ETHICS IN RESEARCH

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PRESENTED BY: POONAM SINGH MPHIL BIOSCIENCE PTRSU,RAIPUR ETHICS IN RESEARCH

CONTENTS: 

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION DEFINITION AND MEANING IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS GENERAL BASIC PRINCIPALS OF ETHICS AUTHORSHIP PLAGIARISM PEER REVIEW RESEARCH WITH ANIMALS RESEARCH WITH HUMAN SUBJECTS RESEARCH MISCONDUCT RESEARCH ETHICS IN INDIA CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION: 

INTRODUCTION When most people think of ethics (or morals) they think of rules for distinguishing between right and wrong. Most commonly “ethics” are: norms of conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

DEFINITION AND MEANING: 

DEFINITION AND MEANING WHAT ETHICS MEANS ? It is the branch of philosophy that deals with morals or right and wrong DEFINITION: Ethics are the principles and guidelines that help us to uphold things we value. Ethics in research are important you are young to conduct and experiment. It should be applied on all stages of research such as in planning ,conducting and evaluating a research. Thus research ethics educates and monitors a scientist conducting a research to ensure a high ethical standards.

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS: 

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS Promotes the aims of research (such as knowledge ,truth ,and avoidance of error) Promotes the values that are essential to collaborative work (such as trust ,accountability ,mutual respect ,and fairness) Help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to public Help to build public support for research (as people more likely to fund research projects if they trust the quality and integrity of research) Promotes moral and social values( such as social responsibility, human rights , animal welfare etc.)

GENERAL BASIC PRINCIPALS OF ETHICS: 

GENERAL BASIC PRINCIPALS OF ETHICS 1. Honesty : Honestly report data ,results ,methods and procedures and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify or misinterpret data. 2. Objectivity : Strike to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation ,peer review etc. 3. Integrity : Keep your promises and agreements, act with sincerity, strive for consistency of thought and action. 4. Carefulness: Avoid careless errors and negligence . Carefully and critically examine your own work. Keep good record of research activities such as data collection, research design and correspondence with agencies or journals 5. Openness: Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources Be open to criticism and new ideas

6. Respect for intellectual property: i) Honor patents, copyright and other forms of intellectual property. ii) Do not use unpublished data , methods or results without permission iii) Never plagiarizes 7. Confidentiality: Protect confidential communication such as paper or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets and patient records 8.Respect for colleagues: Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly 9. Non discrimination: Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity 10. Social Responsibility: Strive to promote social good and prevent social harms through research, public education and advocacy : 

6. Respect for intellectual property: i ) Honor patents, copyright and other forms of intellectual property. ii) Do not use unpublished data , methods or results without permission iii) Never plagiarizes 7. Confidentiality: Protect confidential communication such as paper or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets and patient records 8 .Respect for colleagues: Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly 9. Non discrimination: Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity 10. Social Responsibility: Strive to promote social good and prevent social harms through research, public education and advocacy

AUTHORSHIP : 

AUTHORSHIP Definition and importance : Process of deciding who names belongs on a research paper in many cases research evolves from collaboration and assistance between experts and colleagues It decides which colleagues should be listed as authors or co-authors and which should receive acknowledgments Ethical guidelines :- Each person listed as an author on an articles should have significantly contributed to both research and writing as well as must be prepared to accept full responsibility for the content of research articles Who can be co-author ? i) Contributed substantially to the research ii) Wrote or revised all or part of the manuscript. iii) Approved the final version of the entire article

PLAGIARISM : 

PLAGIARISM Definition and importance: Act of passing of somebody else ideas, thoughts, pictures, theories, words or stories as your own If a researcher plagiarizes the work of others they are bringing into question, the integrity , ethics and trust worthiness of some total of his or her research. Either intentionally or unintentionally plagiarism it is not tolerated by scientific community

Ethical Guidelines:- : 

Ethical Guidelines :- A researcher preparing a manuscript should cite the original source if he or she Quotes another persons actual words, either oral or written ii) Paraphrases another persons words, either oral or written iii) Uses another persons ideas opinion and theory iv) Borrows facts statistics or other illustrative material unless the information is common knowledge

PEER REVIEW: 

PEER REVIEW Definition and importance :- Process in which an author submits a written manuscript or article to a journal for publication and journal editor distributes the article to the experts experts- as reviewers editor- then enter the peer review process.

PEER REVIEW PROCESS:: 

PEER REVIEW PROCESS: Reviewers and editors read and evaluate the article Reviewers submit their reviews back to the journal editor Journal editor takes all comments including their own and communicates back to the original author

ETHICAL GUIDELINES: : 

ETHICAL GUIDELINES: Two most important ethical concept in peer review process:- 1.Confidentiality 2.Protection of intellectual property Reviewer should not know the author they are reviewing And the author should not be told the names of the reviewers No person involved in this process can publically disclose the information in the article

REASEARCH WITH ANIMALS: 

REASEARCH WITH ANIMALS Animals play a significant role in research Used in testing new pharmaceuticals ii) As teaching tools for medical students iii) As experimental subjects for new surgical procedures * Research projects that use animals have to reviewed

ETHICAL GUIDELINES: 

ETHICAL GUIDELINES To ensure that animals intended for use in research facilities or for exhibition purposes or for use as pets are provided human care and treatment To assure that humane treatment of animals during transportation in commerce To protect the owners of animals from theft of their animals by preventing the sale or use of animals which have been stolen

RESEARCH WITH HUMAN SUBJECT: 

RESEARCH WITH HUMAN SUBJECT Definition and importance :- The issues concerning research with human subjects involves topics ranging from voluntary participation in research to fair selection and justice. This variety makes the topics surroundings research ethics with human subject a challenging one.

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Respect for persons- Informed consent Involves voluntary participation by subjects who understand what participation entails Research for persons- privacy confidentiality People have right to protect themselves and information gathered during research participation could harm a person by violating their right to keep information about themselves private Risk benefit and beneficence- It means doing good. Biomedical research strives to do good by studying disease and health data to uncover information that may be used to help others

ETHICAL GUIDELINES:: 

ETHICAL GUIDELINES: Human subject must voluntarily consent to research and be allowed to discontinue participation at any time Research involving human subjects must be valuable to society Research participant must be protected and safe Researchers must avoid harm, injury and death of research subjects and discontinue research. Research must be conducted by responsible and qualified researchers

RESEARCH MISCONDUCT: 

RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Definition and importance: It is the process of identifying and reporting unethical or unsound research It is defined as fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research or in reporting research results

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Fabrication - making up data or results and recording or reporting them Falsification - manipulating research material, equipment or process or changing, omitting data such that research is not accurately represented in research record Plagiarism - appropriation of another persons ideas, process, results or words without giving appropriate credit

ETHICAL GUIDELINES:: 

ETHICAL GUIDELINES: When someone suspected of committing research misconduct, the proper procedure is to first launch an inquiry. If the inquiry reveals a potential research misconduct situation then Conduct a full scale investigation Finally the institution uses the information collected during full scale investigation to make decision concerning the presence of misconduct and its severity and what appropriate corrective action should be taken if needed.

RESEARCH ETHICS IN INDIA : 

RESEARCH ETHICS IN INDIA Mostly occurs locally ICMR released- “Ethical guidelines for biomedical research” in 2000. CIOMS- Council for international organization of medical sciences laid down principles of biomedical research Research involving human subjects is reviewed by REC (Research Ethics Committee) at the institution in which the proposed research is conducted If there is no REC at the institution a protocol can be reviewed for ethical approval either by central ethic committee of ICMR or research for national bioethics committee

CONCLUSION: 

CONCLUSION Pellegrino - A well known biomedical ethicist stated that “When no one is watching, it is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality or research and if research integrity is problematic we must start and end with the investigator. Thus, All the basic principles of ethics are derived from the concept that we individual should treat others as we wish them to treat us.

REFERENCES: 

REFERENCES A guide to research ethics- University of Minnesota. Centre for bio ethics 2003. Shamoo A.E. and Dunigan- Ethics and research, Experimental Biology, 2000, New York. Resnik David B. National institute of Enviormental Health Sciences www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioetics/whatis.cfm.

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THANK YOU