Gender Perspectives to the Issues and Challenges in Higher Education R

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Gender Perspectives to the Issues and Challenges in Higher Education:

Gender Perspectives to the Issues and Challenges in Higher Education A presentation By Dr. Vibhuti Patel Director, PGSR Professor and Head P.G. Department of Economics, S.N. D. T. Women’s University, Mumbai E mail: Mobile- 9321040048 Phone-91-022-27770227 1

Promises of National Policy for Empowerment of Women, 2001:

Promises of National Policy for Empowerment of Women, 2001 Equal access to education for women and girls will be ensured. Special measures will be taken to eliminate discrimination, universalize education, eradicate illiteracy, create a gender-sensitive educational system, increase enrolment and retention rates of girls and improve the quality of education to facilitate life-long learning as well as development of occupation/vocation/technical skills by women. Reducing the gender gap in secondary and higher education would be a focus area . Sectoral time targets in existing policies will be achieved, with a special focus on girls and women, particularly those belonging to weaker sections including the Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes/Other Backward Classes/Minorities. Gender sensitive curricula would be developed at all levels of educational system in order to address sex stereotyping as one of the causes of gender discrimination. 2

Three main factors are vital: :

Three main factors are vital: societal attitudes to women which discourage their participation in decision-making; their lower enrolments in higher education to date (although here, patterns are rapidly changing in all regions); the absence of a gender dimension in the higher education curriculum. Women will certainly not accede to leadership posts in higher education or in society in greater numbers until these issues are addressed. 3

UNESCO/Commonwealth Secretariat study “Women in Higher Education Management” identified the principal barriers:

UNESCO/Commonwealth Secretariat study “ Women in Higher Education Management” identified the principal barriers limited access to education, especially higher education; discriminatory appointment and promotion practices; the stresses of dual family and professional roles; family attitudes; career interruptions; cultural stereotyping; alienation from the male culture and continued resistance to women in management positions; propagation of the glass ceiling syndrome which privileges covert criteria for advancement; Administrative power with men, academic responsibility with women absence of adequate policies and legislation to ensure the participation of women. 4

Participation in Decision Making:

Participation in Decision Making Decision-making attests to the empowerment of the various actors involved. At the present time, far too few women possess this attribute. Education facilitates empowerment which is essential for the participation of women in all aspects of the development process. Furthermore, higher education provides the expertise usually required for the key posts which shape policy in all fields. Hence its particular importance for women is obvious. 5

Macro Economic Policies and Predicament of Women in Higher Education:

Macro Economic Policies and Predicament of Women in Higher Education Neo-liberal approach Human Development Approach vs Human Capital Formation Even though higher education was inexpensive or almost free during the first four decades after independece (1950-1990), yet access was not easy for women. It has been denied to the disadvantaged groups and especially women from these groups because of social and economic reasons. There were two very pertinent reasons for this. First, these institutions offer mostly ‘masculine’ subjects. Second, they are very expensive and a longstanding understanding of the social situation of women indicates that a majority of the parents are reluctant to invest in the education of their daughters whose education does not have a production value because her income goes to the groom’s family. Marriage versus Career dichotomy- opportunity cost 6

Gender and Economics of Education:

Gender and Economics of Education In the drive for privatization, women as students are the main losers as parents channelise financial resources for son’s education, daughter’s education is considered to be less important. NAAC study reveals that there is ghettoisation of women in general higher education (Arts and Commerce) and mostly men throng professional colleges (Engineering, Architect, Medicine, Science & Technology). 7

Where are the Indian Women in the knowledge economy ?:

Where are the Indian Women in the knowledge economy ? Education is a necessity for all and not just a luxury for those who can afford it. Therefore, it must be a top concern for India as she ventures into the future, since without a solid educational spine, her economy will no longer be able to stand the test of time. At present only 7 % of total India women have been able to enroll for higher education institutions. 8

Need for a reversal of these trends by :

Need for a reversal of these trends by means of wider access higher education, review of appointment and promotion procedures, provision of legislative and infra-structure support in all professions special programmes for mentoring women for induction in decision making bodies affirmative action to favour women's access and participation while awaiting a genuine change in attitude towards full gender equality and institutional and governmental support through clear and effective policies which are actually enforced. Support services: transport, crèche, hostel, counseling, bridge courses 9

The Gender Dimension of the University Curriculum:

The Gender Dimension of the University Curriculum - Must offer stimulating role models for women students; - Must Provide encouragement and build their confidence - Must present male-dominated careers in a light which is more attractive to women. Moreover, since development theory acknowledges that the gender dimension has become a key factor in any solutions proposed for global problems, gender mainstreaming in higher education is a MUST. 10

Profile of Women in Higher Education in India:

Profile of Women in Higher Education in India Access/Participation at Undergraduate Level Institutional Good Practice for Gender Equity in Higher Education-30% reservation of girls in engineering colleges, IITs Scholarships-Ministry of Science and Technology Women Graduates and Decision-making: Policy, positions, mandated power, not symbolic Cultural Barriers Affecting Women, Higher Education and Development Strategies for the New Millennium 11

Affirmative Action:

Affirmative Action “Equal opportunities offered in circumstances of inequalities of endowment an environment will only perpetuate the existing patterns of inequality” Affirmative action strategies to reduce inequities of access generally have a bad name; whether from the traditionalists who see them leading to the watering down of standards or among some women who see them as devaluing their credentials if all women are viewed as having entered under these strategies. 12

Women in Higher Education Governance:

Women in Higher Education Governance Women's Legal Rights The Critical Mass Factor Adapting Cultural Traditions The Challenges of Leadership Institutional Commitment to Gender Equity Feminine Leadership The Social Responsibilities of Higher Education Challenge gender bias, women’s agency, dignity 13


Recommendations The state must provide women with solid foundation in mathematics and science subjects; discourage the system of tracking students into arts and science streams at the second level of education, provide childcare facilities at the institution of higher learning. In situations where particular fields of study have to be pursued in another country, create special funding for married women so that their spouses can accompany them; provide a means through which the issues of gender inequality can be addressed both formally and informally, at all levels of society 14

Challenging Tasks:

Challenging Tasks Decision-making role of women in higher education as also in the larger polity around needs to be guarded and nurtured for all women so that women can make themselves heard as a public voice of judgment - heard by both men and women; Expansion of gender dimension in educational curriculum - not only in higher education but all levels, and particularly in science and technology curriculum - should be meant for the public domain of judgment, of both men and women alike. Access of women to higher education. Here, although positive discrimination in their favour is called for in general, emancipation of the subaltern women requires a priority over public protection of the elite women's interests. This, therefore, should be based on the private domain of personal interests rather than public domain of universalism; Access to tertiary employment after completion of higher education 15

Three broad outcomes of education :

Three broad outcomes of education Thank you 16

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