PM_Implementing PM Sysytem_2011

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Implementing a Performance Management System: Overview:

Preparation Communication Plan Appeals Process Training Programs Pilot Testing Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation Implementing a Performance Management System: Overview


Need to gain system buy-in through : Communication plan regarding Performance Management system Including appeals process Training programs for raters Pilot testing system Ongoing monitoring and evaluation Preparation

Communication Plan answers::

What is Performance Management (PM)?: General info. On PM, how implemented in other organizations, and general goals of PM How does PM fit in our strategy?: relationship b/w PM and Strategic Planning. How the PM system will help accomplish strategic goals. What’s in it for me?: Must state benefits for all those involved. Communication Plan answers:

Communication Plan answers: (contd.):

How does it work?: A detailed description of the PM process and timelines: Example: when meetings will take place, what are the purposes of each meeting, how will developmental plans be drawn up? What are the roles and responsibilities of each person at each stage? Eg. Supervisors, employees How does PM relate to other initiatives: Relationship between the PM system and other HR initiatives such as training, promotion, succession planning Communication Plan answers: (contd.)

Cognitive Biases that affect communications effectiveness:

Selective exposure Selective perception Selective retention Cognitive Biases that affect communications effectiveness

To minimize effects of cognitive biases::

A. Consider employees: Involve employees in system design Show how employee needs are met To minimize effects of cognitive biases:

To minimize effects of cognitive biases::

B. Emphasize the positive Use credible communicators Strike first – create positive attitude Provide facts and conclusions To minimize effects of cognitive biases:

To minimize effects of cognitive biases::

C. Repeat, document, be consistent Put it in writing Use multiple channels of communication Say it, and then – say it again To minimize effects of cognitive biases:

Appeals Process:

Promotes Employee buy-in to PM system Amicable/Non-retaliatory Resolution of disagreements Appeals Process

Appeals Process:

Employees can question two types of issue: Judgmental validity of evaluation (Mgr.’s ratings of employee performance do not reflect actual performance) Administrative whether policies and procedures were followed (review meetings not held) Appeals Process

Appeals Process:

Level 1 HR reviews facts, policies, procedures HR reports to supervisor/employee HR attempts to negotiate settlement Level 2 Arbitrator (panel of peers and managers) and/or High-level manager – final decision Appeals Process

Rater Training Programs:

Content Areas to include Information Identifying, Observing, Recording, Evaluating How to Interact with Employees Choices of Training Programs to implement RET FOR BO SL Rater Training Programs


A. Information - how the system works Reasons for implementing the performance management system Information the appraisal form system mechanics Content


B. Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance How to identify and rank job activities How to observe, record, and measure performance How to minimize rating errors Content


C. How to interact with employees when they receive performance information How to conduct an appraisal interview How to train, counsel, and coach Content

Choices of Training Programs:

Rater Error Training (RET) Frame of Reference Training (FOR) Behavioral Observation Training (BO) Self-leadership Training (SL) Choices of Training Programs

Rater Error Training (RET):

Goals of Rater Error Training (RET) Make raters aware of types of rating errors Help raters minimize errors Increase rating accuracy Rater Error Training (RET)

Intentional rating errors:

Leniency (inflation) Severity (deflation) Central tendency Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Intentional rating errors

Unintentional rating errors:

Unintentional rating errors Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Similar to Me Halo Primacy First impression Contrast Stereotype Negativity Recency Spillover

Possible Solutions for Types of Rating Errors:

Intentional Focus on motivation Demonstrate benefits of providing accurate ratings Unintentional Alert raters to different errors and their causes Possible Solutions for Types of Rating Errors

Frame of Reference Training (FOR):

Goal of Frame of Reference Training (FOR)* Raters develop common frame of reference Observing performance Evaluating performance * Most appropriate when PM appraisal system focuses on behaviors Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Frame of Reference Training (FOR)

Expected Results of Frame of Reference Training (FOR) :

Raters provide consistent, more accurate ratings Raters help employees design effective development plans Expected Results of Frame of Reference Training (FOR)

Frame of Reference Training (FOR) (contd.):

1. Raters are told that they will evaluate the performance of 4 employees on three performance dimensions Raters are given an appraisal form and instructed to read it as the trainer reads aloud the definition of each dimension and the scale anchors. Frame of Reference Training (FOR) (contd.)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Trainer discusses various employee behaviors that illustrate the various levels for each rating scale included in the form. The goal is to create a common performance theory (frame of reference) among raters so they will agree on the appropriate dimension and effectiveness levels for different behaviors. Participants are shown a videotape of a practice vignette, including behaviors related to the performance dimensions and are asked to rate the employee’s performance using the scales provided.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Ratings provided by each participant are shared with the rest of the group and discussed. The trainer seeks to identify which behaviors participants used to decide on their ratings and to clarify any discrepancies among the ratings. Trainer provides feedback to participants, explaining why employees should receive a certain rating on each dimension, and show discrepancies between the tgt. score and the score given by each trainee. Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

Behavioral Observation Training (BO):

Goals of Behavioral Observation Training (BO) Minimize unintentional rating errors Improve rater skills by focusing on how raters: Observe performance Store information about performance Recall information about performance Use information about performance Basically aimed at improving raters’ skills at observing performance. Behavioral Observation Training (BO)

Behavioral Observation Training (BO) (contd.):

Showing raters how to use behavioral observation aids such as notes or diaries. Helps raters record a prestablished numbers of behaviors on each performance dimension. Effective way to standardize the observation of behaviors and record of critical incidents during the entire review period. Behavioral Observation Training (BO) (contd.) Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

Self-leadership Training (SL):

Goals of Self-leadership Training (SL) Improve rater confidence in ability to manage performance Enhance mental processes Increase self-efficacy Self-leadership Training (SL)

Self-leadership Training (SL) (contd.):

Steps involved in a SL training program: 1. Observe and record existing beliefs and assumptions, self-talk, and mental imagery patterns. Eg. What are the beliefs about the PM system? What does the mgr. visualize his/her role in the PM system ? Do they have the necessary skills to evaluate performance accurately? Self-leadership Training (SL) (contd.) Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

PowerPoint Presentation:

2. Analyze the functionality and constructiveness of the beliefs, self-talk, and imagery patterns uncovered in Step 1. Will the beliefs be detrimental to the system? 3. Identify or develop more functional and constructive beliefs and assumptions, self-verbalizations , and mental images to substitute for dysfunctional ones; eg. Images of employees being satisfied rather than defensive and disgruntled after receiving performance feedback. Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

PowerPoint Presentation:

4. Substitute the more functional thinking for the dysfunctional thoughts experienced in actual situations. 5. Continue monitoring beliefs, self-verbalizations and mental images over time. Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

Self-Efficacy Training for Raters (SET-R):

Related to Slef -Leadership Training. Aim is to enhance managers belief that he/she has the necessary skills to manage employee performance. Included the following steps: Raters watch a videotape of a vicarious success experience including a manager conducting a successful performance review meeting with a subordinate. 2. Raters enegage in a follow-up discussion of the behaviors observed in videotape that contributed to the meeting’s success. Self-Efficacy Training for Raters (SET-R) Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

PowerPoint Presentation:

This follow-up discussion has the dual goal of(a) focusing the rater’s attention on the techniques used by the videotape manger to convey a negative feed back and (b) allowing for an opportunity to persuade rates that they too would be able to conduct such a successful meeting. 3. Raters participate in a role play exercise that requires providing feedback to the employee. This role-play exercise is repeated until the rater demonstrates an appropriate level of mastery.

Pilot Testing:

Provides ability to Discover potential problems Fix them Pilot Testing

Pilot Testing - benefits:

Gain information from potential participants Learn about difficulties/obstacles Collect recommendations on how to improve Understand personal reactions Get early buy-in Get higher rate of acceptance Pilot Testing - benefits

Implementing a Pilot Test:

Roll out test version with sample group Staff and jobs generalizable to organization Fully implement planned system All participants keep records of issues encountered Do not record appraisal scores Collect input from all participants. Implementing a Pilot Test

Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation:

When system is implemented, decide: How to evaluate system effectiveness How to measure implementation How to measure results Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation

Evaluation data to collect::

Reactions to the system Assessments of requirements Operational Technical Effectiveness of performance ratings Evaluation data to collect:

Indicators to consider:

Number of individuals evaluated Distribution of performance ratings Quality of information Quality of performance discussion meetings System satisfaction Cost/benefit ratio Unit-level and organization-level performance Indicators to consider

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