Bluetooth Technologies

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An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY : 

An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY Presented by: nikhil ranjan


4 February, 2009 2 CONTENT Overview of Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Specifications Typical Bluetooth Scenario Protocols Profiles Security Comparison with other technologies Future of Bluetooth Summary

Example : The Networked Home : 

4 February, 2009 3 Example : The Networked Home

What is Bluetooth? : 

4 February, 2009 4 What is Bluetooth? “Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.” One of the first modules (Ericsson) A recent module

Ultimate Headset : 

4 February, 2009 5 Ultimate Headset

Cordless Computer : 

4 February, 2009 6 Cordless Computer

Bluetooth Goals & Vision : 

4 February, 2009 7 Bluetooth Goals & Vision Originally conceived as a cable replacement technology Short-Range Wireless Solutions Open Specification Voice and Data Capability Worldwide Usability Other usage models began to develop: Personal Area Network (PAN) Ad-hoc networks Data/voice access points Wireless telematics

Overview of Bluetooth History : 

4 February, 2009 8 Overview of Bluetooth History What is Bluetooth? Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology. Why this name? It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway. When does it appear? 1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories. 5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998. First specification released in July 1999.

Timeline : 

4 February, 2009 9 Timeline 1994 : Ericsson study complete / vision 1995 : Engineering work begins 1997 : Intel agrees to collaborate 1998 : Bluetooth SIG formed: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia & Toshiba 1999 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0A SIG promoter group expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola 2000 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000+ adopters 2001 : First retail products released, Specification 1.1 2003 : Bluetooth Specification 1.2 2005 : Bluetooth Specification 2.0 (?)

Special Interest Group : 

4 February, 2009 10 Special Interest Group

Technical features : 

4 February, 2009 11 Technical features

Bluetooth FHSS : 

4 February, 2009 12 Bluetooth FHSS Employs frequency hopping spread spectrum Reduce interference with other devices Pseudorandom hopping 1600 hops/sec- time slot is defined as 625 microseconds Packet 1-5 time slots long

Time-Division Duplex Scheme : 

4 February, 2009 13 Time-Division Duplex Scheme Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each 625 ?s) One packet can be transmitted per slot Subsequent slots are alternatively used for transmitting and receiving Strict alternation of slots between the master and the slaves Master can send packets to a slave only in EVEN slots Slave can send packets to the master only in the ODD slots

Classification : 

4 February, 2009 14 Classification Classification of devices on the basis of Power dissipated & corresponding maximum Range.

Typical Bluetooth Scenario : 

4 February, 2009 15 Typical Bluetooth Scenario Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in a piconet. Point to Point Link Master - slave relationship Bluetooth devices can function as masters or slaves Piconet It is the network formed by a Master and one or more slaves (max 7) Each piconet is defined by a different hopping channel to which users synchronize to Each piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps)

Piconet Structure : 

4 February, 2009 16 Piconet Structure All devices in piconet hop together. Master’s ID and master’s clock determines frequency hopping sequence & phase.

Ad-hoc Network – the Scatternet : 

4 February, 2009 17 Ad-hoc Network – the Scatternet Inter-piconet communication Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet Multiple piconets can operate within same physical space This is an ad-hoc, peer to peer (P2P) network

Bluetooth Protocol Stack : 

4 February, 2009 18 Bluetooth Protocol Stack

Baseband : 

4 February, 2009 19 Baseband

Baseband : 

4 February, 2009 20 Baseband Addressing Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) 48 bit IEEE MAC address Active Member address (AM_ADDR) 3 bits active slave address all zero broadcast address Parked Member address (PM_ADDR) 8 bit parked slave address This MAC address is split into three parts The Non-significant Address Part (NAP) Used for encryption seed The Upper Address part (UAP) Used for error correction seed initialization & FH sequence generation The Lower Address Part (LAP) Used for FH sequence generation

Packet Structure : 

4 February, 2009 21 Packet Structure

Connection State Machine : 

4 February, 2009 22 Connection State Machine

Channel Establishment : 

4 February, 2009 23 Channel Establishment There are two managed situations A device knows the parameters of the other It follows paging process No knowledge about the other Then it follows inquiring & paging process Two main states and sub-states Standby (no interaction) Connection (working) Seven more sub-states for attaching slaves & connection establishment Connection State Machine

Channel Establishment (contd.) : 

4 February, 2009 24 Channel Establishment (contd.) Seven sub-states Inquiry Inquiry scan Inquiry response Page Page scan Master response Slave response

Link Manager Protocol : 

4 February, 2009 25 Link Manager Protocol

Link Manager Protocol : 

4 February, 2009 26 Link Manager Protocol The Link Manager carries out link setup, authentication & link configuration. Channel Control All the work related to the channel control is managed by the master The master uses polling process for this The master is the first device which starts the connection This roles can change (master-slave role switch)

L2CAP : 

4 February, 2009 27 Service provided to the higher layer: L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilities Segmentation & reassembly of large packets L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length. L2CAP

Middleware Protocol Group : 

4 February, 2009 28 Middleware Protocol Group Additional transport protocols to allow existing and new applications to operate over Bluetooth. Packet based telephony control signaling protocol also present. Also includes Service Discovery Protocol.

Middleware Protocol Group (contd.) : 

4 February, 2009 29 Middleware Protocol Group (contd.) Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) Means for applications to discover device info, services and its characteristics. TCP/IP Network Protocols for packet data communication, routing. RFCOMM Cable replacement protocol, emulation of serial ports over wireless network.

IP Over Bluetooth : 

4 February, 2009 30 IP Over Bluetooth IP over Bluetooth v 1.0

IP Over Bluetooth : 

4 February, 2009 31 IP Over Bluetooth IP over Bluetooth v 1.1

File Transfer Profile : 

4 February, 2009 32 File Transfer Profile Profile provides: Enhanced client-server interactions: - browse, create, transfer folders - browse, pull, push, delete files

Headset Profile : 

4 February, 2009 33 Headset Profile Profile provides: Both devices must provide capability to initiate connection & accept/terminate calls. Volume can be controlled from either device. Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming call.

Core Bluetooth Products : 

4 February, 2009 34 Core Bluetooth Products Notebook PCs & Desktop computers Printers PDAs Other handheld devices Cell phones Wireless peripherals: Headsets Cameras CD Player TV/VCR/DVD Access Points Telephone Answering Devices Cordless Phones Cars

Other Products… : 

4 February, 2009 35 Other Products… 2004 Toyota Prius & Lexus LS 430 hands free calls Digital Pulse Oximetry System Toshiba Washer & Dryer Nokia N-gage

Security : 

4 February, 2009 36 Security Security Measures Link Level Encryption & Authentication. Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access. Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys). These keys are not transmitted over wireless. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device, can generate the keys. Further encryption can be done at the application layer.

A Comparison : 

4 February, 2009 37 A Comparison WLAN

Bluetooth vs. IrD : 

4 February, 2009 38 Bluetooth vs. IrD Bluetooth Point to Multipoint Data & Voice Easier Synchronization due to omni-directional and no LOS requirement Devices can be mobile Range 10 m IrD Point to point Intended for Data Communication Infrared, LOS communication Can not penetrate solid objects Both devices must be stationary, for synchronization Range 1 m

Bluetooth: Today & Tomorrow : 

4 February, 2009 39 Bluetooth: Today & Tomorrow

Will Bluetooth become a household name? : 

4 February, 2009 40 Will Bluetooth become a household name?

Future of Bluetooth : 

4 February, 2009 41 Future of Bluetooth Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated into consumer products Consumers are more interested in applications than the technology Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer products Must provide benefits for consumer Must not destroy current product benefits Key Success Factors Interoperability Mass Production at Low Cost Ease of Use End User Experience

Summary : 

4 February, 2009 42 Summary A new global standard for data and voice Eliminate Cables Low Power, Low range, Low Cost network devices Future Improvements Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization. Adaptive, closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.

“Things that think… don’t make sense unless they link.” : 

4 February, 2009 43 “Things that think… don’t make sense unless they link.” - Nicholas Negroponte, MIT Media Laboratory

Thank You : 

4 February, 2009 44 Thank You

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