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Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The English Monarchy Faces of History: Eleanor of Aquitaine Other European Monarchies Map: The Holy Roman Empire The Growth of Monarchies

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Reading Focus How did the power of the English monarchy grow and change? How did kings increase their powers in the other monarchies of Europe? Main Idea The power of kings grew and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the early Middle Ages. The Growth of Monarchies

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Alfred drove the Viking forces north of London to what became the Danelaw, a territory under Viking control. England was one of the first countries in Europe to develop a strong central monarchy. Under the Anglo-Saxons, who first unified the country, and then under the Normans, who conquered the Anglo-Saxons, the English kings exercised considerable power. The English Monarchy

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Alfred’s descendants ruled England for most of next two centuries 1066, king died without heir; two men claimed throne: Harold, Anglo-Saxon nobleman from England; William, duke of Normandy in France Supported by English nobility, Harold named new king The Norman Conquest

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French Culture William, Normans introduced elements of French culture into England Most of England’s new nobles born in France, spoke French, practiced French customs Most of lower classes kept old Anglo-Saxon language, habits Domesday Book William ordered survey taken to learn more about kingdom Wanted to know who lived in each part of England, what they owned, how much they could afford to pay in taxes Resulting in Domesday Book, used to create central tax system for England

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The English in France

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By about 1200 the power of the English king started to worry some nobles. They feared kings would abuse their powers. Magna Carta

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Dissatisfaction Magna Carta addressed many concerns, but some nobles still not satisfied King constantly asked for approval to raise taxes of which they disapproved 1260s, nobles began another rebellion to obtain say in how kingdom was run Powers For several years the powers of Parliament remained undefined Edward I one of first kings to clarify role of Parliament, work effectively with governing body Parliament As part of agreement to end rebellion, king agreed to meet with members of nobility, clergy, middle class to discuss key issues facing country Resulting council developed into English governing body, Parliament Parliament

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Central Government Strengthened 1295, Parliament summoned by Edward included nobles, clergy, representatives from every English county, town Had power to create new taxes, advise king on lawmaking, royal policy Edward strengthened England’s central government, reformed system of laws Saw Parliament as tool for strengthening monarchy, not limiting it; kept Parliament in secondary role to power of king

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Summarize How did Magna Carta and Parliament change the English monarchy? Answer(s): reduced the king's power, formed a council (Parliament) that would create new taxes and advise the king on lawmaking

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The changes in the English monarchy were unique. During the Middle Ages, kings in other European countries also worked to gain more power, but their experiences were different from those of he English rulers. Other European Monarchies

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Empire Split Emperor Charlemagne had unified most of western Europe into one empire After his death, the empire split into two parts Western part became France; eastern part became known as Germany Otto Worked to unite German lands, conquered parts of northern Italy 962, aided Pope John XII, rewarded by being named Emperor of the Romans Territories united under Otto became known as Holy Roman Empire Germany France remained somewhat unified under one king Germany separated into several small states, each with own ruler, or duke 936, Otto the Great gained enough support to become king of the Germans Holy Roman Empire

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Holy Roman Empire Called holy because empire had pope’s support Called Roman because Charlemagne had title Emperor of the Roman People Emperors Elected 1100s, Holy Roman emperors did not inherit position, were elected upon death of emperor Group of electors—dukes, archbishops—chose successor Holy Roman Emperors Made decisions, passed laws with help of dukes Dukes maintained full authority on own lands Crowned by Pope Person chosen by electors had to travel to Rome Pope had to crown new emperor before his power fully recognized Description of Empire

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Growth of monarchy in Spain, Portugal coupled with religious struggles Today the two countries share Iberian Peninsula, which had been conquered by Muslims in early 700s Muslims, called Moors by Christians, built powerful state centered in city of Cordoba. Christians ruled only few kingdoms in far northern part of peninsula Spain and Portugal

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Victories Together three Iberian kingdoms won victory after victory over Moors Early 1100s, Portuguese drove Moors completely out of their lands, established Kingdom of Portugal Modern Spain Modern Spain has origins in late 1400s Royal marriage between rulers of Aragon and Castile united two kingdoms Combining countries and power, they ruled one of strongest countries in Europe Pushing South Rulers of Aragon and Castile continued to push south, captured Cordoba 1236 Christians pushed Moors almost all the way out of Spain within a few years Moors not driven completely off Iberian Peninsula until 1492 Victory over Moors

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Analyze How did rulers in France, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain gain power? Answer(s): by acquiring new land and territories through alliances, marriage, and conquest

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