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Premium member Presentation Transcript PowerPoint Presentation: ISAS PRESENTATION: ROBOTICSPowerPoint Presentation: PAVITHRA.P NEETHA K.J PRAKASH KUMAR REKHA SEMINAR CONDUCTED BYPowerPoint Presentation: The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. ( Rossum's Universal Robots), which premiered in 1921. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. ETYMOLOGYROBOTS IN SCIENCE FICTION STORY “LIAR”!: ROBOTS IN SCIENCE FICTION STORY “LIAR”!PowerPoint Presentation: Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term; since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942). However, the word robotics appears in "Liar!"PowerPoint Presentation: Stories of artificial helpers and companions and attempts to create them have a long history. The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though they are closer to the modern ideas of androids. HISTORYPowerPoint Presentation: Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. In 1927 the (Maschinenmensch) machine-human gynoid humanoid robot (also called "Parody", "Futura", "Robotrix", or the "Maria impersonator") was the first and perhaps the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played by German actress Brigitte Helm) in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis.PowerPoint Presentation: In 1942 the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov formulated his Three Laws of Robotics and, in the process of doing so, coined the word "robotics" In 1948 Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.PowerPoint Presentation: Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics, engineering, mechanics mechatronics, and software. ROBOTICSROBOT TRSV: ROBOT TRSVPowerPoint Presentation: The concept and creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as we continue to research, design, and build new robots that serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily.PowerPoint Presentation: Fully autonomous robots only appeared in the second half of the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply, or more accurately and reliably, than humans. They are also employed in jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans.A HAND GRIPPER ROBOT LIFTING MOLTEN IRON FROM THE FURNACE: A HAND GRIPPER ROBOT LIFTING MOLTEN IRON FROM THE FURNACEPowerPoint Presentation: Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods.ROBOT USED FOR TRANSPORTATION PURPOSE: ROBOT USED FOR TRANSPORTATION PURPOSEPowerPoint Presentation: At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (liquids) flywheel energy storage organic garbage (through anaerobic digestion) POWER SOURCEA ROBOTIC LEG WORKING ON COMPRESSED GASES: A ROBOTIC LEG WORKING ON COMPRESSED GASESPowerPoint Presentation: still unproven energy sources: for example Nuclear fusion, as yet not used in nuclear reactors whereas Nuclear fission is proven (although there are not many robots using it as a power source apart from the Chinese rover tests.). radioactive source (such as with the proposed Ford car of the '50s); to those proposed in movies such as Red PlanetPowerPoint Presentation: A robotic leg powered by Air Muscles Actuators are like the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. By far the most popular actuators are electric motors that spin a wheel or gear, and linear actuators that control industrial robots in factories. But there are some recent advances in alternative types of actuators, powered by electricity, chemicals, or compressed air: ACTUATIONPowerPoint Presentation: The vast majority of robots use electric motors, often brushed and brushless DC motors in portable robots or AC motors in industrial robots and CNC machines. ELECTRIC MOTORPowerPoint Presentation: Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of spinning, particularly when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics. They are typically powered by compressed air (pneumatic actuator) or an oil (hydraulic actuator). LINEAR ACTUATORSPowerPoint Presentation: A spring can be designed as part of the motor actuator, to allow improved force control. It has been used in various robots, particularly walking humanoid robots. SERIES ELASTIC ACTUATORSPowerPoint Presentation: Pneumatic artificial muscles, also known as air muscles, are special tubes that contract (typically up to 40%) when air is forced inside it. They have been used for some robot applications. AIR MUSCLESPowerPoint Presentation: Muscle wire, also known as Shape Memory Alloy, Nitinol or Flexinol Wire, is a material that contracts slightly (typically under 5%) when electricity runs through it. They have been used for some small robot applications. MUSCLE WIREMUSCLE WIRE: MUSCLE WIREPowerPoint Presentation: EAPs or EPAMs are a new plastic material that can contract substantially (up to 400%) from electricity, and have been used in facial muscles and arms of humanoid robots, and to allow new robots to float, fly, swim or walk. ELECTROACTIVE POLYMERSPowerPoint Presentation: A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion. There are different mechanisms of operation; one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to walk the motor in a circle or a straight line. PIEZO MOTORSPowerPoint Presentation: Another type uses the piezo elements to cause a nut to vibrate and drive a screw. The advantages of these motors are nanometer resolution, speed, and available force for their size. These motors are already available commercially, and being used on some robots.PowerPoint Presentation: Elastic nanotubes are a promising artificial muscle technology in early-stage experimental development. The absence of defects in carbon nanotubes enables these filaments to deform elastically by several percent, with energy storage levels of perhaps 10 J/cm3 for metal nanotubes. Human biceps could be replaced with an 8 mm diameter wire of this material. Such compact "muscle" might allow future robots to outrun and outjump humans. ELASTIC NANOTUBESPowerPoint Presentation: TOUCH Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human fingertips. SENSINGPowerPoint Presentation: The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object. The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting robotic grip on held objects.PowerPoint Presentation: Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. As a scientific discipline, computer vision is concerned with the theory behind artificial systems that extract information from images. The image data can take many forms, such as video sequences and views from cameras. VISIONPowerPoint Presentation: Computer vision systems rely on image sensors which detect electromagnetic radiation which is typically in the form of either visible light or infra-red light. The sensors are designed using solid-state physics. The process by which light propagates and reflects off surfaces is explained using optics. Sophisticated image sensors even require quantum mechanics to provide a complete understanding of the image formation process.PowerPoint Presentation: Robots needs to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator. Most robot arms have replaceable effectors, each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks. Some have a fixed manipulator which cannot be replaced, while a few have one very general purpose manipulator, for example a humanoid hand. MANIPULATIONPowerPoint Presentation: One of the most common effectors is the gripper. In its simplest manifestation it consists of just two fingers which can open and close to pick up and let go of a range of small objects. Fingers can for example be made of a chain with a metal wire run through it. See Shadow Hand. MECHANICAL GRIPPERSPowerPoint Presentation: MECHANICAL GRIPPERSPowerPoint Presentation: Vacuum grippers are very simple astrictive devices, but can hold very large loads provided the prehension surface is smooth enough to ensure suction. Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens, often use very simple vacuum grippers. VACCUM GRIPPERSPowerPoint Presentation: Rolling robots Two-wheeled balancing robots One-wheeled balancing robots Spherical orb robots Six-wheeled robots Tracked robots Walking applied to robots LOCOMOTIONPowerPoint Presentation: LOCOMOTIONPowerPoint Presentation: Several snake robots have been successfully developed. Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings. The Japanese ACM-R5 snake robot can even navigate both on land and in water. SNAKINGPowerPoint Presentation: SNAKE ROBOTSPowerPoint Presentation: A small number of skating robots have been developed, one of which is a multi-mode walking and skating device. It has four legs, with unpowered wheels, which can either step or roll. Another robot, Plen, can use a miniature skateboard or rollerskates, and skate across a desktop. SKATINGPowerPoint Presentation: Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces. One approach mimicks the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage. An example of this is Capuchin, built by Stanford University, California. Another approach uses the specialised toe pad method of wall-climbing geckoes, which can run on smooth surfaces such as vertical glass CLIMBINGPowerPoint Presentation: Though a significant percentage of robots in commission today are either human controlled, or operate in a static environment, there is an increasing interest in robots that can operate autonomously in a dynamic environment. These robots require some combination of navigation hardware and software in order to traverse their environment. ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION AND NAVIGATIONPowerPoint Presentation: Other hurdles exist when allowing the robot to use voice for interacting with humans. For social reasons, synthetic voice proves suboptimal as a communication medium, making it necessary to develop the emotional component of robotic voice through various techniques. ROBOTIC VOICEPowerPoint Presentation: Facial expressions can provide rapid feedback on the progress of a dialog between two humans, and soon it may be able to do the same for humans and robots. Robotic faces have been constructed by Hanson Robotics using their elastic polymer called Frubber, allowing a great amount of facial expressions due to the elasticity of the rubber facial coating and imbedded subsurface motors (servos) to produce the facial expressions. FACIAL EXPRESSIONPowerPoint Presentation: The coating and servos are built on a metal skull. A robot should know how to approach a human, judging by their facial expression and body language. Whether the person is happy, frightened, or crazy-looking affects the type of interaction expected of the robot.PowerPoint Presentation: Control systems may also have varying levels of autonomy. Direct interaction is used for haptic or tele-operated devices, and the human has nearly complete control over the robot's motion. Operator-assist modes have the operator commanding medium-to-high-level tasks, with the robot automatically figuring out how to achieve them. AUTONOMY LEVELSPowerPoint Presentation: SEMI-AUTOMATIC VIGILANCE AIRCRAFTPowerPoint Presentation: An autonomous robot may go for extended periods of time without human interaction. Higher levels of autonomy do not necessarily require more complex cognitive capabilities.PowerPoint Presentation: A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. Robotics is an essential component in many modern manufacturing environments. As factories increase their use of robots, the number of robotics–related jobs grow and have been observed to be steadily rising. EMPLOYMENTPowerPoint Presentation: HUMANOID A humanoid is something that has an appearance resembling a human being. The term first appeared in 1912 to refer to fossils which were morphologically similar to, but not identical with, those of the human skeleton. Although this usage was common in the sciences for much of the 20th century, it is now considered rare. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROBOTSPowerPoint Presentation: More generally, the term can refer to anything with uniquely human characteristics and/or adaptations, such as possessing opposable appendage (thumbs) or the ability to walk in an upright position. A humanoid robot is a robot that is based on the general structure of a human, such as a robot that walks on two legs and has an upper torso, or a robot that has two arms, two legs and a head. A humanoid robot does not necessarily look convincingly like a real person, for example the ASIMO humanoid robot has a helmet instead of a face.PowerPoint Presentation: An android (male) or gynoid (female) is a humanoid robot designed to look as much like a real person as possible, although these words are frequently perceived to be synonymous with humanoid.PowerPoint Presentation: AEROSPACE The activity of the Robotics Lab in relation to Aerospace is focused in two completely different areas: visual navigation of autonomous satellites and simulation of some general systems of the Eurofighter Aircraft ROBOTS TYPES & APPLICATIONSPowerPoint Presentation: ASSISTIVE ROBOTS Assistive robot is one of the most promise robotic application in near future. Since 2000, Robotics Lab developes a robot for disable and elderly people assistant (MATS), general interactive intelligent assistant (PRA), and general humanoid assistant (Rh-PowerPoint Presentation: CLIMBING ROBOTS Research in the field of climbing robots started in 1995. Since this date several robots had been developed: Roma 1 for inspection steel-based structures, Roma 2 for travel along concrete, wood, etc., and Mats robot allows moving in domestic environments.PowerPoint Presentation: HUMANOIDS Humanoid robots program of the RoboticsLab started on 2001 by developing the 7 DOF bipedal robot Leroy. Since 2002 Rh-0 project, and later Rh-1 one, had the objective of development a 21 DOF full size robot.PowerPoint Presentation: INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION In the last few days, several collaborations have been established in Industrial Automation field as automatization of construction processes and several task for automotion industries.PowerPoint Presentation: MOBILE MANIPULATORS The objective of this research line is to develop advanced mobile manipulators able to operate in human environments. Manfred integrates perception, control, local and global planning in order to cope with a wide spectrum of typical tasks required for a sPowerPoint Presentation: MOBILE ROBOTS Mobile Robotics is one of the most research fields of the Robotics Lab. Our group works are focused in control architectures, topological navigation, multimodal interaction and emotions in robotics.PowerPoint Presentation: PERSONNEL ROBOTS Current robots are present mainly in factories. Future robots will be also in our homes as personal companions to entertain and help us in our daily life ROBOTS IN CONSTRUCTION The R&D activities of the Robotics Lab in the field of robotics & automation in construction started in early 90s. Several industrial and EU projects related with automation of the pre-fab parts, and modular building design & erection had been done.PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.