baby care products

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GENERAL The skin of the infant and the adult differs both histological and physiologically in many respects It is less hairy , thinner and less cornified in infants There is tendency towards peeling and flaking of skin during first 3 weeks after birth Sebaceous glands are present in the newborn and start functioning early.

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Sebaceous glands are present in the newborn and start functioning early Being comparatively thin , skin of infant is expected to be more permeable to topical agents applied They are mainly concerned with keeping the baby clear and comfortable


FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF BABY PRODUCTS From the foregoing account it appears that most skin problems in babies occur because of wrapping of them in tightly fitting garments providing warm and stagnant environment for growth bacteria From the functional point of view ,baby skin care product should protect baby skin from hostile environment by cleaning the skin thoroughly from sebum , grime and excreta

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There is no dearth of expert opinions on the best method of cleaning but many of them are contradictory and confusing The types of products which are available for babies are same as that for adults, e.g., soap, oils, lotions, etc. Many formulations are tempted to include a germicidal in baby skin products, common examples being cetyl pyridinium chloride and benzethonium chloride


BABY OIL Though there is some evidence that oils used and greasy materials can, by occluding the skin surface, predispose infants to prickly heat ,but surprisingly baby oil remains a popular product

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In the formulations of baby oil , bland vegetable oils like ground nut oil, lanolin derivatives and some higher alcohols can be used The most popular brands of baby oils contain mineral oil of high purity without perfume or a trace of perfume with solubilizer

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Formulae 1, 2 , 3 are examples of products containing mineral oil only, vegetable oil and mixture of mineral oil and vegetable oil. FORMULA 1 mineral oil 100.00

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FORMULA 2 Groundnut oil 100.00 Anti oxidant q.s. FORMULA 3 Mineral oil 60.00 Groundnut oil 40.00 Anti oxidant q.s.


BABY CREAM AND LOTIONS Traditionally baby creams and lotions can be prepared by using triethanolamine stearate , an anionic emulsifier . Formula 4 are examples of this type of products

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FORMULA 4 Mineral oil 25.0 Lanolin 1.5 Stearic acid 1.0 Triethanolamine 0.5 Stearyl alcohol 0.5 Cetyl alcohol 0.5 Sodium alginate 0.3 Water to make 100.0 Preservatives q.s.

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Non-ionic emulsifiers based on sorbitol can also be used in baby cream and lotions Formula 5 are examples of this type of products

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FORMULA 5 Mineral oil 35.0 Lanolin 1.5 Cetyl alcohol 1.0 Sorbitan oleate 2.0 Polysorbate80 5.0 Di-methecone 5.0 Water to make 100.0 Preservatives q.s.

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Polyoxyethylene sorbitan lanolin derivatives are through to be fairly mild These have been used in baby products Formula 6 illustrates use of polyoxyethylene sorbitan lanolin derivatives

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FORMULA 6 Mineral oil 20.0 Stearic acid 10.0 Bees wax 3.0 Lanolin 1.0 PEG-20 sorbitan lanolate 5.0 PEG-40 sorbitan lanolate 1.0 Sorbitol 10.0 Water to make 100.0 Preservatives q.s.

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Emulsifier based on sucrose esters of palmitate and stearic acids are mild and non-toxic These are avilable overseas under the trade name “crodestas” Crodestas are admixtures of di- and tri-esters of sucrose Formula 7 illustrates a baby lotion and formula 8 illustrates a baby cream

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FORMULA 7 Mineral oil 24.8 Crodesta F 70 3.0 Crodesta F 160 0.5 Hydroxy ethyl cellulose 0.2 Water to make 100.0 Preservatives q.s.

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formula 8 Mineral oil 32.0 Cetearyl alcohol 0.5 Petroleum jelly 5.0 Lanolin alcohol 1.0 Crodesta formula 110 3.0 Glycerin 2.5 Water to make 100.0 Preservatives q.s.

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Anti septic baby lotion and cream can be prepared using cationic quaternary ammonium compounds like pyridinium chloride Lotions and creams invariably contain small amount of free fatty acids These free fatty acids will inactive cationic compound on a molecular basis Thereafter an excess of quaternary compound is required It may be calculated from acid value of the oily phase


BABY POWDER These powders are intended to make the infant feel more comfortable and to help prevent skin rashes that arise from or aggravated by excess moisture Main ingredients are stearates, colloidal clay starch and talc These powders are usually only lightly perfumed and not perfumed at all These powders are free from boric acid

In the absence of any reproducible method of test for absence of grit the following method may be used:

In the absence of any reproducible method of test for absence of grit the following method may be used Take 20g sample of material in a beaker Remove by overflow under a carefully controlled steady stream of water a larger portion of material The grit being heavier will remain in the beaker along with some powder Test the residue in beaker by rubbing between the finger and thumb for the presence of grit

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If grit is present then the given sample fails the test and vice versa Baby powder shall be free from glit colouring matter and may be buffered to control pH

Determination of matter insoluble in boiling water:

Determination of matter insoluble in boiling water PROCEDURE Weigh 1g of material(wet with rectified spirit) Add 200ml of water , boil , allow to settle Filter (gooch crucible) Wash the residue with water dry at 105 ±2 ◦ c to aconstant mass

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Matter insoluble in boiling water present by mass=M ¹/M *100 M¹=mass in ‘g’ of the residue M=mass in ‘g’ of material taken for test


DETERMINATION OF FINENESS: 2.5(75), 0.5(150) PROCEDURE 10g of material placed in the specified 15 sieve Wash with slow stream of running tap water Dry the sieve containing residue on steam bath Dry the residue to a constant mass at 105 ±2 c

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Material retained on the specified sieve present by mass=M ¹/M*100 M¹=mass in ‘g’ of the residue retained on the specified sieve M=mass in ‘g’ of the material taken for the test


DETERMINATION OF PH OF AQ. SUSPENSION:5.5-8.0 10g of material in 150ml beaker Add freshly boiled and cooled water stir well Determine the PH of suspension using PH meter with in 5 mts


DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE AND VOLATILE MATTER:2.0 PROCEDURE 5g of material dry in hot air oven at temp:105 ±2 c to constant mass Moisture and volatile matter percent by mass=M¹/M*100


TEST FOR ARSENIC:20 PROCEDURE 2g of sample incinerate about 2hrs for at 550 c Treat with mixture of 5ml conc sulphuric acid and add nitric acid Take to fumes on hot plate cool and again take to fumes with hydrofluoric acid Cool and dissolve in water upto 100ml From above take 50ml Carry out test for arsenic Using for comparision stain obtained with 0.002mg ofAS2O3


BABY SOAP Baby soap shall possess good cleaning and lathering properties, is normally a mixture of alkali salts of long-chain fatty acids. Triglycerides for example tallow, palm oil and coconut oil, provide the basic ‘fats’ from which the fatty acid mixture used for soap are derived

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The finished soap properties are primarily dependent on the mixture and ratio of triglycerides used. Tallow , for example, gives a much harder soap than coconut oil. Potassium soap are much softer than their sodium based counterparts , although, in practice, they are rarely used. The finished soap bar can be modified by the addition of other ingredients . Such as emollients opacifiers and chelating agent.


DETERMINATION OF NICKEL: NILL REAGENTS :NaoH, CONC. Hcl, dimethyl glyoxime soln, saturated bromine water. PROCEDURE ISOLATION OF METAL FROM SOAP 50g of soap dissolve in hot water Add 40ml of conc. Hcl , heat until fatty acid layer separates Add 20g paraffin wax , stirr and allow to settle cool to room temp Remove wax cake, rinse with water , add rinsings to aq. Phase of evaporate to 60ml Make up to 100ml (test soln


DETERMINATION OF NICKEL CONTENT Take 50ml of aliquot (evaporate to 15ml) Add 3ml bromine water (1mts) Add 5ml liquor ammonia (ppt formed) Filter, add 10ml dimethyl glyoxime soln and add 15-20ml 95%ethanol Kept for 5mts for development of colour The sample shall be considered to have passed the test if no pink colour develops


DETERMINATION OF IRON :10ppm REAGENTS :liquor ammonia, sulphuric acid, citric acid, thioglycollic acid, std iron soln, methyl red indicator PROCEDURE 5ml of test soln (metals are isolated from soap) Add 4ml citric acid add 0.02ml methyl red +liquor ammonia (yellow colour)

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Add 3ml liq.ammonia in excess Cool and add 3ml thioglycollic acid Make upto 25ml , filter Measure absorbance at 540nm using water as blank Prepare calibration curve with std from soln and determine iron content of soap sample from it


DETERMINATION OF COPPER :3ppm REAGENTS :std copper soln, zinc dibenzyl di thiocarbonate +25ml sulphuric acid PROCEDURE 20ml aliquot+10ml zinc dibenzyl dithiocarbonate+25ml sulphuric acid shake for 1min Collect the lower ccl4 layer in a vf Wash the aq. Layer with ccl4 layer in a vf Make up the volume, absorbance at 435nm Prepare calibration curve with std copper soln Determine the copper content of soap sample from curve

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