Education for Justice and Peace Empowering Harmony at Individual & Com

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Education for Justice and Peace Empowering Harmony at Individual & Community Levels :

Education for Justice and Peace Empowering Harmony at Individual & Community Levels Dr. Vibhuti Patel, Director, PGSR Professor and Head , Post Graduate Department of Economics, SNDT Women’s University, Smt. Nathibai Thakersey Road, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Tel  91) (22) 22052970 Mobile-9321040048 E mail: 1

Sustaining Harmony :

Sustaining Harmony Justice, Equality and Peace in the family, in the community, in the country and in the world. Harmony at the grassroots is best promoted by those whose stakes are high: the urban and rural poor. peace is not the absence of conflict, peace is the absence of oppression Putting concerns of the oppressed center-stage to ensure development is equitable and sustainable. 2

History of Communalism in India:

History of Communalism in India Partition and Communalism Historical Considerations The ‘they’ and ‘us’ divide Faces of India’s political pogrom Attacks on Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Dalits Identity Politics: The Shah Bano controversy Ideological Attacks on Secular forces: Building up of Tension (1085-1992) Gender, Identity and Violence-Sex Segregation, Dress Code, Moral Policing, Attacks on Right to Work & FHHs, Communalised Education, VAW, Ban on Inter-caste, Inter-religious and Inter-racial Marriages. Sachar Committee Report 3

Approaches to Peace & Conflict Resolution (Peace Education Working Group –UNICEF) :

Approaches to Peace & Conflict Resolution ( Peace Education Working Group –UNICEF) “ The process of promoting the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values needed to bring about behavior changes that will enable children, youth and adults to prevent conflict and violence; both overt and structural; to resolve conflict peacefully; and to create the conditions conducive to peace whether at an intrapersonal, interpersonal, inter-group, national or international level ” 4

Promoting Tolerance & Peaceful Existence:

Promoting Tolerance & Peaceful Existence Transformative Education : Unlearning casteism, sexism, communalism, ethnic chauvinism, racism Collaboration in Reciprocity : Mutual respect, respect for plural lifestyles- dress code, food habits, music, art, craft, aesthetics, cultural-national history Dialogue among Cultures : Cross cultural get-to-gathers, festival celebrations, quiz, study tours of shrines, liberative dimensions of religions (Acknowledgement: “Spirituality & Intercultural Dialogue”) 5

Mahatma Gandhi on Violence:

Mahatma Gandhi on Violence If I can have nothing to do with the organized violence of the Government, I can have less to do with the unorganized violence of the people. I would prefer to be crushed between the two. For me popular violence is as much an obstruction in our path as the Government violence. Indeed, I can combat the Government violence more successfully than the popular. For one thing, in combating the latter, I should not have the same support as in the former. I make bold to say that violence is the creed of no religion and that, whereas nonviolence in most cases is obligatory in all, violence is merely permissible in some cases. But I have not put before India the final form of nonviolence. I object to violence because, when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent. 6

NCERT on Peace Education:

NCERT on Peace Education To educate children and adults in the dynamics of conflict and promote skills of peacemaking in our homes, schools, community, the nation, and the world. In India the National Council for Educational Research and Training of the Government of India calls it education for peace and aims at having it replace values education in Indian schools. But worldwide there are such diverse terms for peace education as "human rights education." "environmental education," "international education," "conflict resolution education," and "development education," each with a particular focus. The program that has been briefly outlined to you contains aspects of all of these. A wide variety of such approaches exist worldwide. 7

Effectivity of Peace Education:

Effectivity of Peace Education Peace Education become more effective, when it is adapted according to the social and cultural context and the needs of a society. It is enriched by that society's cultural and spiritual values along with universal human values. For example, these same published and yet-be published materials for Indian schools are based on what are termed universal human values such as love, reciprocity, empathy and concern for others, and justice and fairness. Such values can be included in peace education for schools throughout the world. But at the same time this curriculum, being developed in India, reflects Indian social problems, Indian culture, its strong religious beliefs, and the country's needs especially as the curriculum moves up to higher age levels. 8

Lessons fro History:

Lessons fro History In the past, peace education centered on the causes of war, an issue that grew as nations developed the capacity of destroying the whole human race many times over. But today the scope of peace education includes not only the causes, the nature, and the terrible consequences of war but also the study of violence in all forms. Such forms of violence include conflict, threat to life, ethnic hatred, discrimination, prejudice, racism, injustice, genocide, poverty, violence in the home and family, destruction of the environment, and so forth. A basic aim of peace education is to save humankind from destroying a large portion or all of itself. Once we become aware of our suicidal behavior, peace education points out to us the alternatives that can gradually slow down and stop this mad rush. As H.G. Wells put it, human beings are embarked upon "a race between education and catastrophe." Will we win or lose that race? 9


Nonviolence in the civil rights struggle has meant not relying on arms and weapons of struggle. It has meant noncooperation with customs and laws which are institutional aspects of a regime of discrimination and enslavement. It has meant direct participation of masses in protest, rather than reliance on indirect methods which frequently do not involve masses in action at all. Nonviolence has also meant that my people in the agonizing struggles of recent years have taken suffering upon themselves instead of inflicting it on others. It has meant, as I said, that we are no longer afraid and cowed. But in some substantial degree it has meant that we do not want to instill fear in others or into the society of which we are a part. The movement does not seek to liberate Negroes at the expense of the humiliation and enslavement of whites. It seeks no victory over anyone. It seeks to liberate 10 Acceptance Speech of Martin Luther King Jr. The Nobel Peace Prize 1964

Conflict Resolution :

Conflict Resolution refers to the process of resolving a dispute or a conflict permanently, by providing each sides' needs, and adequately addressing their interests so that they are satisfied with the outcome. Teach effective conflict resolution and peace building skills to build bridges of cultural understanding and mutual respect through art and media. Amnesty International- Taking care of survivors-Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, counseling- Conflict analysis and prevention; Mediation and conflict resolution ; Post-conflict peace and stability operations; Religion and peacemaking Anthropologist-Ravinder Kaur’s article on Valentine’s Day 14-2-09 in TOI, Dharma Kumar’s article after 1984 riots in TOI 11

No Peace without Social Justice Sarvajan Hitay, Sarvajan Sukhay:

No Peace without Social Justice Sarvajan Hitay, Sarvajan Sukhay Civil Rights Movement: Dr. Martin Luther King Anti War Movement of 1970s: “No to Bombing of Vietnam” Tamil refugees (1988) Kashmir (1990) Afghanistan, Iraq (2000 onwards) Conflict Transformation, Media Development, Child Protection, Project Management, Humanitarian Assistance, Human Rights Protection, human development-Health, education, employment UN Refugees-Accountability Retributive Justice : international War Crimes Tribunals Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Gujarat: Punishing the guilty Restorative Justice : Rebuilding shattered lives Reconciliation : Collaborative work, community based work, trust building 12

Three stages of Conflict Resolution:

Three stages of Conflict Resolution Peace building is the process of restoring normal relations between people. It requires the reconciliation of differences, apology and forgiveness of past harm, and the establishment of a cooperative relationship between groups, replacing the adversarial or competitive relationship that used to exist. E.g. OLAKH, PUCL & SAHIYAR (Vadodara) Peacekeeping is the prevention or ending of violence within or between nation-states through the intervention of an outside third party that keeps the warring parties apart. Unlike peacemaking, which involves negotiating a resolution to the issues in conflict, the goal of peacekeeping is simply preventing further violence.  (The UN Peace Keeping Force, UNHCR in Afghanistan) Peacemaking is the term often used to refer to negotiating the resolution of a conflict between people, groups, or nations. It goes beyond peacekeeping to actually deal with the issues in dispute, but falls short of peace building, which aims toward reconciliation and normalization of relations between ordinary people, not just the formal resolution which is written on paper. (Peace rallies, appeals, efforts thro’ media) 13

Peace Begins from Home Women’s Initiatives: 25th Nov. to 10th Dec :

Peace Begins from Home Women’s Initiatives: 25 th Nov. to 10 th Dec Moholla Committee Movement after Mumbai Riots in 1993 Manipur: 2004 Hunger strike Nagaland: Women’s Protest Burma: Peace Rally Tibet: Demanding comprehensive dialog with H.H. the Dalai Lama Latin America: Mothers of Missing Children Women’s Rights are Human Rights 14

Teachers without Borders:

Teachers without Borders If wars begin in the human mind, then it is through our minds – through education – that war can be vanquished by peace. Teachers can lead the way towards peace in their classrooms and communities. By providing teachers with a framework for peace education, we are contributing to the growing movement towards a global culture of peace. 15

Justice & Peace Commission, Mumbai Community work, Peace festival, MIHRE:

Justice & Peace Commission, Mumbai Community work, Peace festival, MIHRE 16

Exposing the game of:

Exposing the game of Competitive Communalism between Majority & Minority communities carefully engineered & crafted by their elites to retain their power-base Hindu-Muslim, Shia-Sunni, Muslim-Christian Use of child soldiers as cannon fodder by fundamentalists/ terrorists People’s Initiatives in Kashmir, Iran, Gujarat Ethnic Strife in Kenya- Multi tribe alliance against Kibaki from wealthy Kikuyu tribe Crosscutting of Economic divide & identity Politics 17

Religion as an ethic that informs human actions/ projects:

Religion as an ethic that informs human actions/ projects Integrated humanity founded on peace & justice Deconstructing the discourse around monolithic construction of “Muslim” identity or “Christian Identity” and projecting concerns for social justice, gender justice and distributive justice Countering exaggerated sense of paranoia about Muslim or Christian identity in our country that keeps in check all the other contradictions & solidarities Liberation theologies within Hinduism, Sufism, Christianity, Buddhism, materialist school 18

To give peace a chance, make peace the story :

To give peace a chance, make peace the story Faith: “In every conflict, there is always something retrievable” Popularize peace journalism Felicitations of persons involved in rescue operations and rehabilitation -Sisters without Borders -Nurses of Cama Hospital in the midst of terrorist attack on 26-11-08. -Gujarat Riots-Unsung heroes & heroines 19

Five Priorities:

Five Priorities Dialogue, communication, networks- CSSS Contemplation-Communalism Combat Community Life-Moholla Committee Justice, peace & integrity of creation in solidarity with the most vulnerable- JPC Simple living, Solidarity for Social/Economic Justice Focus on Youth: Sports for peace, quiz for peace, songs for peace, debate/discussion on peace, painting for peace, Theatre for peace, politics for peace, Rereading history of Wars & Peace (Acknowledgement: : “Spirituality & Intercultural Dialogue”) 20

Vasudhaiv Kutumbkam for Local as well as Global Harmony:

Vasudhaiv Kutumbkam for Local as well as Global Harmony Let us celebrate and promote the spirit and philosophy of satyam, sivam, sundaram (Truth, Goodness, Beauty) and live life purposefully and peacefully. The concept of vasudhaiv kutumbakam – the world is but one family - culture of peace and global citizenship should be inducted into all aspects of human life and education, especially humanities. 21

International Peace Museum, Dayton :

International Peace Museum, Dayton The Peace Museum  honors Dayton-native Sister Dorothy Stang with an exhibit in the Dayton room. Sister Dorothy spent half her life in Brazil and the Amazon, starting in 1966. She joined the religious order of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur in Cincinnati in 1948, and remained active in the order until her brutal killing on February 12, 2005. Her message was nonviolent throughout her life. She worked to save the Amazon from deforestation by lumberjacks, wealthy cattle ranchers, and soybean farmers. Brazil exports these products at growing costs to the earth's environment. Dorothy Stang led a movement of peasants for a sustainable use of the rain forest. The exhibit will remain as part of our permanent collection. 22

Peace through Art:

Peace through Art The Peace Gallery was created by Returned Peace Corps Volunteers (RPCVs) to help fulfill the Third Goal of the Peace Corps - to help promote a better understanding of other people and cultures around the world. The Peace Gallery began in 1997 to support the third goal of the Peace Corps - "to strengthen understanding about the world and its peoples." With hundreds of photos with descriptions by returned Peace Corps Volunteers, the Peace Gallery provides a view of the world rarely seen outside of the Peace Corps experience 23

Peace Rallies:

Peace Rallies There were over 67,000 people protesting the Vietnam war. They all ended up at Kezar after the march (Spring Mobilization) to hear speakers, songs, etc. I was looking for a way to symbolize the crowd with the message. I saw the peace symbol with streamers and the crowd combination. The shot made up itself. In 2004, over one million people in different part of our Globe had candle light marches to stop US invasion in Iraq. 24


THOUSAND CRANES PEACE NETWORK The Thousand Cranes Peace Network is made up of groups and individuals who are willing to fold a thousand paper cranes (or as many as they can manage) as a symbol of their hope for, and commitment to, peace and non-violence. A visit to the Peace Park and the Peace Memorial Museum allows the visitor a glimpse into the horror of the world's first use of the atomic bomb against people on 6 August 1945. It is a reminder that we must work together to make sure that such a tragedy never happens again. 25

Thank You:

Thank You 26

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