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1 by Rev. Bro. Bancha Saenghiran, f.s.g., Ph.D. Queen Sirikit National Convention Center Thursday, Nov.29,2007 13.00-15.00 hrs. The Significant Challenges Facing The International Education Industry in Thailand

PowerPoint Presentation:

2 Total Population: 3.9 billion 728 million 298 million Population structures in 2005 (Drawn to Scale) Source: World Population Prospects, UN Females Males 0 600000 400000 200000 600000 200000 400000 0-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 =85 ASIA EASTERN & WESTERN EUROPE UNITED STATES

Why the Interest in International Expansion?:

3 Why the Interest in International Expansion? Latin America: By 2010: Chile’s enrollments (double from 570K in 2003 to 1MM Brazil grown from 1.9 MM t0 4.7 MM in the last 9 years will end the decade with 6MM Mexico will grow from 2.2MM to 3MM Asia: By 2020: (for 18 – 22 years old) China: grow from 3% to 20% (240MM students) India: grow from 4% to 8% (11MM students) Malaysia: grow from 14% to 40% (8.3 MM students) Source: Larrian Val, Ideal Invest, SEP, U.S. Census Bureau, World Bank, Govt. of Hong Kong

Leading to………:

4 Leading to……… Global Challenges: Large youthful populations Facing similar challenges globally as DEMAND exceeds SUPPLY especially in the limited public system capacity constraints Opportunities to exploit the scalable education enterprises to alleviate: Capacity constraints Effective and affordable education to a Mass market to improve career opportunities and national productivity Decline in Brain Drain Increase in outsourcing capacity

Stages of Globalization:

5 Stages of Globalization 1. Flows of Capital and Goods 2. The Age of Mobility 3. Sharing in the World's Prosperity Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary General, Bangkok Post, July 11, 2007

Signs of Internationalization:

6 Signs of Internationalization 1. Student mobility 2. Greater mobility of labor 3. International standardization of expectations 4. Distance education 5. Other forms of cross border education 6. Quality audit and assessment etc.

Importance of Internationalization:

7 Therefore, internationalization is important in order to ensure further growth, development and reputation, meet rapidly increasing demand for international education, add value to the educational experiences of domestic students, produce graduates with global understanding, skill and imagination, enhance reputation for contemporary relevance and quality and foster international relationships and inter-cultural understanding ... (Reeve, 2001, p.1) Importance of Internationalization

Urgency of Internationalization of Education:

8 Urgency of Internationalization of Education Economic globalization leads to frequent flow of commodity, service, capital, technology and information across national borders Interdependence, interaction,mutual stimulation, mutual influence Achieve compatibility to facilitate mutual recognition Equip students with a global perspective to prepare them for international competition

Purposes of Internationalization on Education:

9 Purposes of Internationalization on Education 1. Personnel development 2. Improvement of standards and quality of institutions or to strengthen the institutions 3. Market share 4. Higher income

Reasons for Internationalization:

10 Reasons for Internationalization Increase student and faculty international knowledge capacity and production (22%) Strengthen research and knowledge capacity and production (21%) Create international profile and reputation (18%) Contribute to academic quality (14%) Broaden and diversify source of faculty and students (13%) Promote curriculum development and innovation (8%) Source: “Internationalization of HE: New directions and New Challenges” IAU, 2006

Actual Reasons for Adopting Internationalization:

11 Actual Reasons for Adopting Internationalization To accommodate the students’ need to gain advanced knowledge and foreign language skills for their successful careers (92.8%); to enhance institutional reputation (87.9%); to recruit students with better qualifications (87.9%); to enhance students’ understanding of other cultures (85.9%); to receive better evaluations from the national government (78.9%); and to attract more international students (70.0%). Source: “Korea’s Internationalization of Higher Education: Process, Challenge and Strategy” by Eun Young Kim, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Sheena Choi, Indiana University – Purdue University Ft Wayne

Benefits of Internationalization:

12 Benefits of Internationalization More internationally oriented students and staff Improved academic quality Increased revenue generation Opportunities for brain gain Greater international understanding and solidarity Innovations in curriculum, teaching and research Foster “national and international” citizenship Source: “Internationalization of HE: New Directions and New Challenges”, IAU 2006

Risk of Internationalization:

13 Risk of Internationalization Homogenization of curriculum Loss of cultural or national identity Jeopardize quality of education Growing elitism in access to international education opportunities Overuse of English as a medium of instruction Commodification and commercialization of education programs Source: “Internationalization of HE: New Directions and New Challenges”, IAU 2006

Definitions of Internationalization of Education:

14 Definitions of Internationalization of Education 1. It can be described as “integration of culture into teaching methods & processes by which education becomes more internationally oriented.” 2. It can be the “process that prepares the community for successful participation in an increasingly independent world, fosters global understanding and develop skills for effective living, working in a diverse world.” (Kate Francis, et al.)

Definitions of Internationalization of Education:

15 3. “The process entails integrating an international dimension into all areas of research, teaching, and service” (Knight, 1997) 4. “A process of integrating an international focus into the entire curriculum rather than relegating international issues to special topics or other peripheral activities.” ( Groenning and Wiley, 1990 ) Definitions of Internationalization of Education

Transnational education :

16 Transnational education “All types of higher education programs, or sets of courses of study, or educational services (including those of distance education) in which the learners are located in a country different from the one where the awarding institution is based.” UNESCO

Three common terms:

17 Three common terms “internationalization of education” as the most comprehensive “cross border education” as a subset of “internationalization of education”, and “trade in education services” as an instance of cross border education. Source: Knight (2004)

An emerging consensus 1/2 :

18 An emerging consensus 1/2 Consensus at the ‘grass roots’ surrounding a range of conceptual issues (Source: Koutsantoni, 2006a;Caruana and Hanstock 2005; Lunn, 2006; De Vita, 2003; Killick, 2006; Haigh, 2005; HE Academy, 2006; Caruana and Hanstock, 2003; Maxey, 2006; Bennell 2005; Shiel 2006): The need to re-create globalisation in the form of social practices that confront homogenisation Recognition that internationalisation is about more than simply the presence of international students on campuses and sending students overseas

An emerging consensus 2/2 :

19 An emerging consensus 2/2 Recognition that internationalisation is a long term process of ‘becoming international’ or developing a willingness to teach and learn from other nations and cultures as distinct from traditional definitions of ‘involving more than one country’ Awareness that internationalisation entails a shift in thinking and attitudes which in itself suggests common territory between this and other agenda Awareness that internationalisation in the context of higher learning and pedagogy has social, cultural, moral and ethical dimensions that both transcend the narrow economic focus and establish a synergy with other agenda

PowerPoint Presentation:

20 Means of Internationalization Universities market their courses "with an international orientation in content, aimed at preparing students for performing in an international and multicultural content."

Components of the Internationalization of Education 1/2:

21 Components of the Internationalization of Education 1/2 1. The Internal Component - Curriculum - Issues for presentation and debates - Internal resources - Incorporation of these resources into the principal activities 2. The Imported Component - To bring foreign peoples and ideas to the campus - A systematic and formal way for student to interact with visitors must be established

PowerPoint Presentation:

22 Components of the Internationalization of Education 2/2 3. The Exported Component - Students are exported to another country to learn the innuendos and complexities of another culture through personal contact and daily interaction

An evolutionary and sequential build-up in foreign commitments overtime:

23 An evolutionary and sequential build-up in foreign commitments overtime In 1970s : the incremental development approach to internationalization. 2. In the 1980s and 1990s : A contingency perspective - to enter foreign market depending on its capabilities 3. In 2000s : Increase levels of competition within global markets

Three Waves of Internationalization in Education:

24 Three Waves of Internationalization in Education 1. Students traveling to a host nation to study 2. Institutions establishing a presence in international markets 3. The creation of branch campuses in foreign markets, and the development of “on-line” delivery of courses through ICT.

Four factors influencing the growth 1/2:

25 Four factors influencing the growth 1/2 1. The globalization of many businesses has created the need for those businesses to link with international education experiences via an international network. 2. The demands for broader cultural experience and language training have been increasing.

Four factors influencing the growth 2/2:

26 3. The growth of expert knowledge has created an opportunity for international HEIs. 4. Finally, an increase of income levels in some developing countries has stimulated the demand for international HE service. Four factors influencing the growth 2/2

Background of IE in Thailand:

27 Background of IE in Thailand 1. In the past, leaders of the country and people in positions had their education outside the country. 2. Foreigners entered Thailand: They brought along with them their families for various reasons. 3. In 2000, there was ministerial meeting... - permitting to increase number of international schools, - exemption of foreign teachers in knowledge of Thai language. - lifting the ceiling of school fees and other fees.

PowerPoint Presentation:

28 The policy on Internationalization of Thai HE was emphasized under the long-range plan of HE (1990-2004) and the 7 th National HE Plan (1992-1996). Measures and guidelines were formulated for internationalization of Thai HE and encourage Thai HE institutions to play more roles in the international academic community and to open up to the world. Background ...

External pressures on Thailand: Economic and Political changes:

29 External pressures on Thailand: Economic and Political changes HE link to globalization ( international trend) Economic globalization intensified competitions in labor, trades, and financial markets Neo-liberal ideology – manifested in the policies discourses of international organizations such as WTO, OECD, and APEC. Need to develop skilled-labor, high-tech, and capital investment all of which require quality higher education General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS) resulting from finalization of Uruguay Round (UR) added pressure on opening the Thai domestic market, especially in sectors like education, services and agriculture.

Internal Challenges for Thai Higher Education:

30 Internal Challenges for Thai Higher Education Rapid expansion since 1990 (paralleled economic development and the popular demand for HE) Traditional importer of HE (coupled with GATS launching education market opening—foreign academic institutions, eg. Training, distance learning (Altbach 2001) Increased Student Mobility Faculty – traditionally free from the pressure of conducting and publishing research (reinforces the sense of faculty negligence in knowledge production, leading some to attribute this to the lower educational quality) Stake-holder demand HE to be more responsive to labor market demand

Internationalization in Thailand:

31 Internationalization in Thailand 1. Expansion of International schools. 2. Expansion of international programs in HE. 3. Curricular improvement, adaptation, and creation to suit in alignment with 4. The use of foreign languages and technology have been emphasized. 5. Standards and quality assurance system have been implemented. the changes in the world.

Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Gender) 2003 - 2006:

32 Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Gender) 2003 - 2006 Year Male Female Total 2003 2,567 61.56 % 1,603 38.44 % 4,170 100 % 2004 2,530 58.38 % 1,804 41.62 % 4,334 100 % 2005 3,298 58.88 % 2,303 41.12 % 5,601 100 % 2006 4,693 54.99 % 3,841 45.01 % 8,534 100 %

Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Education Level) 2003 - 2006:

33 Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Education Level) 2003 - 2006 Year Certificate Bachelor Master Doctoral Graduate Diploma Others Total 2003 265 6.35 % 2,742 65.75 % 993 23.81 % 99 2.37 % - 131 3.14 % 4,170 100 % 2004 217 5.00 % 2,959 68.27 % 997 23.00 % 113 2.61 % 7 0.16 % 41 0.95 % 4,334 100 % 2005 120 2.14 % 3,902 69.66 % 1,297 23.16 % 161 2.87 % 98 1.75 % 23 0.41 % 5,601 100 % 2006 786 9.21 % 5,490 64.33 % 1,827 21.41 % 249 2.92 % 8 0.09 % 174 2.04 % 8,534 100 %

Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Institutions) 2003 - 2006:

34 Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Institutions) 2003 - 2006 No. 2003 2004 2005 2006 Institution Number Institution Number Institution Number Institution Number 1 Assumption 2,046 49.06 % Assumption 1,772 40.88 % Assumption 2,248 40.13 % Assumption 2,406 28.19 % 2 Webster 238 5.70 % Mahidol 308 7.11 % Mahidol 476 8.50 % Mahidol 734 8.60 % 3 Thammasat 201 4.82 % Thammasat 296 6.83 % Chulalongkorn 243 4.34 % Chulalongkorn 419 4.91 % 4 Chulalongkorn 188 4.50 % Webster 185 4.27 % Webster 217 3.87 % Thammasat 397 4.65 % 5 Mahidol. 184 4.41 % Stamford 168 3.88 % Kasetsart 179 3.19 % Mission 365 4.28 % 6 Stamford 182 4.36 % Kasetsart 160 3.69 % Thammasat 170 3.03 % Siam 250 2.93 % 7 Mission 149 3.57 % Mission 159 3.67 % Siam 170 3.03 % Rangsit 219 2.57 % 8 Kasetsart 136 3.26 % Chulalongkorn 153 3.53 % Rangsit 148 2.64 % Thai Chamber of Commerce 186 2.18 % 9 Rajapark 123 2.95 % Chiang Mai 152 3.51 % Chiang Mai 146 2.61 % Bangkok 177 2.07 % 10 Sukhothai Thammathirat 114 2.73 % Bangkok 139 2.48 % Bangkok 123 2.20 % Stamford 173 2.03 % 11. Others 81 Institutions 609 14.60 % Others 81 Institutions 842 19.43 % Others 81 Institutions 1,481 26.44 % Others 90 Institutions 3,208 37.59 %

Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Institutions) 2003 - 2006:

35 Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Institutions) 2003 - 2006

Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Countries) 2003 - 2006:

36 Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Countries) 2003 - 2006 No. 2003 2004 2005 2006 Country Number Country Number Country Number Country Number 1 China 1,186 28.44 % China 1,189 27.43 % China 1,615 28.83 % China 2,698 31.61 % 2 Myanmar 359 8.60 % Myanmar 346 7.98 % Myanmar 489 8.73 % Myanmar 631 7.39 % 3 India 329 7.89 % USA 331 7.64 % Laos 436 7.78 % Vietnam 599 7.02 % 4 Vietnam 304 7.29 % Vietnam 308 7.11 % Vietnam 409 7.30 % USA 521 6.10 % 5 Laos 226 5.41 % Laos 229 5.28 % Japan 307 5.48 % Laos 493 5.78 % 6 USA 203 4.87 % India 227 5.24 % USA 290 5.18 % Japan 449 5.26 % 7 Japan 161 3.86 % Japan 219 5.05 % India 246 4.39 % India 401 4.70 % 8 Taiwan 159 3.81 % Cambodia 158 3.65 % Taiwan 180 3.21 % Cambodia 364 4.27 % 9 Cambodia 128 3.07 % Taiwan 155 3.58 % Cambodia 166 2.96 % Korea 213 2.50 % 10 Bangladesh 122 2.93 % Korea 120 2.77 % Bangladesh 164 2.93 % Bangladesh 209 2.45 % 11. Others 72 Countries 993 23.81 % Others 72 Countries 1,052 24.27 % Others 72 Countries 1,299 23.19 % Others 105 Countries 1,956 22.92 %

Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Countries) 2003 - 2006:

37 Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Countries) 2003 - 2006

Number of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Fields of Study) 2003 - 2006:

38 Number of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Fields of Study) 2003 - 2006 No. 2003 2004 2005 2006 Field of Study Number Field of Study Number Field of Study Number Field of Study Number 1 Business Administration 225 5.40 % Business Administration 350 8.08 % Business Administration 279 4.98 % Business Administration 1,148 13.45 % 2 Vedic Science 123 2.95 % Marketing 230 5.31 % Marketing 267 4.77 % Thai Language 832 9.75 % 3 Information Technology 119 2.85 % Business English 135 3.11 % Thai Language 214 3.82 % Marketing 414 4.85 % 4 International Business 117 2.80 % General Management 117 2.70 % Business English 159 2.84 % International Business 241 2.82 % 5 Business English 114 2.73 % Int’l Business Management 114 2.63 % Business 134 2.39 % Thai Studies 230 2.70 % 6 Marketing 98 2.35 % International Business 106 2.45 % Business Adm. Management 130 2.32 % Business English 179 2.10 % 7 Thai Studies 75 1.80 % Information Technology 97 2.24 % Int’l Business Management 127 2.27 % Management 168 1.97 % 8 Computer Science 74 1.77 % Thai Studies 93 2.15 % Computer Science 101 1.80 % Int’l Business Management 139 1.63 % 9 Intensive Eng. Language 55 1.32 % Finance & Banking 92 2.12 % Information Technology 95 1.70 % Business 126 1.48 % 10 Topical Agriculture 52 1.25 % Hotel Management 79 1.82 % General Management 93 1.66 % Accounting 116 1.36 % 11. Others 365 Programs 3,118 74.77 % Others 365 Programs 2,921 67.40 % Others 365 Programs 4,002 71.45 % Others 398 Programs 4,941 57.90 %

Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Fields of Study) 2003 - 2006:

39 Percentage of International Students (Classified by Top 10 Fields of Study) 2003 - 2006

Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Types of Universities) 2005 - 2006:

40 Number and Percentage of International Students (Classified by Types of Universities) 2005 - 2006 Year Public University Private University Total 2005 2,200 39.28 % 3,401 60.72 % 5,601 100 % 2006 3,814 44.69 % 4,720 55.31 % 8,534 100 %

Internationalization of HE in Thailand:

41 Internationalization of HE in Thailand 1. In policy; - to promote and invest on IE in alignment with globalization 2. In practice; a) - Make a study on IE to set direction. - Promote HEIs to open international programs. - Collaborate with institutions outside. - Set standards on curricula, etc. b) Improve teaching and learning in foreign languages. c) Facilitate the entry of foreign students d) Grant scholarships to excellent foreign students. e) Collaborate with private agencies in doing market plan. f) Promote Thai art and culture in other countries

Key Challenges:

42 Key Challenges Differences are apparent concerning the depth, scope, and mode of internationalization reflected along various dimensions - curricula, course contents, modes of delivery and research Sources: Beamish, P.W., Calof, J.L. (1989), "International business education: a corporate view", Journal of International Business Studies , Vol. 20 No.3, pp.553-64. and Dunning, J.H. (1989), "The study of international business: a plea for a more inter disciplinary approach", Journal of International Business , Vol. 20 No.3, pp.411-36.

Range of new variables:

43 Range of new variables New providers and mix of providers New delivery mode, media and locations New curricular forms and content New or changing qualifications

Issues to consider:

44 Issues to consider What trends had been observed in the Thai’s and your institution’s international experience over the past few years? What are the key obstacles identified in the internationalization experience in your institution? (lack of support?, lack of interest/time?, lack of capacity?, etc. etc.?) What new institutional and individual capacity and capability needs to be created? What impacts had the government’s and other institutions’ internationalization initiatives on your own institution’s strategies?

Developing Strategies:

45 Developing Strategies Rationale/Drivers: Financial, Academic, developmental, Competitive, Collaborative Proactive or Reactive? Depth: Core (linked to mission and vision) or peripheral? Whole or part of institution? Breadth/Coverage: Narrow (focused on a particular international activity) Functional (centered mainly around activities) Inclusive (cultural, cross-cutting, holistic) Source: Middlehurst and Woodfield, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/4265.htm

Institutional Strategies:

46 Institutional Strategies Outward dimension: Targeted – particular countries, institutions, regions Scattergun/opportunistic – wide range of countries, sharing risk Niche – focus on particular market (s) Mutual Benefit – cooperation and collaboration Within institutions: Separated – limited integration between international activities Cultural – internationalizing the campus Holistic – integration into all aspects of an institution’s activities Building specialist knowledge at different levels Source: Middlehurst and Woodfield, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/4265.htm

Curricula Challenge:

47 Curricula Challenge Rely too heavily on an international mix of students and faculty to “globalize” their courses, leaving their curricula much the same in rather less depth than their traditional, easier-to-pin-down subjects (Ricks, D. 1992)  “The purpose of the curriculum shall be to provide for a broad education preparing the student for imaginative and responsible citizenship and leadership roles in business and society - domestic and worldwide” (Vicere, A.A., Freeman, V.T. 1990)

Curricula Change:

48 Curricula Change V ariety of ways of internationalizing curricular contents in terms of content have taken different forms, e.g.: introduction of new courses in international aspects of functional areas; making an introductory course in international business required; and using material which is more tuned to intercultural business environments.

Research change:

49 Research change Refocusing the scope of research enquiries in respective disciplines so as to examine culture, practices and behavior in other countries, or companies in foreign countries. Both country-specific and company-specific studies (or comparative studies of both) will come under this area (Mintzberg, H.,1990; Thakur, M.and Vozikis, G.,1990)

Traditional patterns of internationalization :

50 Traditional patterns of internationalization Some of these traditional patterns of internationalization that could still be explored are: joint ventures between two schools in two countries; educational networks; diversification of faculty and students; globalized multidisciplinary action projects; and international faculty exchanges.

Challenges in modes of delivering internationalization:

51 Challenges in modes of delivering internationalization Various modes of delivery of internationalized education include: international cases (Edge, A. and Keys, B.,1990; Klein, R.D., et.al., 1993) simulation exercises (Tashakori, A. and Dotson, M.,1989; Adler, N.,1986; White, J.B., 1992) study-abroad programs (Nehrt, L.C.,1987; Shooshtari, N.H. and Fleming, M.J.,1990), international internships

Challenges in Internationalization Potpourri Mix :

52 Challenges in Internationalization Potpourri Mix Non-collaborative, transnational, public and fee based but not-for-profit Non-collaborative, transnational, private and for-profit Collaborative, transnational, public and fee based but not-for-profit Collaborative, transnational, private and for-profit Transnational public-private partnership

Transnational education challenges:

53 Transnational education challenges Sustainable university – sustainable development – East/West perspective Inform national development policies and priorities Give guidance towards a development orientation in universities Particularity of East – distinction within the concept of the East

Institutional Challenges to Internationalization:

54 Institutional Challenges to Internationalization Four major approaches to internationalization: Activity; Curricular development, faculty and students exchange programs, and joint research Rationale; Mainly concerned with the purpose of internationalization (i. e. peace education, education for international understanding, and technical assistance) Competency; Develop new skills, attitudes, and knowledge in students, faculty, and staff Process Integrates an international dimension/perspective into the major functions of the institution (De Wit 2003)

International QA System Challenge:

55 International QA System Challenge Strengthening of existing national quality assurance agencies (a) to stimulate international cooperation and (b) to accommodate challenges generated by transnational education and trade in education services; Cooperation and networking in cross-border projects on quality assessments and mutual recognition agreements; Implementation of a framework and standard of meta-accreditation of quality assurance agencies on an international and global level; and Development of international QA schemes

Conclusion:

56 Conclusion Internationalization as a means to achieve the goal of “world-class universities” Competition or Co-petition (collaboration with competitors) as regional education hubs Different roles of government played in internationalization Different means of internationalizing university education

Implications:

57 Implications 1. The internationalization of education services appears to be developing in the same general pattern that has been found in other industries 2. Education institutions that do not move beyond the "first wave" may not fail, but will need to differentiate themselves to remain attractive to students who can undertake high quality, foreign supply courses in their home country. Institutions that adopt branch campus model will need to invest substantially.

Summary of Challenges 1/2 :

58 Summary of Challenges 1/2 1. Education, from the west into developing countries, tends to overlook cultural differences. 2. Education institutions become more market oriented. 3. Through GATS, education is being increasingly drawn into the new global, free and competitive world of economics. 4. Quality of education is being replaced with quantity.

Summary of Challenges 2/2 :

59 5. This sort of entrepreneurial activity pushes students in the direction of a globalized, technocratic, consumerist, fragmented world. 6. Access to higher education remains one of the great inequalities in today's global community. 7. The role of education has become more linked to globally competitive positions. 8. Brain drain Vs. Brain gain. Summary of Challenges 2/2

In conclusion, success in international education depends greatly on …1/2:

60 In conclusion, success in international education depends greatly on … 1/2 harmonization of the whole education system excellence in teaching, research and services relevant and up-to-date curricula and facilities excellent faculty and staff learning environment that reflects regional and international aspects, with cultural identity and safety

In conclusion, success in international education depends greatly on … 2/2:

61 In conclusion, success in international education depends greatly on … 2/2 networking with international associations and centers for excellence meeting international standards

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