Primary and secondary sources

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The aim of the lesson is : :

The aim of the lesson is : To understand Primary and secondary sources To study-what kind of questions you need to analyze the document To compare and contrast sources To explain new topic-July crisis and starting of WWI-total war;

Definition of Primary source :

Definition of Primary source A primary source is an original document containing firsthand information about a topic. Different fields of study may use different types of primary sources.

Definition of Secondary source:

Definition of Secondary source A secondary source contains commentary on or discussion about a primary source. The most important feature of secondary sources is that they offer an interpretation of information gathered from primary sources. Since there may be more than one valid opinion about a topic, several secondary sources are necessary to get a complete picture.

Some common examples :

Some common examples Primary sources letters diaries Photographs original works of art Original works of literature secondary sources Biographies journal articles dissertations monographs and indexes/abstracts

Identify following of information as primary or secondary. :

Identify following of information as primary or secondary. An article in a medical journal commenting on the possible impact of a new surgical procedure Sense and Sensibility, a novel by Jane Austen first published in 1811 A biography of a WWI soldier’s wife The motion picture Casablanca, produced in 1943 A letter from Wilhelm II to Nicolay II expressing his opinions on World Policy . Statistics gathered by the U.S. Census

Ask Jeneral questions: :

Ask Jeneral questions: What is stereotype? What is subjective point of view? What are Bias? What is perspective?

Discussion question :

Discussion questio n In your opinion, Which source is more valid-Primary or secondary? Explain

Source evaluation:

Source evaluation O P V L Remember it and use it in practice all the time, when you will analyze any source

O - Origin - Who What When Where :

O - Origin - Who What When Where Where did the document originate? Date? Locale? In what context? Origin is where the source comes from: author/artist, date it was written/finished, which country the author/artist was born in, where the source was actually produced, in which media (newspaper, book, letter, etc) it is presented.

P- purpose - Why? :

P- purpose - Why? What do you think the author was trying to convey in this document? What principles or statements of interest are offered? Purpose is where you have to put yourself in the author/artist's shoes. What do you think they were trying to communicate to readers? What ideas/feelings were they trying to express? (The purpose is especially important when it comes to pieces of propaganda as sources).

V- value:

V- value How valuable is this source? In comparison to other sources? Is the source a primary or a secondary source? Value is how valuable this source is. Basically it's linked to the amount of bias in the source: the more bias = the less valuable (usually). Primary sources are obviously more valuable than secondary/tertiary ones. Oh and obviously if you're doing something on Hitler's feelings towards Jews, a diary entry from him would be more valuable than a historian's account of how he felt.

L- limitation :

L- limitation At what point does this source cease to be of value for you, the analyst? What part of the historical narrative is not covered in this document? How can this document be verified? Limitations is also linked to bias, each source will be at least a little biased and thus they are limited by that. If the source has been translated from the original (e g. Hitler's diary entry was translated into English by a historian and you're using the historian's book as a source) then the language difference will be another source of inaccuracy and a limitation.

: Task::

: Task: Find in library or at home Primary and Secondary sources Write on the papers: Title of Source Data author publisher Brief explanation- is source primary or secondary?

Bibliography: :

Bibliography: http://www.slideshare.net/Chella555/primary-vs-secondary-sources http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/hollyjm-359599-primary-secondary-sources-presentation1-education-ppt-powerpoint/ http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Cozzarelli-371595-primary-secondary-sources-education-ppt-powerpoint/ http://www.library.illinois.edu/village/primarysource/mod1/pg3.htm http://www.mrker.net/OPVL%20Varela.pdf

The German Declaration of War on Russia (July 19th Russian calendar) :

The German Declaration of War on Russia (July 19th Russian calendar) Presented by the German Ambassador to St. Petersburg The Imperial German Government have used every effort since the beginning of the crisis to bring about a peaceful settlement. In compliance with a wish expressed to him by His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, the German Emperor had undertaken, in concert with Great Britain, the part of mediator between the Cabinets of Vienna and St. Petersburg; but Russia, without waiting for any result, proceeded to a general mobilization of her forces both on land and sea. .. … I have the honor, on the instructions of my Government, to inform your Excellency as follows: His Majesty the Emperor, my august Sovereign, in the name of the German Empire, accepts the challenge, and considers himself at war with Russia.