Diversity in living organisms: Diversity in living organisms classification: classification Early Attempts at Classification Organisms need to be grouped into meaningful categories Over time categorization has become much more specific and simplified Naming organisms John Ray - first to use the term “species” SPECIES - Organisms that are similar in shape/structure and they reproduce with each other to create viable offspring evolution: evolution Evolution , or change over time, is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. Charles Darwin first described this idea of evolution in 1859 in his book origin of species . Seven classification groups of living things: Seven classification groups of living things Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Monera: Monera They don’t well defined body. Unicellular structure Mode of nutrition –heterotropes/autotropes PROTISTA: PROTISTA Protist kingdom: Protist kingdom Unicellular; microscopic Nucleus present Eukaryotic Autotrophic or heterotrophic Fungus kingdom: Fungus kingdom Eukaryotic Made up of hyphae No root, stem and leaf No chlorophyll Saprophytic or parasitic Reproduce by forming spores Plant Kingdom: Plant Kingdom Eukaryotic Most plants contains photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis Autotrophic Can be divided into two groups: Non-flowering plants Flowering plants Thallophyta: Thallophyta Aquatic May be unicellular or multicellular No root, stem or leaf Contain photosynthetic pigments (e.g. chlorophyll) for photosynthesis Bryophyta: Bryophyta Amphibians of plant kingdom . Have stems & leaves of the structure. No tissues for water . E.g –finaria, marcantia PTERIPHYTES: PTERIPHYTES Slide 16: Well defined body. Specialised tissues present . Presence of naked embryos called as spores. These have 2 types of plants – Angiosperms Gymnosperms Gymnosperms : Gymnosperms Reproduction by producing seeds Seeds develop in cones, not enclosed by fruits naked seeds Needle-shaped leaves to reduce water loss Angiosperms : Angiosperms These are called flowering plants. These have two types of plants - Monocotyledons Dicotyledons With flowers for reproduction Seeds are produced inside the fruit (matured ovary) Slide 20: The Animal Kingdom GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: Most complex of all kingdoms Multicellular (made of many cells) They obtain food from OUTSIDE SOURCES They move from place to place to get food They swallow their food and they digest food inside the body. 9 Phyla of the Animal kingdom : 9 Phyla of the Animal kingdom Porifera 6) Mollusca Coelenterata 7) Echinoderm Flatworms 8) Arthropoda Roundworms 9) Chordata Segmented worms Slide 22: The Animal Kingdom Porifera : Means “having pores” Ex: sponges Slide 23: The Animal Kingdom Coelentrata: Sac-like body Have tentacles Ex: hydras, jelly fish, coral, sea anemones Plathy-helminthes: Plathy-helminthes Bilateral symmetry of body Tissue organisations Triploblastic Lack of body cavity Types : 1. free leaving – eg :planaria 2. parasitic –eg : tapeworms Slide 25: Echinoderms: Means “spiny-skin” Star shaped Spiny Ex: Starfish & Sea Urchin Slide 26: Arthropoda: Makes up 75% of the animal kingdom Basic Characteristics: hard external skeleton segmented body jointed legs Ex: beetle, milli & centipede, spider, crab Slide 27: Chordata: Vertebrates Have internal skeleton Vertebral column Limbs Ex: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals Slide 28: Molluska: Hard shell surrounding soft body parts Live in water & damp places Examples: Snail, & Sea Scallop Only a few do not have shells: Octopus & Sea slug Nematoda: Nematoda Bilaterally symmetrical Triploblastic Pseudocoelum Tissues present, no real organs present Normal parasitic eg: ascaries Filaria worm Annelida: Annelida Triploplastic, well differentiated True coelum present Well organised body Segmented Habitat – soil, water eg : earthworm, leech Protochordata: Protochordata Long rod-like structure which separte the nerve system from gut Muscles helps into movement attach Bilaterally symmetrical Triploblastic Body cavity - eg : harmonia, aphiorus Vertabrata : Vertabrata Presence of vertebral column Presence of moto chord Dorsel nerve chord Triploblastic Body cavity present These are grouped into 5 classes Pisces: Pisces Acquatic organisms Streamlined body Respiratory organ – gills Scales are present Two chambered heart Skeleton structure Amphibia: Amphibia Oviporous Scales present Mucus skin 3 chambered heart Respiratory organ: lungs or gills Habitate – water and land Eg : toad, frog Reptilla:
Reptilla Oviporous, lay egg in land Tough skin
: Lung 3 chambered heart Eg : snake, cobra, flying lizards
Aves: Aves Oviporous, lay egg in land Skin covered with feathers Respiratory organ: lung 4 chambered heart Eg : ostrich, crow, etc Mammals: Mammals Viviporous, give birth to young ones Respiratory organ – lung 4 chambered heart Warm blooded organisms Presence of sweet, oil, mammary glands – eg: whale, dolphin. PROJECT BY ACHALA ADIGA. : PROJECT BY ACHALA ADIGA.