not exist. Examples of objects that have a broad expansion of the steel plate was wide and thin. Like the vast pemuian factors affecting broad expansion is the area early, broad expansion coefficient, and temperature changes. Because actually it is a vast expansion of long pemuian terms of two-dimensional area of the expansion coefficient equal to 2 times the long expansion coefficient. At the college will be discussed how the formulation so obtained that broad expansion coefficient equal to 2 times the long expansion coefficient . ΔA=β Ao Δt Where ΔA=A- Ao =area increase(m²) A=final area of object(m²)

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Volume Expansion is increase the size of the volume of an object due to receive heat. Volume expansion occurs objects have length, width and thickness. Examples of objects that have volume expansion is a cube, water and air. Volume is another form of the length in 3 dimensions therefore to determine the volume expansion coefficient equal to 3 times the long expansion coefficient . The equation used to determine the increase in volume and final volume of a body is not much different from the formulation before. It’s just different on the coat of arms alone . ΔV=ɤ Vo Δ T Where ΔV=V-Vo V=final volume of object

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Formulation is: Quantification EXPANSION Providing heat in a substance other than to raise or lower the temperature of the substance, can also change the form of a substance, or cause the body to be EXPANSION. Generally all substances expand when he experienced a temperature increase, except for a few substances that have shrinkage during temperature increase, at a certain temperature interval. Genesis depreciation substances form when the body temperature increase is an anomaly, as occurs in the water. Water when heated from a temperature of 0 ° C to 4 ° C it decreases its volume, and only when the temperature is greater than 4 ° C volume enlarged.

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1. When water changes form the water temperature change NO. 2. Meanwhile, when the water temperature change of water is NOT being changed. This is because we know the two types of formulas to calculate the amount of heat energy. Heat energy is denoted by the letter Q with units of joules (J). Q = M. C. Δ T ( digunakan untuk menghitung energi kalor pada fase kenaikan suhu ) (used to calculate the heat energy in the temperature rise phase) ket : M = Mass ( Kg ) C = Heat Type( J/ KgC ) Δ T = Temperature Change ( C )

Heat: 

Heat Heat is a form of energy received by an object that causes the body to change the temperature or the form shape. Different heating temperatures, since temperature is the size in units of degrees of heat. Heat is a quantity or amount of heat either absorbed or released by an object. 1 Kal equal to the amount of heat required to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius rise . Heat from the history of the origin of the word caloric found by a French chemist named Antonnie Laurent lavoiser (1743 to 1794). Heat has units of calories (cal) and kilocalories ( kcals ).

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Basic Theory of Heat: 1. Heat received equal (=) Heat released: principle / principles of Black - Inventors are Joseph Black (1720 – 1799) from England. 2. Heat can be the result of a friction - Inventor was Benjamin Thompson (1753 – 1814) from the United States 3. Heat is one form of energy - Discovered by Robert Mayer (1814 – 1878) 4. Equality between heat units and units of mechanical energy is called heat. - Initiated by James Prescott (1818 – 1889 ) Type heat is the number of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. The instrument used to determine the type of heat is the calorimeter . Q = M. L (used to calculate the heat energy in the form of phase change) ket : M = Mass ( Kg ) L = Latent Heat ( J/Kg )

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Latent heat is heat that is used to change the form of a substance. Latent Heat of two kinds of Q = Q = m.U and m.L . With U is the heat of steam (J / kg) and L is the melting heat (J / kg ).

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