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HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

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PRESENTED BY, MALATHI.G, NANDHINI, MINUTHA, ISHA.

CONTENTS::

CONTENTS: Meaning of HRD Subsystem of HRD OD and HRD HRM and HRD Emerging Trends in HRD HRD in public sector HRD in Government sector HRD in IT sector and HRD in NGO’s

INTRODUCTION TO HRD:

INTRODUCTION TO HRD HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT HRD is development processes were it focuses on improving the existing capabilities of employees and helping them to acquire new capabilities required for the achievement of organizational and individual goals. Human Resource Development is the integrated use of training, organization, and career development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities.

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MEANING It is the process of increasing the capabilities of HR through development. It is a process of adding values to individuals, teams, organization as human system. Definition According to American Society for Training and Development ( ASTD ), " HRD is the integrated use of :- training and development, organizational development, and career development to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness."

EVOLUTION OF HRD: :

EVOLUTION OF HRD: The concept of HRD is comparatively of recent origin and has gained prominence and focus of attention in management in recent year. The concept of the behavioural scientists provided the impetus for the organisational development movement of the 60s and 70s .HRD is a series of organised activities conducted with in a specified time designed to produce behavioural change. It is rooted in the belief that human resources or people have the potential to do better.

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Prof. Leonard Nadler formally introduced the concept of HRD in 1969 in a conference organised by the American society for training and development [ASTD]. Among the Indian experts T.V. Rao worked extensively on HRD and attempted to define HRD comprehensively. He viewed HRD process, the employees of an organisational point of view and suggested that in HRD process, the employees of an organisation are motivated to acquired and develop various skills and capabilities, knowledge, etc. In order to contribute positively to the organisational group, individual and social goals.

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Larson and turbo was the first private sector company to introduce the concept of HRD in 1975 on the recommendations by two consultants’ udai pareek and T.V Rao from Indian institute of management. While BHEL- a company in public sector introduced the concept of HRD in 1980. Now it is found that many companies, organizations are giving due importance to the human resources development. Even leading business schools, universities, management institutions like IIM, Bajaj institute of management are organising management courses suitable to the needs of industries.

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CONCEPTS LEADING TO EVOLUATION OF HRD: 1) The factor of production concept. The paternalistic concept. The humanitarian concept. The behavioural HR concept. The emerging concept. (Requiring urgent action). 6)Psychological concept.

Sub systems of HRD:

Sub systems of HRD Performance Appraisal Potential Appraisal Career Planning and Development Counseling Feedback Training and Development Organizational Development Rewards Employees Welfare Quality of Work Life

OD AND HRD:

OD AND HRD Human Resources Development is the improvement of skills, knowledge, and indirectly, the value of the employee in the organization. It is the responsibility of managers, and Human Resources Department. Organization Development is a description of change needed in the organization if it is to reach its future goals. Sometimes, organizations then try to accelerate this change by creating OD plans which involves managers from all departments. Sometimes, they create a new department called OD. This helps to accelerate the change by moving resources and management to a special task. US organizations started this term, and they like to create OD department and specialists. Of course, this type of change affects people, so HR development specialist are often involved in OD. However, it is a mistake to describe HRD and OD as the same thing.

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Human Resources Development is not a defined object, but a series of organized processes, “with a specific learning objective”. Specific interventions, areas of expertise and practice that fall within this definition of HRD are recognized as performance improvement, organizational learning, career management and leadership development. Human Resources Development as a structure allows for individual development, potentially satisfying the organization’s goals. The development of the individual will benefit both the individual and the organization. "Organizational Development."   If we were to break it into its parts we can discover one meaning:   "Organization" has come to mean the coming together of people and resources to form a unit.  "Development" in its simplest form suggests change and growth.  So OD could be defined as "the practice of changing people and organizations for positive growth."

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Human Resource Development can be formal such as in classroom training, a college course, or an organizational planned change effort. Or, Human Resource Development can be informal as in employee coaching by a manager. Healthy organizations believe in Human Resource Development and cover all of these bases. In practice, Organizational Development can take on many forms, and typical OD activities can include some of the following: Team building, Career Development, Training, Innovation, Leadership Development, Talent Management, Change Management, e- learning etc…

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HRD develops the key competencies that enable individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities. OD is overall development

HRD in IT sector & NGO's:

HRD in IT sector & NGO's

Human resource development techniques :

Human resource development techniques

HRD in IT sector :

HRD in IT sector

Introduction :

Introduction Information technology (IT) is transforming the world. A major shift in the way we live, learn and work has already begun with the arrival of the information society: students use computers at home and school to do homework; governments supply information and services on line; and businesses and consumers make transactions through the Internet. This phenomenon is evident not just in the advanced countries such as the United States of America but is rapidly spreading across the globe. As of June 2000, the worldwide on-line population is estimated to be almost 333 million (New Research 2000). The construction of the information society, however, cannot be done without active governmental involvement in the creation of an information infrastructure and the reformation of the education system. In particular, human resources development (HRD) is seen throughout the world as crucial to the development of information-based economies and the achievement of global competitiveness. The current worldwide shortage of skilled IT workers only adds to the seriousness of HRD, especially in countries such as the United States of America and Germany where there is global competition to attract such workers.

Continued... :

Continued... This poses a serious challenge for developing countries that want to keep pace with the forerunners without lagging too far behind in the race towards the knowledge-based economy. This is particularly so for many developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, where the information society remains a distant vision. For example, as of spring 2000, the Internet penetration rate for developing countries in Asia is estimated to be 10 per cent, whereas for North America it is 41 per cent, according to a study by Roper Research.2 Therefore, based on these observations, this report attempts to create a policy maker’s guide for forecasting and planning human resources for information technology. To do so, in the next section, the modern methods of workforce forecasting are reviewed and the most appropriate methods for HRD planning for IT are analysed. Propositions are then made on how to formulate policies based on the predicted results. Section D is a review of the experiences of Republic of Korea as a benchmark study. Lastly, in section E, conclusions are made with recommendations for policy-makers.

Continue... :

Continue... Unlike Japan, where the declining birthrate is a major problem, in India, young people under the age of 25, who will play a key role in the next generation, account for 50% of the country’s total population of 1.1 billion. In addition to an abundant workforce, India’s competitive superiority can also be attributed to the fact that it is the world’s largest democratic country, its people have a high level of English proficiency, and labor wages are relatively low. However, the most important factor may be India’s social system, which continuously produces human resources with high potential.

HRD in Infosys :

HRD in Infosys Infosys has been a pioneer in innovative workforce practices and HR initiatives—be it in creating wealth for employees through wide distribution of stock option plans or in creating a enjoyable workplace with various amenities. Nandan Nilekani, President and Managing Director of Infosys, commented, “Attracting the best and the brightest and creating a milieu where they operate at their highest potential are very important for Infosys. Our campus and technology infrastructure is world-class, we pay a lot of attention to training and competency building, we try to have sophisticated appraisal systems, and we try to reward performance through variable pay”. Recruitment : While recruiting new hires, Infosys takes into consideration so as to identify the right talents for the right jobs. And in this drive the company strictly focuses on hiring those individuals (talents) who have the capability of high degree of ‘learnability’. The qualities mostly sought by the company involve high levels of analytical ability, teamwork and leadership, communication and creative skills, along with a practical and structured orientation to problem solving.

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People Development and Training: Employee development and training at Infosys is a continuous process. When hired employees immediately go through induction and training programme. These programme mainly aim to emphasize on training these new recruits on new processes and technologies and orient them with the organization’s culture and ethical practices. As they reach higher efficiency and performance levels, they are further trained on project management training sessions so that they could develop competencies for independently handling projects and assignments for the organization’s clients. Infosys also emphasizes upon management and leadership development programme as and when required and caters to the requirements of management development for its senior employees and managers. The new recruits are trained at the Global Education Centre (GEC) in Mysore, which has world-class training facilities and the capacity to train more than 4,500 employees at a time. The company has a competency mapping system in place which takes into account individual performance, organizational priorities, and feedback from the clients so as to give comprehensive inputs for developing these training programme.

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Infosys Leadership Institute (ILI): ILI set up in 2001 had an immense impact on the effectiveness of the HRD function at Infosys. The institute was primarily developed so as to develop and groom future talents in the company. The workplace at Infosys Technologies Limited

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Performance Appraisal System: The performance appraisal process at Infosys begins not only with performance evaluation but also encompasses the evaluation of individual skills for the tasks assigned to an employee during the assigned period of performance evaluation. In this regard, performance appraisal takes into consideration various performance criteria like timeliness, quality of work, customer orientation, peer satisfaction and performance improvement potential. The company has also launched an internal job posting mechanism and the concept of personal development plans, on the basis of 360 degree feedback. Compensation and Rewards: The entire organization has restructured its compensations and reward system in order to match the performance of its employees, business needs and the growing scale of operations. The company started following a variable pay structure10. At the lowest level, 10 per cent of the salary is variable; it is 30 per cent at the middle level and 50 per cent at very senior levels. Salary at Infosys is linked to the topline, performance of the team and performance of the individual. The company also intends to compensate star performers more aggressively than average or poor performers in a move that has more similarities with American culture which promotes and rewards individual merit11. Another remarkable hallmark of Infosys had been its employee stock options plan (ESOP) framework for which the company has made a mark of its own in the industry. Many organizations had decided to adopt the Infosys ESOP system as an effective way to retain their employees.

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Work life Balance Programmed: This could be used for childcare, eldercare, higher studies or for health reasons9. Many working mothers and to be mothers have also been encouraged to work on their projects from their homes. Flexi timing of the working mothers also help these techniques to have enough time with their kids and family. Apart from these the company also emphasizes on organizing counseling programme for their employees so as to provide solutions for better worklife balance. Infosys had always considered its people as its most valuable assets and had seeked opportunities for further improvement in performance, business development by fostering innovation and creativity in the workplace. In the coming years, how the company’s HR philosophy would help the organization to steer into the new decade would well be worth watching and a learning experience for HR specialists.

HRD in NGO's :

HRD in NGO's

Definition of NGO :

Definition of NGO NGOs are difficult to define and classify due to the term’s inconsistent use. NGO, non-profit organizations within defined boundaries excludes NGOs that fall outside each specific boundary. Additionally, it is beneficial for NGO networks to create a classification that allows similar organizations to exchange information more easily. To attempt a classification of NGOs requires a framework, that includes the orientation and the organization's level of operation. An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities an organization takes on. These activities might include environmental, development, or advocacy work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works on, like the difference in work between an international NGO and community or national NGO. Types of NGOs: NGO type can be understood by orientation and level of co-operation. NGO type by orientation * Charitable orientation; * Service orientation; * Participatory * Empowering orientation;

STAPI and its HRD Programmes :- :

STAPI and its HRD Programmes :- STAPI’s-(Sosva Training and Promotion Institute) prime objective is the promotion, expansion and the strengthening of NGO sector in India and this is possible by training voluntary agencies and pursue systematically their Human Resource Development. Most NGOs operate in limited fields and their scope of work is very restricted. STAPI sees its role as a catalyst in providing the NGOs with the holistic view of the entire sector in broadening their perspective. There was a strong need felt to enter into the area of Capacity Building of NGOs. Over a period of time, STAPI has realized that for the overall development of the NGO sector for upgrading of technical and managerial skills of NGOs is a must. It is not only financial sustainability, but Human Resource sustainability that is essential for that survival and growth. SOSVA started off in 1991 as an intermediary and technical (health) support agency. SOSVA laid emphasis on upgrading the status of NGO personnel by organizing training programmes for NGOs. In 1992 Ford Foundation extended support to SOSVA for a period five years for conducting training workshops for NGOs and development of publications. Under the project, SOSVA conducted 125 workshops on topics like fund raising, accounting and auditing, successful management of NGOs, technical assistance in family planning, and women’s development legal requirements of Charity Commissioner, taxation etc.

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After SOSVA gained experience in conducting workshops, it felt the need to establish physical facilities for Training activity aimed at meeting NGO requirements. CEBEMO, a Dutch funding agency, funded the construction of the Training Centre which was commissioned in 1995. In establishing the Training Centre SOSVA also received support from British Deputy High Commission and State Bank of India. The training activities of STAPI mainly focuses on :- a) Training of NGOs in various aspects of management and development of Human Resources. b) Training and re-coordination of NGOs in social sectors and family welfare. c) Training NGOs in financial planning and resources mobilization. d) Training staff / executives of large donor organizations undertaking support programmes. e) Training of volunteers desirous of assisting NGOs. f) Facilities for studies / research in the NGO sector. g) Training and orientation for Government staff to accept NGOs as partners in development.

HRD techniques for NGO :

HRD techniques for NGO

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Trainer’s Training Programmes: - These workshops deal with the training of NGO representatives in su bstantive technical matters. The participating NGO officers are further expected to impart training to their field workers project areas. Project Promotion Workshops: - These are workshops where the NGOs are exposed to various governmental schemes and the aspects of project design and proposal preparation. Implementation Assistance Programmes: - These are the workshops where the NGOs are implementing a various Government schemes. Workshops on Capacity Building :- In these workshops topics like legal requirements of Charity Commissioners office, know-how of Income Tax Act provisions, accounts and auditing, fund raising, diversification of funding sources, marketing of NGO products, Income generation activities for women etc. are taken up. Exchange of experience:- These programmes are meant to facilitate easy sharing of the successes, failure and innovations of NGO s working on similar projects.

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Workshops on Good Governance : where the focus was on taking the norms established by the Credibility Alliance forward. Exclusive workshops on Resource Mobilization: A imed at helping the NGOs diversify their sources of funding. Dissemination workshop on important Acts for voluntary sector including policy for the sector: Aimed at increasing understanding of legal and policy issues of the NGOs. Collaborative workshops: which are issues specific and are conducted in collaboration with other agencies.

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FACILITIES (Infrastructure) : The Training Institute has excellent physical facilities appropriate to NGO needs: - It is self contained; its area is 553 sq. mtrs. Which includes a conference hall, offices for the faculty and administrative offices, a syndicate room, well equipped with audio-visual teaching aids and a hygienic and well furnished hostel at affordable charges for 20 participants of the Training Institute? A fairly good library and documentation centre:- which forms an integral part of the training institute. The library currently has over 1500 books, periodicals including NGO newsletters, reports, newspaper clipping and other matters. Available volumes are classified. Periodicals received from NGOs, Government are regularly displayed on racks for NGOs to read. Periodicals dedicated to development activities are regular received and made available to trainees and readers. It also has a large collection of video cassettes in English, Hindi and Marathi and is well equipped with audio-visuals aids.

FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT PRESENT AT STIAPI :

FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT PRESENT AT STIAPI A) FACULTY 1. Director 2. Course Coordinator 3. Training Centre advisory Committee 4. In house faculty 5. Guest Faculty B) TEACHING AIDS: 1. TV 2.VCR/DVD 3. OHP (Over Head Projector) 4. Public AddressSystem 5. Conference System 6. Slide Projector 7. Video Cassettes 8. L.C.D. 9. Computers 10. Laptop 11. Fax 12. Telephones 13. Fridge

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C) PHYSICAL: 1) Well furnished Seminar hall 2) Furnished Hostel 3) Library cum documentation centre

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Conclusion: Human resources development plays a vital role in the organization in developing the employees as well as the organization in order to achieve the goals effectively and efficiently. even HRD concentrates on different types of employees and how effective various types of HRD policies, practices, strategies and work force characteristics. HRD has a strategic role to play in government, public ,IT and NGO’s. The contextual and historical conditions affecting government systems give the HRD function in government a difficult and complex role to play. HRD has to provide for the development of administrators and personnel who in turn have to look after key developmental activities in the country. Hitherto, HRD in government has been confirmed to limited training activities, job rotation, selection, manpower forecasting, and maintaining of a personnel data bank. A new approach towards developing an integrated HRD system in government administration is called for. The main components of such a system are suggested to be activity, task or role analysis, identification of critical job attributes, performance appraisal, potential development, training, and organization development.