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Premium member Presentation Transcript Nursing Leadership & Management: Delmar Learning Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company Nursing Leadership & Management Patricia Kelly-Heidenthal 0-7668-2508-6Chapter 8 : Delmar Learning Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company Chapter 8 Leadership and ManagementObjectives : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 3 Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to: Define management. Describe the management process. List 10 roles that managers fulfill in an organization. Explain management theories. Discuss motivation theories. Define leadership and explain its importance for organizations.Objectives : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 4 Objectives Differentiate between leadership and management. Describe characteristics of effective leaders. Identify leadership styles. Explain Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory of leadership. Discuss transformational leadership theory.Definition of Management : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 5 Definition of Management Management can be defined as a process of coordinating actions and allocating resources to achieve organizational goals.Management Theories : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 6 Management Theories Ideas of management can be found in ancient Samaria and Egypt as early as 3000 B.C. Most current understanding of management comes from the later 1800s.Management Theories: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 7 Management Theories Scientific Management: 1900–1930 Bureaucratic Management: 1900–1920 Administrative Management: 1900–1930 Human Relations: 1930–1970Motivation Theories : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 8 Motivation Theories Motivation is a process that occurs internally to influence and direct a person’s behavior in order to satisfy his or her needs.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Needs occur in a hierarchy. Needs must be satisfied at one level before a person is motivated to satisfy needs at the next level.Hygiene and Motivation Factors: Herzberg: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 10 Hygiene and Motivation Factors: Herzberg Maintenance or hygiene factors are necessary for neutral job satisfaction—salary, job security, working conditions, status, quality of supervision, relationships with others. Motivation factors are intrinsic and provide motivation and enhanced job satisfaction—achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, opportunity for development.Theory X and Y: McGregor: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 11 Theory X and Y: McGregor This theory focuses on two contrasting attitudes. Theory X suggests that employees prefer security, direction, and minimal responsibility; employees are uncreative and must be coerced or threatened to get them to work. Theory Y suggests that employees can exhibit self-control and discipline; employees can be creative and intrinsically motivated by work.Theory Z: Ouchi : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 12 Theory Z: Ouchi This theory is based on observations of Japanese organizations. It views organizations and workers more holistically. The emphasis is on collective decision making, long-term employment with slower promotions, and less direct supervision.The Changing Nature of Managerial Work: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 13 The Changing Nature of Managerial Work Fewer managers, more responsibility Nurse-managers increasingly manage systems, not just groups of nursesDefinition of Leadership : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 14 Definition of Leadership Leadership is commonly defined as a process of influence whereby the leader influences others toward goal achievement. Formal and informal leadership Formal leadership is based on occupying a position in an organization, called assigned leadership. Informal leadership occurs when an individual demonstrates leadership outside the scope of a formal leadership role or as a member of a group, rather than as the head or leader of the group. The informal leader can be considered to emerge as a leader when accepted by others and perceived to have influence.Leadership and Management Are Different : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 15 Leadership and Management Are Different Leadership is about creating change, and management is about coping with complexity. Leadership characteristics Leaders focus on a professional and purposeful vision that provides direction toward the preferred future. Passion expressed by leaders involves the ability to inspire and align people toward the promises of life. Leaders possess integrity based on knowledge of self, honesty, and maturity developed through experience and growth.Leadership Theories: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 16 Leadership Theories The major leadership theories can be classified according to the following approaches: Behavioral Approach Contingency Approach Contemporary ApproachBehavioral Approach: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 17 Behavioral Approach Autocratic leadership involves centralized decision making, with the leader making decisions and using power to command and control others. Democratic leadership is participatory, and authority is delegated to others. The democratic leader uses expert power and the power base afforded by having close, personal relationships to be influential. Laissez-faire leadership is passive and permissive, and the leader defers decision making.University of Michigan and Ohio State University Studies: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 18 University of Michigan and Ohio State University Studies Employee-centered leadership was considered more effective and was described as having a focus on the human needs of subordinates. Job-centered leadership was seen as less effective for its focus on schedules, cost, and efficiency and the resulting lack of attention to developing work groups and high performance goals.Leader Behavior: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 19 Leader Behavior Initiating structure involves an emphasis on the work to be done, a focus on the task and production. Leaders who focus on initiating structure are concerned with how work is organized and on the achievement of goals. Consideration involves activities that focus on the employee and emphasize relating and getting along with people. The leader is involved in creating a relationship that fosters communication and trust as a basis for respecting other people and their potential contribution.Contingency Approaches: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 20 Contingency Approaches Contingency theory acknowledges that other factors in the environment influence outcomes as much as leadership style and behavior.Fielder’s Contingency Theory: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 21 Fielder’s Contingency Theory Fiedler’s theory views leader behavior as dependent upon the interaction of the leader’s personality and the needs of the situation. The needs of the situation or how favorable the situation is toward the leader involves leader-member relationships, the degree of task structure, and the leader’s position power.Fielder’s Contingency Theory: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 22 Fielder’s Contingency Theory Leader-member relations are the feelings and attitudes of followers regarding acceptance, trust, and credibility of the leader. Task structure means the degree to which work is defined with specific procedures, explicit directions, and goals. Position power is the degree of formal authority and influence associated with theHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 23 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Situational leadership theory emphasizes follower readiness as a factor in determining leadership style. Follower readiness, called maturity, is assessed in order to select one of four leadership styles for a situation: Telling: high task, low relationship behavior Selling: high task, high relationship behavior Participating: low task, high relationship behavior Delegating: low task, low relationship behaviorPath-Goal Theory: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 24 Path-Goal Theory In this leadership approach, the leader works to motivate followers and influence goal accomplishment. Directive Style provides structure through direction and authority; leader is focused on the task and getting the job done. Supportive Style is relationship-oriented; the leader provides encouragement, interest, and attention. Participative Style focuses on involving followers in the decision-making process. Achievement-oriented Style provides high structure and direction as well as high support through consideration behavior.Substitutes for Leadership : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 25 Substitutes for Leadership Substitutes for leadership are variables that may influence or have an effect on followers to the same extent as the leader’s behavior: Experience, ability, training Professionalism Structured, routine tasks Feedback provided by the task Intrinsic satisfaction Cohesive group Formalized organizationContemporary Approaches : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 26 Contemporary Approaches Contemporary approaches to leadership address the leadership functions necessary to develop learning organizations and lead transforming change.Charismatic Leadership Theory : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 27 Charismatic Leadership Theory Charismatic leaders display self-confidence, have strength in their convictions, and communicate high expectations and their confidence in others. They have been described as emerging during a crisis, communicating vision and using personal power and unconventional strategies.Transformational Leadership: Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 28 Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership theory is based on the idea of empowering others to engage in pursuing a collective purpose by working together to achieve a vision of a preferred future.Future Directions : Chapter 8 Copyright © 2003 Delmar Learning, a Thomson Learning company 29 Future Directions The organization of the future is the knowledge organization composed of knowledge workers. The New Leadership A new view of leadership encompasses connectedness and self-organizing systems that follow a natural order of both chaos and uncertainty, which is different from a linear order in a hierarchy. The leader’s function is to guide an organization using vision, to make choices based on mutual values, and to engage in the culture to provide meaning and coherence. This type of leadership fosters growth within people both as individuals and as members of groups. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.