Plant embryogenesis

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P. Moorthi Biochemistry:

Plant embryogenesis P. Moorthi Biochemistry

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Plant cells have rigid cell walls , can't migrate . shape is based on the rate and direction of cell division and cell elongation. Although plants develop three basic tissue systems ( dermal, ground, and vascular ) Plant development is continuous. New plant organs are formed throughout their life by clusters of embryonic cells called meristems .

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apical cell basal cell

Plant Development :

Plant Development Growth and differentiation of cells, Tissues, organs, organ systems Flowers Zygote Embryo seeds

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seed formation and germination

flower:

flower Nectar

Imperfect flower Plants:

Imperfect flower Plants Melons, Cucumbers Pumpkins holly

Perfect flowers:

Perfect flowers Contain both male and female parts in the same flower. Peas, beans, and iris are examples of perfect flowers. Flowers attract pollinators with sweet nectar, bright colors, and shapes and structures that accommodate particular pollinators

Plants without flowers :

Plants without flowers The simplest plants do not flower . Plants such as ferns, mosses , and lichens produce spores instead of seeds. Ferns produce their spores on the undersides of the leaves (fronds) in structures called sporangia .

POLLINATION :

POLLINATION SELF-POLLINATION: citrus, lettuce, tomato, okra,tobacco , eggplant, cotton, soybean, rice, wheat,peanut , field bean CROSS-POLLINATION: maize, rye, Crotalaria juncea, sorghum , onion, cabbage, carrot, passion flower, castor bean, sunflower, cucurbits, brassicas

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CROSS-POLLINATION

Insect Pollination and Wind Pollination :

Insect Pollination and Wind Pollination

Age of flower development in some woody plants in the seedling phase. :

Age of flower development in some woody plants in the seedling phase. Rose ( Rosa spp.) 20-30 years Beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) 30-40 years Oak ( Quercus robur ) 25-30 years Redwood ( Sequoiadendron giganteum ) 20 yeasr Ivy ( Hedera helix) 5-10 years Scotch pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) 5-10 years Citrus ( Citrus spp.) 5-8 years Apple ( Malus spp.) 3-8 years Grape ( Vitis ) year from Hartmann and Kester’s Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, 7th edition (2002).

FERTILIZATION:

FERTILIZATION sperm cell (n) + egg cell (n) ZYGOTE (2n) EMBRYO TRIPLE FUSION: sperm cell (n) + polar nuclei (2n) ENDOSPERM NUCLEUS (3n)

Internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo.:

I nternal structure of a dicot seed and embryo. seed coat, endosperm, cotyledon, hypocotyl .

Steps of Seed Germination :

Steps of Seed Germination Seed structure Requirements for seed germination Factors affecting seed germination Steps of seed germinations

Seed dormancy :

Seed dormancy Exogenous dormancy, Physical dormancy Mechanical dormancy Chemical dormancy Endogenous dormancy Physiological dormancy Drying Photodormancy Thermodormancy Morphological dormancy Combined dormancy Combinational dormancy