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Phrases & Clauses:

Phrases & Clauses What are they? How are they different?

The main difference::

The main difference: Phrases DO NOT have BOTH a subject & a verb Clauses DO HAVE BOTH a subject & a verb

PHRASES: 4 Types :

PHRASES: 4 Types No Subject & Verb

1: Prepositional Phrase:

1: Prepositional Phrase Prepositional Phrase = Preposition + Noun from the house = from (  prep) + (noun  ) the house He ran quickly from the house. behind a rock = behind (  prep) + (noun  ) a rock I saw my teacher behind a rock .

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during the movie about his messy room around the track and near the field 1: Prepositional Phrase

2: Participial Phrase :

2: Participial Phrase A participle is a verb used as another part of speech. Participles are easy to recognize: they end in – ing or –ed. For example: running water, baked apples, loving husband, loaded gun, etc…

2: Participial Phrase More examples: :

looking closely , staying up all night studying the History book 2: Participial Phrase More examples:

3: Infinitive Phrase:

3: Infinitive Phrase To + verb = Infinitive phrase If you have ever studied a foreign language, you might remember that verbs are always studied w/the infinitive first: to love (the infinitive form) I love you love he/she/it loves we love you love they love

3: Infinitive Phrase cont’d:

3: Infinitive Phrase cont’d Infinitive phrases begin with the infinitive form of the verb Examples : to run a mile to start over to do homework all night to win the contest to wake up early

4: Noun Phrases:

4: Noun Phrases Adjective + Noun = Noun Phrase The tall building A smoky, crowded room Screaming, half-naked toddlers Nests of yellow and red striped snakes

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Verb Phrase Verb phrase—consists of a main verb preceded by at least one helping verb (auxiliary verb) Besides all forms of the verb be , helping verbs include

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Notice how helping verbs work together with main verbs to make a complete verb phrase.

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EXAMPLE: is leaving may be come might have remained had seemed should move might have thought shall be going could jump does sing

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Sometimes the parts of a verb phrase are interrupted by other parts of speech.

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Did you hear President Bush’s speech? Has the D.J. played the new CD for you?

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EXAMPLE: She had always been thinking of her future. We could never have moved the bleachers.

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NOTE: The word not is always an adverb. It is never part of a helping verb, even when it is joined to a verb as the contraction –n’t.

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He should not have borrowed his book. He should n’t have borrowed his book.

Now for a small warning…:

Now for a small warning…

One word can make phrases a little tricky: :

One word can make phrases a little tricky: to

The tricky “to”:

The tricky “to” The word “ to ” is found in BOTH prepositional and infinitive phrases

CAUTION--Don’t mix these up!:

CAUTION--Don’t mix these up! to the football stadium (prepositional) to the teacher ( prepositional ) to run a mile to finish my homework Prepositional Phrases: Infinitive Phrases:

Phrase Review:

Phrase Review Prepositional: above the clouds near my house along the shore

Phrase Review:

Phrase Review Participial : leaving work early sleeping until noon celebrating the holidays filled with liquid

Phrase Review:

Phrase Review Infinitive: to walk the dog to play the piano to watch our favorite TV show

Phrase Review:

Phrase Review Noun Phrases: a blue glass fifty wild iguanas a comfortable bed

Be sure to know your phrases!:

Be sure to know your phrases! End of presentation.

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