perspectives on leadership

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Puts together some of the interesting insights into the issue of leadership

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Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany External and internal contexts of business are increasingly fragmented, equivocal, and changing which require modification of conventional concepts of leadership and followership. Specific factors; such as the rise of organizational crises, increasing demotivation ( Wunderer & Küpers , 2003), and corporate scandals as well as a growing awareness of environmental, social, and ethical issues triggering a greater emphasis on the search for meaning; are also contributing to heightened uneasiness, inadequacies, and the wish for another kind of leadership (e.g., Mitroff , 2003; Quinn, 2004; Senge & Carstedt , 2001). Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany person-centered and dyadic perspective (House & Aditya , 1997) and often rely on the heroic leadership stereotype ( Meindl , Ehrlich, & Dukerich , 1985; Yukl , 2002). influence is seen as unidirectional, flowing from the individual leader to the individual follower, represents an entitative , egocentric, monological , and modernist orientation reconstructs hierarchical subject-object relations (Brown & Hosking, 1986; Dachler & Hosking, 1995). relations between leaders and followers are represented as interactions and mechanisms between independent individuals. Conventional approaches dominating the discourse in leadership research and practice take a Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany leader’s relating is reduced to an individual action performed to know about and to achieve influence over the other. leaders are positioned as knowing and structuring and as having power and being able to act rationally as centered subjects to structure peoples and worlds. use rhetoric or language for the purposes of controlling; finding out about and representing, rather than coconstructing , independently existing contexts. emphasis is on the relationship between the monadic persona (abilities, traits, characteristics, and actions) of the leader and, via cause-effect relations, the outcomes of the social milieu or situations within which the leader appears to operate ( Rost , 1991). Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany leadership education, development, and training; consists of formatting and evaluating the traits or behaviors of leaders and leaders-to-be and attempting to modify them through different means in order to achieve gains in efficiency, productivity, competitiveness, and profitability ( Dotlich , Noel, & Walker, 2004; Quinn, 1996). perpetuate leaders’ self-preoccupations through their emphasis on self-development, self-awareness, and self-improvement (Jones, 2005); causing leaders to become preoccupied with their identity and restricted in their understanding of multiple influences and of followers ( Kofman & Senge , 1993; Mitroff , 2003; O’Toole, 2001). Thus, what prevails in this entitative discourse is the leader’s standpoint (Harding, 1991) while positions and perspectives of followers as subordinates are not given their own legitimacy, meaning, and relevance Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany followers have been systematically devalued (Alcorn, 1992) considered only as they are available to be known and manipulated in given subject-object relationship. Thus, followership has been either neglected or restricted to a focus on followers’ attributions of exceptional qualities to leaders or performance. As followership has been an understudied topic in the academic literature, only little attention has been given to followers sui generis, who accord or withdraw support to leaders. As a counter- balance,follower -centric approaches (Hollander, 1978, 1992a, 1992b; Kelley, 1992; Meindl , 1987, 1993, 1995) emerged. Based on an inherently subjectivistic , social psychologist, and constructionist view; Meindl (1995) offered a follower-centric approach that views both leadership and its consequences as largely constructed by followers and hence influenced by followers’ cognitive processes and interfollower social influence processes. The nonconventional approach of a romance of leadership ( Meindl , 1987) defines leadership as an experience undergone by followers; it “emerges in the minds of followers” ( Meindl , 1993, p. 99). Thus, leadership is conceptualized by group members and their social context and network of relationships as well as interfollower processes and dynamics ( Meindl , 1993). For Hollander (1978); the locus of leadership resides at the juncture of the leader, the follower, and the embedding situational context. The reciprocal interdependence of leadership and followership have been underestimated (Hollander, 1992a, 1992b), and followers have not been seen as sufficiently integral to the leadership process (Marion & Uhl -Bien, 2001). Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany The nonconventional approach of a romance of leadership ( Meindl , 1987) defines leadership as an experience undergone by followers; it “emerges in the minds of followers” ( Meindl , 1993, p. 99). Thus, leadership is conceptualized by group members and their social context and network of relationships as well as interfollower processes and dynamics ( Meindl , 1993). For Hollander (1978); the locus of leadership resides at the juncture of the leader, the follower, and the embedding situational context . The reciprocal interdependence of leadership and followership have been underestimated (Hollander, 1992a, 1992b), and followers have not been seen as sufficiently integral to the leadership process (Marion & Uhl -Bien, 2001). Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Figure 1. The modified holonic leadership/followership occasion with its part/whole relationship (M. Edwards, 2006 an integral understanding of leadership and followership (as actual occasions) focuses on the specific interconnected processes of intentional, behavioral, sociocultural , and systemic domains . With these domains, the inner spheres of a leader and follower and their respective external, behavioral aspects as well the collective embedment of leadership and followership can be assessed equally Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany integral theorizing differentiates two basic polar dimensions of holons and development that are an interior-exterior and an individual/agency-communal dimension. The crossing of these dimensions gives four quadrants representing four different perspectives of interior-agency or self and consciousness. While the first quadrant involves the intrapersonal or internal reality of a person; the second domain treats the individual/external aspects. The third quadrant encompasses collective internal communal issues. Finally, the last quadrant covers the collective external aspects. It is the quadrant of structural or functional order, mechanisms and systemic conditions. Figure 2 shows as an overview the different spheres of integral leadership and followership. The horizontal axis presents a continuum between internal and external realities, and the vertical axis a continuum between individual and collective holonic realities. Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Quadrant I. Quadrant I is the individual/internal aspects and involves the intrapersonal or internal reality of a person lived here by a leader or a follower as an individual this quadrant comprises the readiness and self-management for motivation and commitment to self, to a goal, or to an organization. In this quadrant, the focus is on helping organizational members see what their leadership and followership style might be so that they get more insight into themselves and their impact on others. It also deals with the psychological, cognitive, emotional, and volitional dimensions of an individual leader or follower and how these impact the organization and its development. Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Quadrant II. The second quadrant treats the individual external aspects of enacted leadership and followership . . This is the area of external traits, knowledge, concrete skills and their practice, embodied action, accountability,and performance levels that can be measured and refined training and development opportunities that support the development and enactment of competencies and peak performance as well as coaching, planning, decision making, and any skill that develops individual effectiveness are part of this quadrant . followers manage performance-related resources, staff, and time efficiently and check that tasks and costs are on target and are being carried out correctly . Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Quadrant III. The third quadrant deals with the collective internal aspects of leadership and followership. In this quadrant, crucial ingredients for sustainable organizational success such as organizational integrity and morale are also addressed. This world of the we is characterized by a common language and signs that can be understood, communicated, and shared with others. It also includes the levels of consciousness expressed at the collective level One the one hand, leadership exerts various influences upon this area; on the other hand, it is very much codetermined by the followers leadership and its relationship to followership vary from one culture to another. Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Quadrant IV. The final quadrant covers the collective external aspects of leadership and followership this is where thinking about the organization as a performance system is important. The leadership and followership focus of this area is on issues such as how to design the organization to perform at higher levels or how the creative forces show up in the way the organization runs. It covers tools such as the structuring of external management and group conditions and processes; financial strategies; means of production; and techniques of marketing, information, and communication technologies. This realm also includes relationships and negotiating with the next level of the organization or industry stakeholders to obtain resources and factors relevant for the organization. This includes keeping in contact with customers and ensuring that the services and products are meeting their needs Approaches focusing on organizational structure and external context (Osborn, Hunt, & Jaush , 2002) or functional or resource-related orientations as well as different systems theories of leadership generally emphasize the lower right, systemic quadrant Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany all four quadrants are important for effective practice and development of leaders and followers. Similarly, the quality of development in each domain is dependent on the presence and relationships among all quadrants of each domain. In other words, to understand and enact leadership and followership in an integral fashion, all four quadrants need to be explored and related to each other. integral understanding of influence and power in leadership and followership would include a phenomenological analysis of the subjective feelings, thoughts, meaning, and projections of sovereign individuals (consciousness quadrant); enactments and observations of rules and roles of corresponding individuals’ behaviors (behavior quadrant); a prompting of the tools and processes used and realized at the collective level in relation to power and authority together with uncovering its normative sociocultural dimensions of control (culture quadrant); and functional and structural aspects such as governance of resources (system quadrant). Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany capacities, potential, needs, and interests of both the leader and followers (I); their behaviors (II); their interrelation and collective embedment within a culture (III); as well as the goals, structures, and functioning of the organization as a system (IV). That is the intrasubjective , objective, intersubjective , and interobjective spheres between the interior and exterior as well as individual and communal need to be seen as an interwoven nexus Figure 4. Multidimensional and multilevel model of integral leadership/followership. An all-quadrant approach is an essential presupposition for effective leadership and followership practice Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Figure 5. Modified figure of the levels and lines of development and domains of integral leadership /followership (M. Edwards, 2004, 2005) An integral leadership/followership theory acknowledges leaders and followers as complex beings who mature and develop over time in relationship to physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and spiritual lines and recognize that they have desired transcendent-related work accomplishments (Sanders, Hopkins, & Geroy , 2003) progressing through the stages of human development. Unpacking the significance of levels and lines simply means that a leader, a follower, or a group or organizational system can be at a fairly high level of development in some lines (i.e., cognitive), at a medium level of development in other lines (i.e., interpersonal), and at a fairly low level in yet others (i.e., moral). This makes intuitive sense as we all know persons or groups who are advanced in some skills (e.g., highly intelligent) but not as developed in others capabilities or competencies (e.g., less empathetic or ethical). Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

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Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Figure 6. Modified integral cycle of leader-followership (M. Edwards, 2004). Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership

Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership:

Perspectives on Integrating Leadership and Followership Wendelin Küpers University in Hagen, Germany Credit to all the great professors ,Educators, who have provided the resources for this presentation I am sharing .

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