A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE IN KENYA

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REFORM AGENDA FOR EDUCATION SECTOR IN KENYA: 

REFORM AGENDA FOR EDUCATION SECTOR IN KENYA INTRODUCTION Smith 1937, Schultz 1961, Becker 1964 Psacharopoulos 1973,1975, among others underscored the vital role of education in individual improvement and national development Documented benefits of education include: Its role in promoting economic growth; Enhancing productivity 1

INTRODUCTION contd. : 

INTRODUCTION contd. Reducing poverty; Increasing individual earnings; Enhancing democracy and good governance(the spill over benefits to the society resulting from educated individuals) (World Bank 2002; McMahon 1999) Strengthening their skills and abilities- their human capital Improving nutrition and health The pleasure of intelligent thought and the sense of empowerment 2

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The Policy Continuum from the Pre-Independence Period The Fraser Report of 1909 and the East African Protectorate Education Report of 1919 formed the basis for the provision of education in the colony until 1949 when the Beecher Report was released (Bogonko 1992) Phelps Stokes Commission of 1924 noted the dismal education given to Africans and led to the promulgation of an Education Ordinance in the same year 3

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND contd.: 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND contd. The Beecher Report of 1949 recommended an 4-4-4 (4 years primary, 4 years intermediate and 4 years secondary) education system, a departure from the 6-2-4-system introduced in 1924 by the Education Ordinance of the same year. This report urged for closer collaboration between the government and the missionaries in the provision of education 4

B) The Post Independence Commissions, Committees and Working Parties: 

B) The Post Independence Commissions, Committees and Working Parties Introduction –The obsession with commissions of inquiry into education did not stop with the attainment of independence -There were four factors at work in influencing the education system in the post independence, namely: New concepts of political authority or government; The nature of educational demand and related pressure groups; 5

Introduction contd. : 

Introduction contd. The resource restraints, material and human, and The changing needs of the society and planned manpower development Realistic policies were therefore needed in addressing all these challenges and meeting the high expectations of the people. Overtime, the government constituted several committees and commissions to determine the way forward for education 6

The First Step Forward: The Kenya Education Commission,1964: 

The First Step Forward: The Kenya Education Commission,1964 KANU election manifesto, among other things, promised the provision of free Universal Primary Education (UPE) based on the 1961 Addis Ababa declaration of African countries achieving UPE by 1980 ( Raju,1973). On coming to power KANU set up the Kenya Education Commission (Republic of Kenya, 1964) under the chairmanship Prof. Simeon Ominde whose mandate was: To look into the education system of Kenya and advice the government on the formulation and implementation of national education policy 7

The Kenya Education Commission,1964 contd.: 

The Kenya Education Commission,1964 contd. Achievements : Provided policy direction for Kenya’s education sector Laid down 9 objectives of the education system Gave prime consideration to higher education ( subsidized university education ) to ensure sufficient number of highly skilled manpower to takeover the management of the country’s affairs from the departing Europeans Recommended free UPE ( it remains an elusive goal to this day) the abolition of schools along racial lines Established a standardized national curriculum for all schools 8

Milestones in the reform path: 

Milestones in the reform path The Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 on African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya formally adopted the Ominde Report as a basis for post-independence educational development. In the document, the government emphasized the role of education in producing skilled manpower for economic growth and equalizing economic opportunities among its citizen. In 1965 the government enacted the Board of Adult Education Act for coordinating all activities related to adult education ( misplaced in the ministry of culture; this impeded the effectiveness of the board ). 9

Milestones in the reform path contd.: 

Milestones in the reform path contd. 1966 the government established the Jomo Kenyatta Foundation through an Act of Parliament to print, publish and distribute educational materials and also grant scholarships to needy secondary school students 1967 saw the enactment of the Teachers Service Commission (TSC) Act which created a centralized agency for employment of teachers and offering a unified system for terms and conditions of service for all teachers throughout the country 10

Milestones in the reform path contd.: 

Milestones in the reform path contd. 1968- the enactment of the Education Act. This was a landmark development in the education sector. Except for piecemeal legislation, the provision of education had taken place in a legal vacuum. The Act is enshrined as chapter 211 of the laws of Kenya and it allows the Minister to manage and promote the national policy for education 11

Milestones in the reform path contd.: 

Milestones in the reform path contd. The Act has been in place and has guided the development of the sector for now 40 years with minor revisions in 1970 and 1980 It is for this reason that it has been criticized for being moribund and not cognisant of new developments in the sector in the recent years The act can not address among others the following: The role of non-state actors; sponsors Harmonization and realignment of laws in the sector 12

Milestones in the reform path contd.: 

Milestones in the reform path contd. 1970: The Ndegwa Commission, 1970 was to look into the working conditions of civil servants and how education goals could be integrated to accelerate the rate of national development . Its recommendations were largely ignored ( education that promotes national unity, diversified secondary curricullum, increase in TTC’s etc ) 13

The National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies (NCEOP),1975: 

The National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies (NCEOP),1975 Gachathi Report : recommendations adoption of 9-4-2-3 system of education Integrating the “harambee” schools into the national education system to improve quality Promotion of teachers on merit Curb unplanned expansion of education which was impacting negatively on quality and relevance Only the review of regulations for promotion of teachers was implemented 14

The Presidential Working Party on the Establishment of a second University,1981: 

The Presidential Working Party on the Establishment of a second University,1981 Background Education policy making and implementation is a political process as much as it is professional In most cases planners are called upon to execute decisions already made by political establishment rather than advice This “working party” was one such classic example of political influence in policy making and execution E.g. restructuring of the system was not in its original brief, a confirmation that they had been used to justify a decision already made 15

Mackay Report contd.: 

Mackay Report contd. Recommendations ( i ) (ii). 16

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Undercurrent Ruling elite had been convinced that the two year A-level’ segments had proved a hindrance (in some regions to accessing university education and had to be removed). 17

Negative Impacts of the New Curriculum : 

Negative Impacts of the New Curriculum Not enough teachers prepared for the new curriculum including the technical subjects. High costs associated with putting up workshops, home science rooms, laboratories, maintaining school gardens especially those in ASAL areas. 18

Negative Impacts of the New Curriculum Cont’d: 

Negative Impacts of the New Curriculum Cont’d Overloaded curriculum which burdened pupils and students leaving them with no time to play and teachers basically concentrating on coaching students to pass examinations. High incidences of drop out. Low completion and transition rates Lack of suitable instructional materials. In a nutshell, the new programmed greatly impeded efforts to achieving UPE. 19

The PRESIDENTIAL WORKING PARTY ON EDUCATION AND MANPOWER TRAINING FOR THE NEXT DECADE AND BEYOND, 1988: 

The PRESIDENTIAL WORKING PARTY ON EDUCATION AND MANPOWER TRAINING FOR THE NEXT DECADE AND BEYOND, 1988 In 1988 the World Bank released one of its most influential documents on education, “Education in sub-Saharan Africa: Policies for Adjustment, Revitalization and Expansion” (World Bank, 1988). This publication was explicit in its endorsement of ‘user fees’ in recovering education costs. 20

Kamunge report cont’d: 

Kamunge report cont’d Recommendations It institutionalised cost sharing in education, ostensibly to reduce the proportion of government funds taken up by education. The government accepted the recommendations of the Working Party in its Sessional Paper No. 6 on Education and Training for the Next Decade and Beyond (Republic of Kenya, 1988b). Under the new framework, the government was to meet salaries of teachers and education administration as well as fund some limited school facilities 21

Kamunge report cont’d: 

Kamunge report cont’d Parents were to provide for tuition, textbooks, activity and examination fees. The communities on the other hand were to be responsible for putting up physical structures an ensuring their maintenance. 22

Similarities and Parallels Between Mackay Report 1991 and Kamunge Report 1998 : 

Similarities and Parallels Between Mackay Report 1991 and Kamunge Report 1998 Similarities The only two working parties on the education system. Were appointed by the president. The core recommendations of these working parties were acted upon immeidately and with a serious sense of urgency. Implementation of the recommendations of the two commissions also resulted into increased cost of education Significant declines in education indices: enrolment, drop out, transition, repetition. 23

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Mackay Report , 1981 Kamunge Report, 1988 Increased education costs by introducing new cost components of learning. Transferred the bulk of that cost from the government to parents and communities. Drastically changed the structure of education Significantly altered its financing Had an express purpose of legitimising an issue close to the president’s heart Legitimised what was close to the souls of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Agenda was pushed by internal forces using an external resource person Had an external force using a local expert. 24

The commission of inquiry into the education system of kenya, 1988: 

The commission of inquiry into the education system of kenya , 1988 Purpose The Koech Report was mandated to recommend ways and means of enabling the education system to facilitate national unity, mutual social responsibility, accelerated industrial and technological development, lifelong learning, and adaptation in response to changing circumstance.s The report recommended Total Integrated Quality Education and Training (TIQET) 25

Koech report cont’d : 

Koech report cont’d Recommendations Replacing the 8-4-4 system with the previous 7-4-2-3. Is arguably the most comprehensive and forthright of all commission reports since independence. Covered virtually all aspects of education, making a total of 583 recommendations. Crucially, it inlcuded in its recommendations monitoring and evaluation in addition to providing a timeframe for the implementation of its recommendations. 26

Koech report cont’d : 

Koech report cont’d Recommended a manageable curriculum at all levels as well as the expansion of basic education to 12 years to include both primary and secondary education. Called for consolidating all laws that deal with education under once comprehensive act. An innovation in the report was the recommendation on the introduction of modular learning and credit accumulation in post secondary education to allow for credit transfer between and among institutions. The report was not adapted due to perceived cost implications and only the curriculum rationalization was taken on board. 27

Other milestones in education : 

Other milestones in education The Master Plan on Education and Training, 1997-2010 (1988) This document was meant to provide policy direction in preparing the country for the much vaunted goal of industrialisation by 2010. The document covers nine key areas: Development and implementation of curricula that are geared to high quality and are relevant to the needs of the economy. Development, production and provision of instructional material; Efficient teacher development and deployment. Resource mobilisation and allocation. Intra and inter- sectoral coordinating. Governance and management of E & . Improving efficiency and effectiveness through empowerment of stakeholders. Increasing equity in participation and Reduction of cost to parents with necessarily increasing budgetary allocation from the Exchequer. d 28

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The Presidential Committee on Student Unrest and Indiscipline in Kenyan Secondary Schools (the Sagini Committee) was lauched in 1991 to investigate the frequent occurrence of strikes and unrests in secondary schools and report on the casues and measures needed to prevent their recurrence. Exactly ten yers later in 2001, Wangari Report to appoint yet another committee to look into the same problems with almost the same TOR. The committee submitted its recommendations to the government and the extent to which they were implemented largely remains unknown. 29

PowerPoint Presentation: 

In 1995, Commission of Inquiry into the Cult of Devil Worship. It was set up to investigate the allegations of the existence of devil worship and also to establish the extent to which it had infiltrated into the learning institutions, especially secondary schools , among other institutions. As had become customary with such commissions, the findings have never been made public to hi 30