logging in or signing up Participatory Panchayats and Good Governance aSGuest117943 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 283 Category: Entertainment License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: October 26, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Participatory Panchayats a tool for Good Governance, Decentralisation and Empowerment: Dr. M.K.Ghadoliya Professor, Deptt . Of Economics V. M. Open University, Rawatbhata Road Kota (Raj.) 324021 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Participatory Panchayats a tool for Good Governance, Decentralisation and Empowerment“So is the whole Universe contained in the self so is India Contained in the villages.” Mahatma Gandhi “Rural development is a process at improving the well being and self realization of people living outside the urbanised areas through collective efforts. He further contends that the ultimate target of rural development is people and not infrastructure.”James H. Copp: “So is the whole Universe contained in the self so is India Contained in the villages.” Mahatma Gandhi “ Rural development is a process at improving the well being and self realization of people living outside the urbanised areas through collective efforts. He further contends that the ultimate target of rural development is people and not infrastructure .” James H. Copp Participatory system of panchayat is necessary for strong democracy Preservation and improvement of rural environment For rural Development Efficient administration Many Rural development programmes started in past failed due to lack of Good GovernanceDemocratic Decentralization aims at developing rural areas by the people themselves with the support of good Governance by local bureaucracy. Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are the instruments to carry out the programmes of rural development for the benefit of rural people. Good Governance makes PRIs functional and efficient.: Democratic Decentralization aims at developing rural areas by the people themselves with the support of good Governance by local bureaucracy. Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are the instruments to carry out the programmes of rural development for the benefit of rural people. Good Governance makes PRIs functional and efficient . Panchayati Raj is a medium to transform rural India into 700 million opportunities. The key instrument for integrating economic reforms with institutional reforms in the countryside is Gandhiji’s farsighted goal of purna swaraj through Gram swaraj . this was given constitutional shape and sanction (73 rd Amendment)by shri Rajiv Gandhi’s vision of empowering PRIs to function as institution of self-government . Participatory panchayat system : Participatory panchayat system Participatory panchayat system introduced through the 73 rd Constitutional Amendment in 1993 was the most significant experiment in reforming governance in India for democratic decentralization and good governance. It was expected that this participatory panchayat system drawing strength from the constitutional provisions would emerge as effective tools of local self governance and would help in economic growth and social justice.Retrospect: Retrospect Self governing for village communities is not a new phenomenon it existed in India in Rig- vedic Period .we notice definite evidences of existence of village sabhas and gramins until 600 BC. These local bodies were the points of contact with higher authorities on matters affecting the villages and residents Later such village bodies developed into panchayats which looked after the affairs of the village. Prevalent customs and religion elevated the panchayats to a scared position of authority, which bestowed on them executive and judicial powers. The village society also witnessed the emergence of other panchayats like the jati-panchayats and nyaya panchayats that still exists in many villages in India. Charles Metcalfe has called it Little Republic. However the changing times and influence of foreign rule curtailed the scope and role of these panchayats . These were replaced by formal system of village administration.Road to 73rd Amendment: Road to 73 rd Amendment Decentralization remained a major issue during the British Raj, however, India’s national commitment to democratic decentralization took a back seat while drafting the constitution in the post independence period. On the insistence of Mahatma Gandhi and others the subject of decentralization was included in the Directive Principles of State Policy (Part IV of the Constitution) “ State should steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self government.”Road to 73rd Amendment: Road to 73 rd Amendment India’s development in the early fifties were planned without taking cognizance of the idea of “ Gram Swaraj ”. The Panchayati Raj in India picked up momentum in 1957 with the constitution of the Balwant Ray Mehta Committee to ensure the participation of the local community in development programmes . Three Tier System was recommended by this committee: Panchayats - Directly elected for a village or a group of villages Panchayat samiti - Executive body at Block Level Directly elected Plus Ex officio co-opted members Zila parished - Advisory Body with District Collector as ChairmanRoad to 73rd Amendment: Road to 73 rd Amendment Rajasthan became the first state to implement the recommendations of the Committee at Nagaur in 1959. By 1959 all states had passed the Panchayat acts and by mid 1960s panchayats were established through out India. More than 2,17,300 village panchayats , covering 96% of the 5,79,000 inhabited villages and 92% of the rural population were established.On an average a panchayat covered a population of 2400 covering 2-3 villages. During intial period panchayats worked with enthusiasm but with the passage of time a variety of weakness in the panchayat raj system surfaced. Lack of resources, lack of powers, and influence of economically & socially powerful elites. As a result regular elections were not held . Panchayats and Zila Parishads were bypassed and GOI started SFDA, TAD this reduced the power and downgraded the system.Road to 73rd Amendment: Road to 73 rd Amendment The panchayat movement in India reached a turning point in 1977 with the constitution of the Ashok Mehta Committee. The Committee gave its report in 1978 and suggested a two tier model but this suggestion was rejected at the Chief Minister’s Conference in 1979. Other important suggestions included direct elections to these bodies, reservations of constituencies for SC/STs and women , State government should not super cede the PRIs all development functions should be put under the Zila Parishad . PRIs should be allowed to mobilise resources by granting them powers of taxation. In 1985 G.V.K. Rao Committee was constituted for reviewing the administrative arrangements for rural development programmes and poverty alleviation scheme.Road to 73rd Amendment: Road to 73 rd Amendment It emphasised the need for a regular election to the panchayats . In the 1987 Singhvi Committee was formed for reviewing the functioning of the PRIs. It recommended reorganisation of villages for creating viable gram panchayats In the 1987 Singhvi Committee was formed for reviewing the functioning of the PRIs. It recommended reorganisation of villages for creating viable gram panchayats . The Singhvi Committee strongly recommended availability of greater financial resources to PRIs . However the Sarkaria Commission on Centre State financial Relations did not favoured this idea. Thungun Committee (1988) made recommendations for strengthening the panchayati raj system by way of constitution (64 th Amendment ) Bill was placed before the parliament but but it could not got through.Salient Features of the Act of 1992 73rd Constitutional Amendment : Salient Features of the Act of 1992 73 rd Constitutional Amendment To provide three tier system of PR for all states having a population of 20 lakh . To hold PR elections regularly every five years To provide reservation of seats to SC, ST, Women not less than 1/3 of Total Seats To appoint State Finance Commission to make recommendations regarding financial powers of the panchayats . To Constitute District Planning Committees to prepare the development plans for the district as a wholePowers and Functions of Panchayats: Powers and Functions of Panchayats According to the Constitution Panchayats shall be given powers and authority to function as an institution of local self government. The powers to be delegated are: Preparation of plan for economic development and social justice. Implementation of the scheme for economic development and social justice in respect to 29 subjects given in the eleventh schedule of the constitution To levy collect and appropriate taxes duties tolls and fees Provision of Gram Sabha ( Article 243A) for participation and TransparencyGram Sabha: Gram Sabha A Gram Sabha means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village within the area of a village panchayat . This lowest body of people is called by different names in different states. For example in W.B. it is known as Gram Sansad . Gram Sabha have the authority to supervise and monitor the functioning of the village panchayats . The Gram Sabha has the following powers: Examine the annual statement of accounts and audit report. Discuss and review the working of the panchayats and implementation of various schemes for which work has been completed and are declared as public documents. Any citizen interested in the affairs can access these documentsReasons for strengthening Panchayati Raj Institutions: Reasons for strengthening Panchayati Raj Institutions Good Governance- Decentralized –more accessible –more sympathetic and quicker to respond to local needs. Accountability Efficient utilization of resources efficient allocation Innovative solutions Sustainable in the long run Protection of liberty Protection of minorities Specific needs gets priority Removes institutional and local obstaclesPunchayati raj Institutions had been in existence for a long time ,but they had failed to acquire the status and dignity due to:: Punchayati raj Institutions had been in existence for a long time ,but they had failed to acquire the status and dignity due to: Irregular Elections, Prolonged suppression Inadequate Representation for women and weaker sections Insufficient devolution of powers Lack of financial resources Lack of Good governance These lacunae could not be rectified until appropriate constitutional support to the PRI was given and by including these features through constitutional reformsSlide 16: Thanks You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.