Communication Cycle: Communication Cycle It refers to the transfer of information from one person to the another through a proper cycle. Sender and receiver plays an important part in communication cycle. For ex: transfer of information from superior to a subordinate in an organisation. What is Communication: What is Communication Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication. Communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Human Communication : Human Communication The word "language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. A variety of verbal and non-verbal means of communicating exists such as body language, eye contact, sign language, paralanguage, haptic communication, chronemics, and media such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing. Non Verbal Communication: Non Verbal Communication It describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Some of non verbal communication includes gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact. It is also called silent language and plays a key role in human day to day life ie; employment relations . Oral Communication:
Oral Communication Oral communication refers to spoken verbal communication, typically relies on both words, visual aids and non-verbal elements to create a proper meaning. It includes discussion, speeches, presentations,
and many other varieties. For example:A great presenter must capture the attention of the audience and connect with them
Written Communication: Written Communication Its meaning is to assign and conveying with an attempt to create understanding. It requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing,and cooperation. Written Communication came into existance with achievements when Gutenberg press was invented in 15 th century. Barriers of Communication : Barriers of Communication Communication is the key factor in the success of any organization. When it comes to effective. Communication, there are certain barriers that every organization faces. Some of barriers are as follows : Physical barriers : Physical Barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. For Example: The natural barrier which exists, if staff are located in different sites. System design : System Design faults refer to problems with structures or systems in place in an organization. For Example: An organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know who to communicate. Barriers of Communication: Barriers of Communication Attitudinal barriers : Attitudinal Barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organization. For Example: Such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate. Ambiguity of Words/Phrases : Words sounding same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogther.For Example: It would be better if such words can be avoided by using alternatives. Individual linguistic ability : It is also important. The use of difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent people from understanding the message. Non Human Communication: Non Human Communication Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of Signals that involve a living sender and receiver can be considered a form of Communication; and even primitive creatures such as corals are competent to Communicate. It include cell signaling, cellular Communication and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms. Some of Non Human Communication are as follows : PLANT AND FUNGI BACTERIAL COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION: An Effective leadership cycle: COMMUNICATION: An Effective leadership cycle It includes six main steps: Step 1. Aim - Who do you want to talk to and what do you want them to do? Step 2. Compose - What is the best way to talk to your audience in order to get them to do what you want? Step 3. Transmit - Where and when should you communicate in order to optimise your results? Slide 11: Step 4. Feedback - Find out exactly what effect your communication created. Step 5. Analyse/Learn/Change - Analyse and learn from the results your communication created. Step 6. Improve - Change your behaviour as a result of what you have learned. Process of communication: Process of communication Communication is governed by three levels of semiotic rules: 1.Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols), 2.Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users) and 3.Semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent). THEORY FOR COMMUNICATION: THEORY FOR COMMUNICATION First major model for communication came in 1949 by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories. . Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. ELEMENTS : ELEMENTS Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured the model based on the following elements: 1. An information source, which produces a message. 2. A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals 3. A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission 4. A receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. 5. A destination, where the message arrives. PROBLEMS FACED: PROBLEMS FACED Three levels of problems for communication within this theory: How accurately can the message be transmitted? The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior? Noise Communication: Noise Communication It is basically refers to the interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. Some of the noise communication are as follows: ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE PHYSIOLOGICAL NOISE SEMANTIC NOISE CULTURAL NOISE SYNTACTICAL NOISE PSYCHOLOGICAL NOISE Internal Communication:
Internal Communication It is the function responsible for effective communication among participants within an organization . A relatively young profession, IC draws on the theory and practice of related professions, notleast journalism, knowledge management. Internal Communication has today become the core part of the Corporate Communication. Many a time the
department are especially kept out of it as they are termed as the voice of the management and not the employees.
External Communication: External Communication The exchange of information and messages between an organization and other organizations, groups, or individuals outside its formal structure. The goals of external communication are to facilitate cooperation with groups such as suppliers, investors, and shareholders, and to present a favorable image of an organization and its products A variety of channels may be used for external communication, including face-to-face meetings, print or broadcast media, and electronic communication. Slide 19: “A writer writes not because he is educated but because he is driven by the need to communicate. Behind the need to communicate is the need to share. Behind the need to share is the need to be understood.”