speed control of dc motor using microcontrollers

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SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR PRESENTED BY: CH SANTOSH KUMAR ( 08QM1A0208) M SUMAN ( 08QM1A0231 ) P PRAVEEN KUMAR (08QM1A0241 ) P SRIDHAR REDDY ( 08QM1A0242 ) P PRATYUSHA ( 08QM1A0245 ) HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT PROJECT CO-ORDINATOR INTERNAL GUIDE MR. K.HUSSAIN MR.G.VIJAY KUMAR MS.B.SASI KALA

ABSTRACT :

ABSTRACT The purpose of a motor speed control is to take a signal representing the demanded speed and drive the motor at that speed.

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION The speed of dc motor is directly proportional to the supply voltage, if we reduce the supply voltage from 12 V to 6V, the motor will run at half the speed . As the amount of this time that voltage increases compare with the amount of time that it is off. This on-off switching is performed by power MOSFET s speed is set by PWM . Here we are using microcontroller applications. For this we are using ATMEL 1 6 IC and by using this we are setting speed and measuring speed. Output can be seen on LCD display

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

BLOCK DIAGRAM

MAIN COMPONENTS:

MAIN COMPONENTS Transformer Bridge rectifier Voltage regulator DC motor LCD display Photo interrupter Comparator Micro controller

POWER SUPPLY:

POWER SUPPLY

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AC incoming voltage is 230V 50Hz is step downed to 15v AC using a step down transformer. 15v rectified using a bridge rectifier and next stage it is filtered using a smoothing filter to get ripple free DC. 15 volts was applied to regulator LM7812. this12 volts regulated DC for motor. LM7812 ‘s o/p given to LM7805 Voltage regulator which gives a constant output voltage of 5V. This 5V is given to microcontroller. And slot sensor and comparator, LCD display. POWER SUPPLY DESCRIPTION

DC MOTOR:

DC MOTOR The  DC motor is electric motor that runs on direct current electrically. DC motor works based on the LORENTZ FORCE. In DC motor voltage is proportional to speed ADVANTAGES Low initial cost High reliability Simple control of motor speed

SPEED CONTROLLER:

SPEED CONTROLLER FEATURES OF IRFZ44 Lower Input Capacitance Improved Gate Charge Lower Leakage Current: 10mA (Max.) @ VDS = 60V Lower RDS(ON): 0.020W (Typ.)ID = 50 A For speed controlling of motor, we are using MOSFET as solid state switch. MCU output pin connected to gate of MOSFET. MCU switch ON/OFF the gate for controlling the speed of D.C MOTOR.

LCD Display interfacing:

LCD Display interfacing LCD stands for liquid crystal display. The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) consumes less power. (typically in the order of microwatts ) There are two major types of LCDs which are: 1. Dynamic-scattering LCDs and 2. Field-effect LCDs Field-effect LCDs are normally used in such applications e.g., watches, portable instrumentation etc . Field effect LCDs absorb considerably less power than the light-scattering type. On the other hand, light-scattering units are available up to 8 inches in height.

PIN DIAGRAM OF LCD:

PIN DIAGRAM OF LCD

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Do-D7 Po-P7 RW RS EN P3.5 P3.6 P3.7 ATmega16 LCD LCD to MICRO CONTROLLER

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Photo interrupter This was contains one led and photo transitor in opposite. In this project , we are using for speed measurement of motor. A small wheel attached to motor and that interrupt photo transistor when rotating.

COMPARATOR:

COMPARATOR COMPARATOR (LM393) Slot sensor output pulses are not a fast rise and falling edges. So that o/p was feed to comparator. Comparator o/p given to microcontroller pin for measuring the speed of motor. COMPARATOR (LM393) High precision comparators Reduced VOS drift over temperature. Eliminates need for dual supplies. Allows sensing near ground. Operates from 2.0V to 36V.

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RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Microcontroller CPU A smaller computer On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... Example : Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X AVR atmega8,atmega16. A single chip MICRO CONTROLLER

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ATMEGA16 FEATURES High-performance, Low-power AVR 8-bit Microcontroller 16K Flash, 1024 Bytes EEPROM, 1K Byte SRAM Programming Lock for Software Security Two 8-bit Timer/Counters, One 16-bit Timer/Counter Four PWM Channels 8-channel, 10-bit ADC Programmable Serial USART Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface On-chip Analog Comparator

ATMEGA 16 PIN DIAGRAM:

ATMEGA 16 PIN DIAGRAM

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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FLOW CHART

Applications:

Applications ROBOTIC CONTROLS. SWING MACHINES. ELECTRONIC BIKES. WINDING MACHINES. DC OPERATED DRILL MACHINES. CNC MACHINES. MOBILE AIR CONDITION FANS. TOYS. ELCTRONIC DOOR CONTROLLERS. ELECTRONIC CHAIRS(beauty parlor etc.)

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION We have achieved the required speed . And also we display this on LCD display. Our aim of this project, we have achieved the speed control of dc motor.

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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