First War of Independence,1857

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First War of Independence, 1857

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Index 1. Introduction 2. C auses after war 3. New Policies created after War 4. Bibliography 5. Name of the group members

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.Introduction. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company 's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut , and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India , with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh , Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh , and the Delhi region.

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The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region, and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858. The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence , the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion, and the Sepoy Mutiny. Other regions of Company-controlled India Bengal province, the Bombay Presidency , and the Madras Presidency remained largely calm. In Punjab , the Sikh princes backed the Company by providing both soldiers and support. The large princely states, Hyderabad , Mysore , Travancore , and Kashmir , as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana did not join the rebellion . In some regions, such as Oudh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. Continued……

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Continued……… Rebel leaders, such as the Rani of Jhansi , became folk heroes in the nationalist movement in India half a century later; however, they themselves "generated no coherent ideology" for a new order. The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, and the administration in India. India was thereafter directly governed by the Crown in the new British Raj .

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Causes after War The Indian Rebellion of 1857 did not occur as a result of one specific event; it was an accumulation of several events, over time, resulting in its eventual outbreak. The sepoys were a combination of Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Just before the Rebellion there were over 200,000 Indians in the army compared to about 40,000 British. The forces were divided into three presidency armies: the Bombay; the Madras; and the Bengal.

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The Bengal Army recruited higher castes , such as " Rajputs and Brahmins ", mostly from the Avadh (near Lucknow ) and Bihar regions and even restricted the enlistment of lower castes in 1855; in contrast, the Madras Army and Bombay Army were "more localized, caste-neutral armies" that "did not prefer high-caste men.“ The domination of higher castes in the Bengal Army has been blamed in part for initial mutinies that led to the rebellion. In fact, the role of castes had become so important that men were no longer “selected on account of the most important qualities in a soldier, i.e., physical fitness, willingness and strength, docility and courage, but because he belonged to a certain caste or sect”. Continued…… In 1772, when Warren Hastings was appointed the first Governor-General, one of his first undertakings was the rapid expansion of the Company’s army. Since the available soldiers, or sepoys , from Bengal – many of whom had fought against the Company in the Battle of Plassey and Battle of Buxar— were now suspect in British eyes

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Continued…… ,Hastings recruited farther west from the high-caste rural Rajputs and Brahmins of Awadh and Bihar, a practice that continued for the next 75 years. However, in order to forestall any social friction, the Company also took pains to adapt its military practices to the requirements of their religious rituals. Consequently, these soldiers dined in separate facilities; in addition, overseas service, considered polluting to their caste, was not required of them, and the army soon came officially to recognize Hindu festivals. “This encouragement of high caste ritual status, however, left the government vulnerable to protest, even mutiny, whenever the sepoys detected infringement of their prerogatives.”It has been suggested that after the annexation of Oudh by the East India Company in 1856, many sepoys were disquieted both from losing their perquisites, as landed gentry, in the Oudh courts and from the anticipation of any increased land-revenue payments that the annexation might bring about. [13] Others have stressed that by 1857, some Indian soldiers, reading the presence of missionaries as a sign of official intent, were convinced that the Company was masterminding mass conversions of Hindus and Muslims to Christianity.

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