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Rao Goals of Instruction : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 2 Goals of Instruction Promote retention Retention is the ability to remember material at some later time in much the same way as it was presented during instruction Promote transfer (when it occurs indicates meaningful learning) Transfer is the ability to use what was learned to solve new problems, to answer new question, or to facilitate learning new subject matter. Transfer requires students not only to remember but also to make sense of and be able to use what they have learned. Cognitive processes : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 3 Cognitive processes Cognitive processes for retention and transfer (Bloom’s Taxonomy) Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Remember : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 4 Remember Remembering involves retrieving relevant knowledge from long-term memory The relevant knowledge may be factual, conceptual, procedural, metacognitive, or some combination of these Remembering knowledge is essential for meaningful learning and problem solving as that knowledge is used in more complex tasks Sub-processes Recognizing Recalling Recognizing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 5 Recognizing Locating knowledge in long–term memory that is consistent with presented material Action verbs Identify Match Select Recalling : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 6 Recalling Retrieving relevant knowledge from long term memory Action verbs define describe label list name outline recall reproduce state Understand : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 7 Understand We are said to understand when we are able to construct meaning from instructional messages Instructional messages can be in verbal, pictorial/graphic or symbolic representations Instructional messages are received during lectures, demonstrations, field trips, performances, or simulations, in books or on computer monitors Sub processes: Interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining Interpreting : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 8 Interpreting Changing from one form of information to another Action verbs Clarify Represent Paraphrase Translate Convert Rewrite Exemplifying : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 9 Exemplifying Finding a specific example or illustration of a concept or a principle Action verbs Illustrate Instantiate Give examples Classifying : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 10 Classifying Determining that something (a particular instance or example) belongs to a category (a concept or a principle) Action verbs Categorize Subsume Summarize : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 11 Summarize Abstracting a general theme or major point(s) Action verbs Abstract Generalize Inferring : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 12 Inferring Drawing a logical conclusion from presented information Action verbs Conclude Extrapolate Predict Interpolate Extend Infer Estimate Comparing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 13 Comparing Detecting correspondences between two ideas, objects, and the like Action verbs Compare Contrast Map Match Distinguish Defend Explaining : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 14 Explaining Constructing a cause-and-effect model of system Action verbs Construct Model Explain Interpret Application : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 15 Application Using procedures to perform exercises or solve problems Closely linked with procedural knowledge Sub-processes Executing Implementing Executing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 16 Executing Routinely carrying out a procedure when confronted with a familiar task The familiarity often provides sufficient clues to guide the choice of the appropriate procedure Executing is more frequently associated with the use of skills and algorithms than with the techniques and methods Consists of a sequence of steps followed in a fixed order. When performed correctly leads to a predetermined answer Action verbs: Carry out, apply, show, solve, compute, execute Implementing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 17 Implementing Applying a procedure to an unfamiliar task It involves selection, and hence the students must possess understanding of the problem encountered as well as the range of procedures available It is used in conjunction with other cognitive categories: Understand and Create There is no fixed answer It is more frequently associated with the use of techniques and method Action verbs: Solve, use Analyze : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 18 Analyze Involves breaking material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts are related to one another and to an overall structure Sub-processes Differentiating Organizing Attributing Differentiating : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 19 Differentiating Involves distinguishing the parts of a whole structure in terms of their relevance or importance Differentiating occurs when a student discriminates relevant from irrelevant information, or important from unimportant information Action verbs Discriminate Distinguish Differentiate Focus Select Organizing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 20 Organizing Involves identifying the elements of a communication or situation and recognizing how they fit together into a coherent structure Action verbs Find coherence Integrate Outline Parse Structure Attributing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 21 Attributing Determine a point of view, bias, values, or intent underlying presented material It involves a process of deconstruction Action verbs Deconstruct Identify the view/bias Evaluate : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 22 Evaluate Making judgments based on criteria and standards Criteria used include quality, effectiveness, efficiency and consistency The standards may be either quantitative or qualitative Sub-processes Checking Critiquing Checking : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 23 Checking Checking involves testing for internal inconsistencies or fallacies in an operation or a product Action verbs Test Detect Monitor Coordinate Evaluate Critiquing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 24 Critiquing Detecting inconsistencies between a product and external criteria, determining whether a product has external consistency; detecting the appropriateness or a procedure for a given problem It lies at the core of what has been called critical thinking Action verbs Judge Evaluate Create : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 25 Create Involves putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole While it includes objectives that call for unique production, also refers to objectives calling for production that students can and will do Sub-processes Generate Plan Produce Generating : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 26 Generating Involves representing the problem and arriving at alternatives or hypotheses that meet certain criteria Action verb Generate Hypothesize Planning : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 27 Planning Involves devising a solution method that meets a problem’s criteria, that is , developing a plan for solving the problem Action verbs Create a plan Synthesize Design Producing : January, 2009 IIIT, Bangalore 28 Producing Producing involves carrying out a plan for solving a given problem that meets certain specifications It requires the coordination of the four types of knowledge Action verbs Produce Construct You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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