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Interpersonal Behavior: : 

Interpersonal Behavior: Chapter 11 Working with and Against Others

Learning Objectives : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 2 Learning Objectives Describe two types of psychological contracts in work relationships and the types of trust associated with each. Describe organizational citizenship behavior and ways in which it may be promoted. Identify ways in which cooperation can be promoted in the workplace. Describe the causes and effects of conflict in organizations. Describe the techniques that can be used to manage conflict in organizations. Identify two forms of deviant organizational behavior and how to minimize their occurrence.

Interpersonal Behavior : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 3 Interpersonal Behavior A variety of behaviors involving the ways in which people work with and against one another.

Psychological Contracts : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 4 Psychological Contracts People’s beliefs about what is expected of another in a relationship. Transactional Contract: A type of psychological contract in which the parties have a brief and narrowly defined relationship that is primarily economic in focus. Relational Contract: A type of psychological contract in which the parties have a long-term and widely defined relationship with a vast focus.

Psychological Contracts : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 5 Psychological Contracts

Trust : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 6 Trust A person’s degree of confidence in the words and actions of another. Calculus-Based Trust: A form of trust based on deterrence, whenever people believe that another will behave as promised out of fear of getting punished for doing otherwise. Identification-Based Trust: A form of trust based on accepting the wants and desires of another person.

Developing Trust : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 7 Developing Trust How trust develops: Some people tend to be more trusting than others People develop reputations for being trustworthy How to promote trust: Always meet deadlines Follow through as promised Spend time sharing personal values and goals

Prosocial Behavior : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 8 Prosocial Behavior Acts that benefit others. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): An informal form of behavior in which people go beyond what is formally expected of them to contribute to the well-being of their organization and those in it. Whistle-blowing: The disclosure by employees of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices by employers to people or organizations able to take action.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 9 Organizational Citizenship Behavior The more people believe they are treated fairly by the organization: The more they trust its management. The more willing they are to go the extra mile to help out when needed. Although the effects of OCB may be indirect and difficult to measure, they can be very profound. To promote OCB: Go out of your way to help others Be an example of conscientiousness Make voluntary functions fun Demonstrate courtesy and good sportsmanship

Organizational Citizenship Behavior : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 10 Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Whistle Blowing : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 11 Whistle Blowing

Cooperation and Competition : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 12 Cooperation and Competition Cooperation: A pattern of behavior in which assistance is mutual and two or more individual, groups, or organizations work together toward shared goals for their mutual benefit. Competition: A pattern of behavior in which each person, group, or organization seeks to maximize its own gains, often at the expense of others. Mixed-Motive Situations: Contexts in which people are interested in both competition and cooperation to varying degrees.

Cooperation vs. Competition : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 13 Cooperation vs. Competition When cooperating with one another, people contribute to attaining the same goal that they share. However, when competing against one another, people attempt to attain the same goal, which only one can have.

Determinants of Cooperation : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 14 Determinants of Cooperation The Reciprocity Principle Reciprocity: The tendency to treat others the way they have treated us. Personal Orientation Competitors Individualists Cooperators Equalizers Organizational Reward Systems Team-based Rewards: Organizational reward systems in which at least a portion of an individual’s compensation is based on the performance of his or her work team.

Personal Orientations : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 15 Personal Orientations Competitors: People whose primary motive is doing better than others, besting them in open competition. Individualists: People who care almost exclusively about maximizing their own gain and don’t care whether others do better or worse than themselves. Cooperators: People who are concerned with maximizing joint outcomes and getting as much as possible for their team. Equalizers: People who are primarily interested in minimizing the differences between themselves and others.

Cooperation between Organizations : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 16 Cooperation between Organizations Partnering with suppliers Promoting business growth Responding to external threats

Conflict : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 17 Conflict A process in which one party perceives that another party has taken or will take actions that are incompatible with one’s own interests. Causes: Perceptual distortion Grudges Distrust Competition over scarce resources Destructive criticism

Perceptual Distortion : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 18 Perceptual Distortion

Types of Criticism : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 19 Types of Criticism

Consequences of Conflict : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 20 Consequences of Conflict Negative Conflict yields strong negative emotions. Conflict may divert people’s attention from the task at hand. Communication between individuals or teams may be so adversely affected that any coordination of effort between them is compromised. Lowered coordination tends to lead to decrements in organizational functioning. Positive Conflict may improve the quality of organizational decisions. Conflict may bring out into the open problems that have been previously ignored. Conflict may motivate people to appreciate each other’s positions more fully. Conflict may encourage people to consider new ideas, thereby facilitating change.

Managing Conflict : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 21 Managing Conflict

Managing Conflict : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 22 Managing Conflict Bargaining: The process by which two or more parties in dispute with one another exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions in an attempt to find a mutually acceptable agreement. Approaches to bargaining: Two-Party Negotiation Alternative Dispute Resolution

Negotiating Win-Win Solutions : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 23 Negotiating Win-Win Solutions Win-Win Solutions: Resolutions to conflicts in which both parties get what they want. Suggestions for finding win-win solutions: Avoid making unreasonable offers Seek the common ground Uncover the “real” issues Broaden the scope of issues considered Integrative Agreement: A type of solution to a conflict situation in which the parties consider joint benefits that go beyond a simple compromise.

Alternative Dispute Resolution : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 24 Alternative Dispute Resolution A set of procedures, such as mediation and arbitration, in which disputing parties work together with a neutral party who helps them settle their disagreements out of court. Mediation: The process in which a neutral party (known as a mediator) works together with two or more parties to reach a settlement to their conflict. Arbitration: A process in which a third party (known as an arbitrator) has the power to impose, or at least to recommend, the terms of an agreement between two or more conflicting parties.

Mediation vs. Arbitration : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 25 Mediation vs. Arbitration

Types of Arbitration : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 26 Types of Arbitration Binding Arbitration: The two sides agree in advance to accept the terms set by the arbitrator, whatever they may be. Voluntary Arbitration: The two sides retain the freedom to reject the recommended agreement. Conventional Arbitration: The arbitrator can offer any package of terms he or she wishes. Final-Offer Arbitration: The arbitrator chooses between final offers made by the disputing parties themselves.

Deviant Organizational Behavior : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 27 Deviant Organizational Behavior Actions on the part of employees that intentionally violate the norms of organizations and/or the formal rules of society, resulting in negative consequences. Types of Deviant Behavior: Incivility Cyberloafing Workplace Aggression Workplace Bullying Employee Theft

Deviant Behavior : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 28 Deviant Behavior

Incivility : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 29 Incivility Demonstrating a lack of regard for others and denying them the respect they are due.

Cyberloafing : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 30 Cyberloafing The practice of using a company’s email and/or Internet facilities for personal use.

Aggression and Bullying : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 31 Aggression and Bullying Workplace Aggression: Acts of verbal and physical abuse toward others in organizations, ranging from mild to severe. Causes: High trait anger Positive attitude toward revenge Past experience with aggression Workplace Bullying: The repeated mistreatment of an individual at work in a manner that endangers his or her physical or mental health.

Workplace Bullying : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 32 Workplace Bullying

Tips for Avoiding Aggression : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 33 Tips for Avoiding Aggression Establish clear disciplinary procedures Treat people with dignity and respect Train managers in ways to recognize and avoid aggression

Employee Theft : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 34 Employee Theft The taking of company property for personal use. Tips for reducing theft: Involve employees in the creation of a theft policy Communicate the costs of stealing Treat people fairly Be a good role model

Employee Theft : 

© Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 35 Employee Theft

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