Hydroelectric power plant.

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a complete over view of Hyhdroelectric power plant

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HYDRO POWER PLANT PRESENTED BY UMAIR ALTAF Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT:

HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Principal of hydro power plant :

Principal of hydro power plant The objective of a hydropower scheme is to convert the potential energy of a mass of water, flowing in a stream with a certain fall to the turbine (termed the "head"), into electrical energy at the lower end of the scheme, where the powerhouse is located. The power output from the scheme is proportional to the flow and to the head. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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A SIMPLE OVER VIEW Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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BLOCK DIAGRAM DAM TURBINE POWER HOUSE INTAKE GENERATOR PENSTOCK RESEVOIR POWER LINE TRANSFORMER Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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ELEMENTS OF HYDRO POWER Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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FIRST ELEMENT :- DAMS Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

The movement of water can be used to make electricity. Energy from water is created by the force of water moving from a higher elevation to a lower elevation through a large pipe (penstock). When the water reaches the end of the pipe, it hits and spins a water wheel or turbine. The turbine rotates the connected shaft, which then turns the generator, making electricity. :

The movement of water can be used to make electricity. Energy from water is created by the force of water moving from a higher elevation to a lower elevation through a large pipe (penstock). When the water reaches the end of the pipe, it hits and spins a water wheel or turbine. The turbine rotates the connected shaft, which then turns the generator, making electricity. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

A dam failure can have sever effects downstream of the dam. During the lifetime of a dam different flow conditions will be experienced and a dam must be able to safely accommodate high floods that can exceed normal flow conditions in the river. For this reason, carefully passages are corporated in the dams as part of structure. These passages are known as spillways.:

A dam failure can have sever effects downstream of the dam. During the lifetime of a dam different flow conditions will be experienced and a dam must be able to safely accommodate high floods that can exceed normal flow conditions in the river. For this reason, carefully passages are corporated in the dams as part of structure. These passages are known as spillways. What are Spill ways? Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

2nd ELEMENT:- INTAKE:

2 nd ELEMENT:- INTAKE Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

A water intake must be able to divert the required amount of water in to a power canal or into a penstock without producing a negative impact on the local environment. :

A water intake must be able to divert the required amount of water in to a power canal or into a penstock without producing a negative impact on the local environment. INTAKE:- Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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3rd ELEMENT:- PENSTOCK Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

PENSTOCK:

PENSTOCK conveying water from the intake to the power house. Of concrete in low heads Of steel iis suitable for all heads Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Penstock has: :

Penstock has: Automatic butterfly valve shuts off water flow if pen stock ruptures. Air valve internal pressure = atm pressure Surge Tank reducing water hammering in pipes which can cause damage to pipes. thereby regulating water flow and pressure inside the penstock. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

TRASH RACK:

TRASH RACK cleaning machine, which removes debris from water In order to save water ways and electromechanical equipment from any damage. Set steel bars on edge to the flow of water and space about 1“ apart A head gate or valve should be installed below the trash rack to control flow and to allow the turbine to be inspected and repaired. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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TRASH RACK Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

4th ELEMENT TURBINES:

4 th ELEMENT TURBINES Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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its function is to convert the K.E of moving water into mechanical energy The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

WICKETS GATE:

WICKETS GATE key component in hydroelectric turbines that control the flow of water from the input pipes ( Penstock ) to the turbine propellers/blades. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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5TH ELEMENT GENERATOR Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

BASIC PRINCIPAL:

BASIC PRINCIPAL Heart of the hydroelectric . The basic process is to rotate a series of gaint magnets inside coils of wire. This process moves electrons, which produces electrical current. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

INSIDE THE GENERATOR:-:

INSIDE THE GENERATOR:- 1. Shaft 2. Excitor 3. Rotor 4. Stator Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Principle :

Principle As the turbine turns, the excitor sends an electrical current to the rotor. The rotor is a series of large electromagnets that spins inside a tightly-wound coil of copper wire, called the stator. The magnetic field between the coil and the magnets creates an electric current. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

6TH ELEMENT:- TRANSFORMERS:

6 TH ELEMENT:- TRANSFORMERS Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

transformer:

transformer Its function is to step up the voltage and pass it out to the electrical grid or power house Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

7TH ELEMENT OUTFLOW / TAILRACE:- :

7 TH ELEMENT OUTFLOW / TAILRACE:- After passing through the turbine the water returns to the river trough a short canal called a tailrace. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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8TH ELEMENT POWER HOUSE:- Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

POWER HOUSE AND EQUIPMENTS:- In the scheme of hydropower the role of power house is to protect the electromechanical equipment that convert the potential energy of water into electricity. Following are the equipments of power plant: 1.Valve 5.Condensor 2.Turbine 6.Protection System 3.Generator 7.DC emergency Supply 4.Control System 8.Power and current transformer :

POWER HOUSE AND EQUIPMENTS:- In the scheme of hydropower the role of power house is to protect the electromechanical equipment that convert the potential energy of water into electricity. Following are the equipments of power plant: 1.Valve 5.Condensor 2.Turbine 6.Protection System 3.Generator 7.DC emergency Supply 4.Control System 8.Power and current transformer Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Head gate:

Head gate Controlling the water flowing into the channel. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

TYPES OF DAMS ON PRODUCTION BASIS:

TYPES OF DAMS ON PRODUCTION BASIS Pico hydroelectric plant Up to 10kW, remote areas away from the grid Micro hydroelectric plant Capacity 10kW to 300kW, usually provided power for small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid Small hydroelectric plant Capacity 300kW to 1MW Mini hydroelectric plant Capacity above 1MW Medium hydroelectric plant 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid Large hydroelectric plant More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Sizes of Hydropower Plants:

Sizes of Hydropower Plants Pico hydroelectric plant Up to 10kW, remote areas away from the grid Micro hydroelectric plant Capacity 10kW to 300kW, usually provided power for small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid Small hydroelectric plant Capacity 300kW to 1MW Mini hydroelectric plant Capacity above 1MW Medium hydroelectric plant 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid Large hydroelectric plant More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

TYPES OF DAMS ON SIZE BASIS:

TYPES OF DAMS ON SIZE BASIS Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Pico hydroelectric plant :

Pico hydroelectric plant Up to 10kW, remote areas away from the grid Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Micro hydroelectric plant :

Micro hydroelectric plant Capacity 10kW to 300kW, usually provided power for small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Small hydro electric plant :

Small hydro electric plant Capacity 300kW to 1MW Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Mini hydroelectric plant :

Mini hydroelectric plant Capacity above 1MW Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Medium hydroelectric plant :

Medium hydroelectric plant 15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Large hydroelectric plant :

Large hydroelectric plant More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

TYPES OF DAMS ON STRUCTURE BASIS:

TYPES OF DAMS ON STRUCTURE BASIS Arch Dams Gravity Dams Arch-gravity Dams Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Arch Dams:

Arch Dams Aldeadávila Dam (in Spain) Water Forces Weight Forces Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Gravity Dams:

Gravity Dams Water forces Weight Forces Guri Dam (in Venezuela) Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Arch-Gravity dams:

Arch-Gravity dams Hoover Dam ( between the U.S. States of Arizona and Nevada) Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

TYPES F DAMS ON THE HEAD LEVEL:

TYPES F DAMS ON THE HEAD LEVEL Low head hydroelectric power plants Medium head hydroelectric power plants High head hydroelectric power plants Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

HEAD:

HEAD The head is the vertical distance from the surface of the water at the dam down to the water in the stream below where the turbine is located Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Low head hydroelectric power plants :

Low head hydroelectric power plants available water head is less than 30 meters Seasonal dam lesser power producing capacity. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Medium head hydroelectric power plants :

Medium head hydroelectric power plants Water head is more than 30 meters but less than 300 meters located in the mountainous regions where the rivers flows at high heights large reservoir of water Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

High head hydroelectric power plants :

High head hydroelectric power plants 300 meters and it can extend even up to 1000 meters most commonly constructed hydroelectric power plants Water is mainly stored during the rainy seasons and it can be used throughout the year.thus it can generate electricity throughout the year very important in the national grid because they can be adjusted easily to produce the power as per the required loads. total height of the dam depends upon a number of factors like quantity of available water, power to be generated, surrounding areas, natural ecosystem etc. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

turbi:

turbi Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

TURBINES:

TURBINES Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

IMPULSE TURBINES:

IMPULSE TURBINES Uses only the velocity of the water to move the runner and discharges to atmospheric pressure. The water stream hits each bucket on the runner. High head, low flow applications. Types : Pelton turbine, Turgo turbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Pelton Turbine:

Pelton Turbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Turgo Turbine:

Turgo Turbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Reaction Turbines:

Reaction Turbines Combined action of pressure and moving water. Runner placed directly in the water stream flowing over the blades rather than striking each individually. Lower head and higher flows than compared with the impulse turbines. Types: Francis Turbine, Kaplan Turbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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most common type of turbine for hydropower plants which looks like a big disc with curved blades Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Francis Turbine:

Francis Turbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Water flows radially inward and changes to a downward direction while passing through the runner. As water passes over the rotating blades of runner both pressure and velocity reduced. This causes a reaction force which drives the turbine. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Francis tutrbine:

Francis tutrbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Kaplan Turbine:

Kaplan Turbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Receives water axially water flows radially inwards through wicket gates all around the sides this causes a reaction force which drives the turbine Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

kaplan turbine :

kaplan turbine The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine that has adjustable [pitch] blades. Its invention allows efficient power production in low head applications Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Where is the best place for a HEP station?:

Where is the best place for a HEP station? The best place for a hydro-electric power station is up in the mountains.This is because it doesn’t get too hot so the water doesn’t evaporate and stays in the dam.Also there is a lot of rain in the mountains ensuring the reservoir is always full.The land also needs to be impermeable so that the water doesn’t infiltrate through the rocks below. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Advantages of HEP:

Advantages of HEP Once the dam is built,the energy is virtually free Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand much more reliable than wind,solar or wave power No waste or pollution produced Electricity can be generated constantly Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly unlike other power stations Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Disadvantages of HEP:

Disadvantages of HEP The dams are very expensive to build,however many dams are also used for flood control or irrigation,so building costs can be shared Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream,causing problems for animals that used to live there Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on residents and the environment may be unacceptable. Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on plant life. Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Condition of water resource in world:

Condition of water resource in world Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

The most obvious impact of hydro-power :

The most obvious impact of hydro-power The dams effects Flooding of vast areas of land Dams can facilitate the development of diseases Cumuli silt Destructive failure Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Flooding of vast areas of land:

Flooding of vast areas of land Flooded homeland Immigrant Destroyed rare ecosystems Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Dams can facilitate the development of diseases:

Dams can facilitate the development of diseases Reservoir Bacteria Fish people Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Cumuli silt:

Cumuli silt Reducing the amount of water which can be stored and used for electrical generation Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

Destructive failure:

Destructive failure Engr. UMAIR ALTAF

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