Multicultural Education: Multicultural Education multicultural education has been broadly defined to include "any set of processes by which schools work with rather than against oppressed groups" ( Sleeter , 1992) Multicultural education is a process that permeates all aspects of school practices,policies and organization as a means to ensure the highest levels of academic achievement for all students Slide 2: Even more sweeping, one scholar asserted that multicultural education can have an impact upon every aspect of a school's operation: staffing, curriculum, tracking, testing, pedagogy, disciplinary policies, student involvement, and parent and community involvement (Nieto, 1992). Typology: Typology Multicultural education, however, cannot be all things to all people. Several attempts have been made to detail the various educational strategies that fall under the broad umbrella of multicultural education--to develop a "typology .“ A typology can provide a useful framework for thinking about multicultural education, giving educators--and others--a clearer understanding of what people mean by the term. CONTENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS: CONTENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS content-oriented efforts are the most common and immediately recognizable variety of multicultural education. Their primary goal is to include content about different cultural groups in the curriculum and educational materials in order to increase students' knowledge about these groups. In its simplest form, this type of program adds a multicultural patina to a standard curriculum, perhaps incorporating a few short readings or a few in-class celebrations of cultural heroes and holidays within the school year . Other versions of content-area programs take a more thorough approach, adding numerous multicultural materials and themes to the curriculum. CONTENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS: CONTENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS According to Banks (1994), these programs have three goals: To develop multicultural content throughout the disciplines; To incorporate a variety of different viewpoints and perspectives in the curriculum; and To transform the canon, ultimately developing a new paradigm for the curriculum. STUDENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS : STUDENT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS multicultural education is an effort to reflect the growing diversity of classrooms, many programs move beyond curricular revisions to specifically address the academic needs of carefully defined groups of students , often minority students. Primarily , as Banks (1994) notes, while curricular programs attempt to increase the body of knowledge about different ethnic, cultural, and gender groups, student-oriented programs are intended to increase the academic achievement of these groups, even when they do not involve extensive changes in the content of the curriculum. Slide 8: As Sleeter and Grant (1993) describe them, many of these programs are designed not to transform the curriculum or the social context of education, but to help culturally or linguistically different students make the transition into the educational mainstream. As a result, student-oriented programs can, themselves, take many forms, some of which are not typically thought of as types of multicultural education. Slide 9: Banks (1994) outlines four broad program categories: programs that use research into culturally-based learning styles in an attempt to determine which teaching styles to use with a particular group of students; bilingual or bicultural programs; language programs built upon the language and culture of African-American students; and special math and science programs for minority or female students. As a result of this variety--and because they attempt to help students make the transition into the mainstream--many student-oriented programs can be viewed as compensatory in nature; in fact, they can often be nearly indistinguishable from other compensatory programs which may not be multicultural in their emphasis. Socially oriented program: Socially oriented program These programs seek to reform both schooling and the cultural and political contexts of schooling, aiming neither simply to enhance academic achievement nor to increase the body of multicultural knowledge, but to have the much broader impact of increasing cultural and racial tolerance and reducing bias. Slide 11: According to Banks (1994), this category of program encompasses not only programs designed to restructure and desegregate schools, but also programs designed to increase all kinds of contact among the races: programs to encourage minority teachers, anti-bias programs, and cooperative learning programs. As Sleeter and Grant (1993) describe it, this type of multicultural education emphasizes "human relations" in all its forms, and incorporates some characteristics of the other two program types; that is, it can entail curricular revisions in order to emphasize positive social contributions of ethnic and cultural groups, while using research on learning styles to enhance student achievement and reduce racial tensions within the classroom. CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION These clearly drawn categories of multicultural education may facilitate educators' attempts to develop programs that reflect the diversity of their student body. Public articulation of the programs and goals of specific approaches can help to temper some of the political rhetoric surrounding multicultural education, and give educators and policymakers on all sides of the issue a common basis for their discussions.