UNIT 15: GERUNDS: UNIT 15: GERUNDS PART VI: Gerunds and Infinitives Unit Overview: Unit Overview In this unit students will learn how to use gerunds : In every situation that nouns are used in: subject , object , subject complement , object complement , object of preposition After possessives In both active and passive constructions In present and past forms Vocabulary: Vocabulary Perceive : to think of someone or something in a particular way . Simplistic : treating difficult subjects in a way that is too simple. Long since : if something has long since happened , it happened a long time ago. Catch up on : to do something that needs to be done, that you have not had time to do before . Counterpart : someone or something that has the same job or purpose as someone or something else in a different place. Vocabulary: Vocabulary Spare someone’s feelings : to avoid doing something that would upset someone . Awfully : very . Engage in: to take part or become involved in an activity . Pursue : to continue doing an activity or trying to achieve something over a long period of time. Collapse : to suddenly sit or lied down , especially because you are very tired . Vocabulary: Vocabulary Punch a time clock : to record the time that you start or finish work by putting a card into a special machine. Put in: to spend time or use energy working or practicing something . Karaoke: the activity of singing to especially recorded music for fun . Jerk : someone who is stupid or who does things that annoy or hurt other people . Wilderness : a large area of land that has never been built on or changed by humans . Chauffer : to drive someone in your car. Comprehension Questions: Comprehension Questions Why doesn’t the author like the traditional description of friends as either true or false? He recognizes at least six types . What are the author’s six types of friends ? Convenience friends , special-interest friends , long -time friends , cross-generational friends , part -of-a- couple friends , and “ best ” friends . Why is Bill important to the author ? He is a father figure and mentor. Comprehension Questions: Comprehension Questions Who are Amanda and Gretta ? The author’s wife and the wife of a friend . Who is Ken? One of the author’s two “ best ” friends . Discussion Topics: Discussion Topics Do you think it’s possible to have a true friendship with a person of the opposite sex? Is it possible to be “ friends ” with your parents ? What about being friends with your teacher or sports coach? Grammar Presentation: Grammar Presentation Gerund as Subject Gerund ( Subject ) Verb Object Kayaking involves some risks . Swimming builds endurance . Not inviting him will cause resentment . Gerund as Object Subject Verb Gerund ( Object ) They enjoy kayaking . I went swimming . We don‘t advise not inviting him . Grammar Presentation: Grammar Presentation Gerund as Subject Complement Subject Verb Gerund ( Subject Complement ) My sport is skiing . His problem is not exercising . Gerund as Subject Complement Subject Verb Object Gerund ( Object Complement ) He spends time reading . She found him not working . Grammar Presentation: Grammar Presentation Gerund as Object of a Preposition Preposition Gerund She insists on going out every weekend . He’s accustomed to giving parties . They have a reason for not inviting Michael. Possessive + Gerund Possessive Gerund Bob and Helen worry about Emily’s having so few friends . her the children’s their Grammar Presentation: Grammar Presentation Active and Passive Gerunds Active Gerunds Passive Gerunds SIMPLE Inviting them to her wedding was a nice gesture on her part . Being invited to her wedding was a great surprise to them . PAST Having invited them to her wedding made her feel good . Having been invited to her wedding is a fond memory for them . Quick Pairwork: Quick Pairwork Categorize these sentences according to which patterns they represent in the charts: I was having difficulty finding a subject for this month column . I also remembered learning a rhyme . I see that my perceiving friendship in this way was pretty simplistic . I tried taking the bus. My brother’s passion is kayaking . We can go for months or years without contacting each other . We enjoy just catching up on each other’s activities . It’s someone who doesn’t avoid telling you what you need to hear . Other times we just like being together without saying much of anything . Grammar Notes: Grammar Notes Grammar Notes Examples A gerund is a noun made from a verb . To form a gerund add – ing to the base form of the verb . Gerunds and gerund phrases perform the same functions as nouns : They act as subjects . They act as objects . They act as complements ( phrases that describe or explain the subject or object of the sentence ). Add not before a gerund to make a negative statement . Cooking is my hobby. I like eating , too . Talking with friends is enjoyable . I love getting together with friends . Our favorite activity is playing cards . ( subject complement ) She has trouble making friends . ( object complement ) Not calling her was a big mistake . Grammar Notes: Grammar Notes Grammar Notes Examples Many verbs and verb phrases in English have gerunds as objects . Common examples : avoid , consider , enjoy , keep , mind . We often use go + gerund to talk about recreational activities : go skiing , go swimming , go hiking , etc. I enjoy meeting new people . You should avoid working late. We go skiing every weekend in the winter . Quick Pairwork: Quick Pairwork Go to Appendix 12 on page A-7. Look through the list of verbs followed by gerunds and choose five to base sentences on . Write sentences and exchange them with your partner . Grammar Notes: Grammar Notes Grammar Notes Examples Gerunds act as objects of prepositions . Many preposition combinations are followed by gerunds : Verb + preposition Adjective + preposition expressions BE CAREFUL! The word to can be a preposition or part of an infinitive . I made friends by joining a club. They insisted on giving us a present . She’s good at making friends . I’ll look forward to seeing you tonight . I am used to having a lot of friends . He will adjust to working hard . ( To is a preposition .) He tries to work hard . ( To is part of the infinitive .) Parenthesis: Parenthesis Review Appendix 13 on page A-7 and scan the list of adjective + preposition expressions . Feel free to ask questions you may have about them . Grammar Notes: Grammar Notes Grammar Notes Examples In writing and formal speaking , use a possessive noun or pronoun before a gerund to show possession . USAGE NOTE: In conversation , native speakers often use a name or an object pronoun before a gerund . Pete’s dominating every conversation bothers me. His dominating every conversation bothers me. I don’t like Pete dominating every conversation . I don’t like him dominating every conversation . Grammar Notes: Grammar Notes Grammar Notes Examples Gerunds can occur in simple or past form . We can use a simple gerund ( without a past participle ) to make a generalization . We can use a past gerund ( having + past participle ) to show an action that occurred before the action of the main verb in the sentence . NOTE: We use a past gerund to emphasize the difference in time between two actions . The simple gerund is also correct in many situations . Making friends is a natural thing to do. Having met Jane in my first week of college helped me throughout my college career . Having gone to college is one of the best things I’ve ever done. OR Going to college is one of the best things I’ve ever done. Grammar Notes: Grammar Notes Grammar Notes Examples Gerunds can occur in passive form . In the present , use being + past participle . In the past , use having been + past participle . BE CAREFUL! Many words in English end in – ing. Do not confuse gerunds with verbs in the progressive form , or with present participles used as adjectives or in adverb phrases . She hates being ignored . She’s still angry at having been ignored . I’ve been making friends at work . Mary is enrolled in a cooking class . Walking on the beach , I wondered why she was angry at me.