theories of leadership and motivation

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Theories of leadership and motivation


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Guided By :- Mr. Rajiv Harris Peter Submitted By :- Pushpendra Khatri An Assignment On Organisation Behavior Session 2011 BBA 2st sem CVRU CVRU

Introduction of leadership:

Introduction of leadership Leadership is an integral part of management and plays a vital role in managerial operations .thus , leadership is an inseparable aspect of managing. The ability to lead effectively is a key to better managerial performance. Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for accomplishing group objectives. In the process of leadership, one who attempts to influence the behavior of others becomes a potential leader and the persons he is attempting to influence are the potential followers. The style of influencing differs from individuals to individual. Thorough a style of functioning, a leader influences attitudes and expectations, which in turn encourage or discourage the follower’s activity and enhance or diminish the follower’s commitment to work and productivity, etc.

Definition of leadership:

Definition of leadership “Leadership is the process by which an executive imaginatively directs, guides and influences the work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals by mediating between the individuals and the organization in such a manner that both will obtain maximum satisfaction.” “As the or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals.”

A Leadership Story::

A Leadership Story: A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port. The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress, making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible. Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree.

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And shouts down to the assembled group below… “Wrong Way!” (Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Simon & Schuster). “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker ) A Leadership Story

Types of Leadership Style:

Types of Leadership Style

Theories of Leadership:

Theories of Leadership 1. "Great Man" Theories: Great man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Learn more about the great man theory of leadership . 2. Trait Theories: Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.

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3. Contingency Theories: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation. 4. Situational Theories: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. Theories of Leadership

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5. Behavioral Theories: Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism , this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. 6. Participative Theories: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. Theories of Leadership

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7. Management Theories: Management theories, also known as transactional theories , focus on the role of supervision, organization and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. Learn more about theories of transactional leadership . 8. Relationship Theories: Relationship theories, also known as transformational theories, focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards. Theories of Leadership

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Introduction of motivation:

Introduction of motivation Motivation connotes to a dynamic driving force, which emanate from within. It is an “inner striving condition which activates or moves individual into action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically.” motivation is related to the motives of the people-by what they are moved and activated to achieve their goal. Managers, by definition are required to work with and through people so they must get at least some fundamental understanding of the forces that motivates the people they are to manage.

Definition of motivation:

Definition of motivation “A motive is an inner state that energises, activates or moves and directs or channels behaviour towards the goal.” Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organisational goals , conditioned by the effort and ability to satisfy some individual needs.”

Characteristics of motivation:

Characteristics of motivation 1. Motivation is a psychological Concept 2. The whole Individual is motivated, not part of Him 3. Motivation is an unending Process 4. Frustration of Basic Needs Makes a Man Sick 5. Goals are Motivators

Types of Motivation:

Types of Motivation (1) Achievement Motivation (2) Affiliation Motivation (3) Competence Motivation (4) Attitude Motivation (5) Incentive Motivation (6)Fear Motivation (7) Power motivation



Theories of Motivation:

Theories of Motivation 1) Contribution of Robert Owen : 2) Jeremy Bentham’s “The Carrot and the Stick Approach” : 3) Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory” : 4) “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor : 5) Contribution of Rensis Likert : 6) Frederick Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory : 7) Contributions of Elton Mayo :

“Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor ::

“ Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor : McGregor, in his book “The Human side of Enterprise” states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees, McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior towards subordinates according to these assumptions.

Under the assumptions of theory X ::

Under the assumptions of theory X : Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition.

In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y ::

In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y : Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals. Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. That the way the things are organized, the average human being’s brainpower is only partly used.

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On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word “authoritarian” suggests such ideas as the “power to enforce obedience” and the “right to command.” In contrast Theory Y organizations can be described as “participative”, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated; individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization. However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior.



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