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THE DECCAN PLATEAU 5. THE COASTAL PLAINS 6. THE ISLANDSPowerPoint Presentation: S.NO UNITS AREA KM (Sq) (appro) % OF TOTAL AREA 01 Northern mountains 578,000 17.9 02 Great Plains 550,000 17.1 03 Thar Desert 175,000 5.4 04 Peninsular Plateaus 1,241,000 38.5 05 Coastal Plains 335,000 10.4 06 Islands 8,300 0.3 PHYSIOGRAPHIC UNITS OF INDIAPowerPoint Presentation: MAJOR PHYSIOGRA-PHIC DIVISIONSPowerPoint Presentation: i ) The Himalayan Mountains (ii) The Northern Plains (iii) The Peninsular Plateau (iv) The Indian Desert (v) The Coastal Plains (vi) The IslandsPowerPoint Presentation: THE FIRST PHYSICAL FEATURE HIMALAYA’S…..PowerPoint Presentation: HIMALAYAS………. HIMADARI THE GRATER RANE SIVALIK THE OUTER RANGE HIMACHAL THE MIDDLE RANGEPowerPoint Presentation: Significance of Himalayas: ( i) Physical Barriers (ii) Birthplace of Rivers (iii) Influence on climate (iv) Flora and Fauna (v) Mineral Resource (vi) Economic Resources (vii) TouristPowerPoint Presentation: The Himalayas: The largest glaciers are Hispar and Batura (over 57 km long) of Hunza Valley and Biafo and Baltaro (60 km long) of Shigar Valley. The Siachen of Nubra Valley is the longest with a length of over 72 km.The Purvachal or the Eastern Hills: In the east after crossing the Cihang gorge the Himalayas bend towards south forming a series of hills running through Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and eastern Assam and form the boundary between India and Burma. Brahmaputra rivers divide Himalayas into three sections: the main Himalayas, the northwest Himalayas and the southeast Himalayas. The main Himalayas running from the Pamir Plateau in the northwest to Arunachal Pradesh in the southeast are the youngest mountains in the world. The highest peak of the word, the Mount Everst(8,884m, named after Sir George Everst). There are about 140 peaks in the Himalayas whose elevation is more than the Mount Blanc (4,810m),the highest peak of the Alps. The three mountain ranges: the Himadri in the north(the greater Himalayas)the Himachal in the middle(the lesser Himalayas) and the Siwalik(the Outer Himalayas),facing thr palins of India. The Himadri is of grat elevations (6,000m) which remains covered with everlasting snows. The Siwalik have some flat-floored structural valleys knowns as duns. Dehradun is well-known. Between the Himadri and the Himachal are some broad synclincal valleys. We also classify them as Punjab Himalayas, Kumayun, Assam Nepal and Northern… : HIMALAYAS :PowerPoint Presentation: A great arc of mountains, consisting of the Himalayas,Hindu Kush, and Patkairanges define the northern Indian subcontinent. These were formed by the ongoing tectonic collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate. The mountains in these ranges include some of the world's tallest mountains which act as a natural barrier to cold polar winds. They also facilitate the monsoon winds which in turn influence the climate in India. Rivers originating in these mountains, flow through the fertile Indo–Gangetic plains. These mountains are recognised by biogeographers as the boundary between two of the Earth's great ecozones: the temperate Palearctic that covers most of Eurasia and the tropical and subtropical Indomalayaecozone which includes the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Indonesia. India has eight major mountain ranges having peaks of over 1,000 m (3,281 ft): The Himalayan range is considered as the world's highest mountain range, with its tallest peak Mt.Everest on the Nepal–China border. [ They form India's northeastern border, separating it from northeastern Asia. They are one of the world's youngest mountain ranges and extend almost uninterrupted for 2,500 km (1,553 mi), covering an area of 500,000 km 2 (193,051 sq mi). [ The Himalayas extend from Jammu and Kashmir in the north to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. These states along with Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim lie mostly in the Himalayan region. Numerous Himalayan peaks rise over 7,000 m (22,966 ft) and the snow line ranges between 6,000 m (19,685 ft) in Sikkim to around 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in Kashmir. Kanchenjunga—on the Sikkim–Nepal border—is the highest point in the area administered by India. Most peaks in the Himalayas remain snowbound throughout the year. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, North India is kept warm or only mildly cooled during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot.HIMADARI: HIMADARI THE HIMADARI OR IT IS THE GREATER HIMALAYA. IT IS MOST CONTINUOUS RANGE WITH AEVRAGEOF 6,000MTS IT ALOSE CALLED PEAKS RANGE OF HIMALAYAS AND IT IS COVRED WITHFULLOF SNOW. IT CONTAINS GLACIERS DECEND FROM THIS RANGE.HIMACHAL: HIMACHA L IT’S A ALTITUDE VARIES BETWEEN 3700 AND 4500. IT’S A AVERAGE WIDTH IS 50 KM. THIS REGION CONSISTS OF THE FAMOUS VALLEY OF KASHMIR , KANGRA, NAINTAL AND KULLU IN HIMACHAL PRADESH. THIS REGION IS WELL KNOWN FOR ITS HILL STATION.SIVALIK: SIVALIK THE SIVALIK FORMS ALMOST A CONTIUNOUS SHINE TO THE SOUTH OF HIMACHAL FROM JAMMU AND KASHMIR TO ARUNACHAL PRADESH. THE SIVALIK IS VERY FAMOUS FOR WILD LIFE AND FOREST. CORBET NATIONAL PARK IN UTTARAKAND. KAZIRANGA NAYIONAL PARK IN ASSAM.PowerPoint Presentation: Mountain RangesPowerPoint Presentation: SECOND PYHSICAL FEATURES PLAINSPowerPoint Presentation: Significance of the Great Plains Riverine region, Fertile soil, favorable climate, flat surface, constructions of roads, extensive system of irrigation.PowerPoint Presentation: The Great Northern Plains Lies between the great Himalayas in the North and the plateau of Peninsular India in the south. Nearly 2400 km long around 250-320 km broad, the most extensive plan indeed. It is 18 said that this region was once a vast depression, filled with silt – brought down by the three Himalayas River, namely the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their numerous tributaries. It contains some of the richest soils. The bhangar refers to the upland formed by deposition of older alluvium in the river beds and the Khadar are lowlands formed by deposition of detritus of new alluvium in the river beds.PowerPoint Presentation: Indo-Gangetic plain Main article: Indo-Gangetic plain The Indo-Gangetic plains, also known as the Great Plains are large alluvial plains dominated by three main rivers, the Indus , Ganges , and Brahmaputra . They run parallel to the Himalayas, from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam in the east, and drain most of northern and eastern India. The plains encompass an area of 700,000 km 2 (270,000 sq mi). The major rivers in this region are the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmaputra along with their main tributaries– Yamuna , Chambal , Gomti , Ghaghara , Kosi , Sutlej , Ravi , Beas , Chenab , and Tista —as well as the rivers of the Ganges Delta , such as the MeghnaPowerPoint Presentation: The Western or Rajasthan Plains: are known as Marusthali of Thar and the adjoining Bagar areas to the west of Aravalli. Luni whose water is sweet in the upper reahes and saltish by the time is reaches the sea. The several salt lakes in the region such as the Sambhar, Degana, Kuchaman and Didwana; from which table salt is obtained. In most of the region shifting sand dunes occur.PowerPoint Presentation: The Ganga Plain The Ganga-Yamuna Doab comprising the Rohilkhand and the Avadh Plain is the tile area that is drained by the tributaries of Ganga. The North Bengal Plains: the Plains extending from the foot of Eastern Himalayas to the northern limb of Bengal basin cover an area of 23,000km2.PowerPoint Presentation: Brahmaputra Plains This is a low level plain, rarely more than 80km broad, surround by High Mountain on all sides except on the west.PowerPoint Presentation: The Punjab-Haryana Plain: These plains owe their formation to the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi rivers. Many low lying flood plains (called bets) are found here. The Bari Doab between Ravi and Beas rivers, the Bist Doab between the Beas and Sutlej and the Malwa plain are relatively more fertile plain.PowerPoint Presentation: THIRD PHYSICAL FEATURE THAR DESERTTHE WESTERN DESERTS : THE WESTERN DESERTS THE INDIAN DESERT LIES IN THE STATES OF RAJASTHAN, NORTH GUJRAT, SOUTH PUNJAB AND WESTERN HARAYANA. IT IS A SANDY TRACK.SAND DUNES DOMINATE THE TERRAIN. WATER SCARCITY LOMES LARGE. SOME IMPORTANT PLACES IN THIS REGION JAISAMAR ,JODHAPUR, JAIPUR, BIKANER, UDYAPUR AND AJMEER. IT IS ALSO CALLED THE GREAT INDIAN DESERT OR THAR DESERT.PowerPoint Presentation: The origin of the Thar desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be only 4000 to 10,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier. Also known as The Great Indian Desert, it is spread over four states in India, namely Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat, and two states in Pakistan and covers an area of about 4,46,000 square kilometres. The average annual rainfall of the region varies from 100 to 500 mm, it is distributed very erratically, occurring mostly between July and September. The mean average temperature varies from a minimum of 24 degrees C to 26 degrees C in summer to 4 degrees C to 10 degrees C in winter. One unique feature of this desert is that there is neither an oasis in it nor any artesian well. No native cactus or palm tree breaks the monotony of the vast expanse.PowerPoint Presentation: Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat, the vegetation and animal life in this arid region is very rich. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region. Some wildlife species, which are fast vanishing in other parts of India, are found in the desert in large numbers such as the great Indian bustard, the black buck, the Indian gazelle, and the wild ass in the Ran of Kutch. How these animals and insects survive in these harsh conditions, under such high temperature and without drinking water and green vegetation is amazing. They have evolved excellent survival strategies, their size is smaller than other similar animals living in different conditions, and they are mainly nocturnal. There are certain other factors responsible for the survival of these animals in the desert. Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishops is also a factor. The increase of human and livestock population in the desert has lead to a deterioration in the ecosystem resulting in degradation of soil fertility and vegetation.PowerPoint Presentation: FOURTH PYHSICAL FEATURE PENINSULAR PLATEAUPowerPoint Presentation: Significance of PeninsularPlateau Geological richness Sources of Irrigation and hydroelectricity Agricultural Resources Forest Resource Rich FaunaPowerPoint Presentation: The Peninsular Plateau O ldest structure of the Indian subcontinent whose slow and steady movement towards north and north-east has been responsible for creation of the Himalayas and the Northern Plains in place of the Tethys sea of geological time. It is marked of from the Indo-Gangetic plain by the mountain and hill ranges such as the Vindhyas, the satpura, and Mahadeo, Maikal, and Sarguja ranges with the average height is usually divided into two major subdivisions with the Narmada valley as the line of demarcation. The region north of the Narmada valley is known as the Central Highlands and in south of the Narmada valley lies the Deccan Plateau.PowerPoint Presentation: The Peninsular plateau is flanked by stretch of narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east. The western coast, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow plain. It consists of three sections. The northern part of the coast is called the Konkani (Mumbai – Goa), the central stretch is called the Kenned Plain while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar coast The plain along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level. In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circa, while the southern part is known as the Coromandal Coast. Large rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri have formed extensive delta on this coast. Lake Chilika is an important feature along the eastern coastTHE PENISULAR PLATEU: THE PENISULAR PLATEU THE PENINSULAR E PLATEAU IS A TABLE LAND THE PLATEAU CONSIST OF TWO BROAD DIVISIONS: A. THE CENTRAL ISLAND THE DECCAN PLATEAU.THE CENTERAL ISLANDS : THE CENTERAL ISLANDS THE CENTERAL ISLANDS CONSISTS OF TWO MAJOR ISLANDS : THE MALWA PLATEAU THE CHOTANAGAPUR PLATEAUPowerPoint Presentation: THE MALWA PLATEAU THE MALWA PLATEAU IS VERY FAMOUS FOR BLACK SOIL. IN THIS REGION OIL SEEDS ARE MAJOR CROPS THE CHOTANAGPUR PLATEAU THE CHOTANAGPUR PLATEAU IS VERY FAMOUS FOR MINERALS & SAL TREES . SOME OF THE IMPORTANT MINERALS ARE FOUND IN THIS REGION: A.COAL B. IRONOR C. BAUXITE D. SILVERPowerPoint Presentation: FIFTH PHYSICAL FEATURES THE COASTAL PLAINSPowerPoint Presentation: The Coastal Plains The Peninsular plateau is flanked by stretch of narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east. The western coast, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow plain. It consists of three sections. The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai – Goa), the central stretch is called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar coast The plain along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level. In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandal Coast. Large rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri have formed extensive delta on this coast. Lake Chilika is an important feature along the eastern coastPowerPoint Presentation: The Coastal plains : The Peninsular plateau is bounded by coastal plains on the east and west. There is wide difference between the eastern and western coastal plain. The west coast is narrower but wet. East coast much wider but relatively dry. A number of river deltas occur on the east coast. The deltas of east coast from the ‘granary’ of the five southern states- Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Pondicherry. The western coastal strips which have a large number of lagoons and back waters on other hand are noted for spices, areca nuts, coconuts palms etc. Western coastal Plain: These lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian seas and stretch from Kutch in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. The Gujarat plain is a broad and flat plain. The Kutch Peninsula, Gulf of Kutch, and the Gulf of Cambay. The Kathiawar Peninsula, also known as Saurashtra which lies to the south of Kutch, is also a plain level area except for some hills rising into Mount Girnar. Sun-divided regionally into the Konkan coast in Maharastra Canara coast in Karnataka and Malabar Coast in Kerala. Eastern Coastal Plain : The eastern coastal low lands extend from the mouth of the Ganga to Kanyakumari. The northern half is called Northern Circars or Kalinga coast, while the southern half is known as the Coromandal coast. The border part is the Carnatic region, which is about 480 km wide. They are not suitable for harbours as their mouths being full of sit.PowerPoint Presentation: LAST PHYSICAL FEATURES THE ISLANDSPowerPoint Presentation: ISLANDS 1.Bay of Bengal Islands : The Andaman & Nicobar group of islands are separated by 10 Degree channel. These islands have been formed by extension of tertiary mountain chain of Arakan Yoma. The Andaman group of island is divided into 3 major groups’ viz., North Andaman, Middle Andaman and south Andaman, collectively called Great Andamans. Little Andaman is separated from Great Andamans by Duncan passage. The Nicobar group of islands of which Great Nicobar is largest and southern most one. Saddle peak situated in Andaman Islands is the highest peak of Andaman & Nicobar group. The Dhuliar peak is the highest peak of Nicobar group of islands.More habitable and different origin thanofArabian sea islands. Barran island is dormant volcano and Narcondam island is extinct volcano. 2 ) Lakshwadeep islands : Coral- More Muslim population and have fringing reefs. They are 25 small island groups. The island’s north is known as Amindivi and spot is Cannonore island. Extreme south is Minicoy islands which is largest.PowerPoint Presentation: Lakshadweep Islands group are lying close to the Malabar coast of Kerala. This group of islands is composed of small coral isalnds. Earlier they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive. In 1973 these were named as Lakshadweep. It covers small area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. This island group has great diversity of flora and fauna. The Pitli island, which is uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary. There is chain of islands located in the Bay of Bengal extending from north to south. These are Andaman and Nicobar islands. They are bigger in size and are more numerous and scattered. The entire group of islands is divided into two broad categories – The Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains. These island groups are of great starategic importance for the country. There is great diversity of flora and fauna in this group of islands too. These islands lie close to equator, and experience equatorial climate and has thick forest cover. The northern mountains are the major sources of water and forest wealth. The norhtern plains are the granaries of the country. They provide the base for early civilisations. The plateau is a storehouse of minerals, which has played a crucial role in the industrialisation of the country. The coastal region and island groups provide sites for fishing and port activities. Thus, the diverse physical features of the land have immense future possibilities of development. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.