Women in Development, Women and Development, Gender and Development

Category: Education

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Conventional indicators of development such as modernization, technological development, Mechanization, automation, urbanization, industrialization are critiqued by women’s studies as they have bypassed and marginalized women. They have provided three approaches to understand women’s role in the micro-meso and macro economy. There has been a coexistence of three approaches for women's developmen


Presentation Transcript


1 WID-WAD-GAD Dr. Vibhuti Patel, DIRECTOR, P.G.S. R. Professor and Head, Post Graduate Department of Economics, SNDT Women’s University, Smt. Nathibai Thakersey Road, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Tel  91) (22) 22052970 Mobile-9321040048 E mail: vibhuti.np@gmail.com

Feminist Critique:

2 Feminist Critique Conventional indicators of development such as modernization, technological development, Mechanization, automation, urbanization, industrialization are critiqued by women’s studies as they have bypassed and marginalized women. They have provided three approaches to understand women’s role in the micro-meso and macro economy.


3 Concepts Gender – gender is a social construct, the cognitive & perceptional mechanisms by which biological differentiation is translated into social differentiation 2.      Gender relations – refer to the socio-economic, political and cultural relations between men & women. 3.      Gender sensitvity/ awareness – A traing process enabling the participants to understand the notion of gender & how it applies in the lives & behaviour of people. 4.      Gender equity – provides a level playing field for men & women so that they have a fair chance to realize equal outcomes. 5.      Womens' empowerment – enabling women to realize their power & ability to do things , which they could not do before. Gender identity – is our perception of self as psychologically male or female. 12. Gender role – refers to the expectation that go along with being male versus female

Trends in Feminism:

4 Trends in Feminism Liberal Feminists - Those who focus on the constitutional guarantees of equal treatment of men and women are known as liberal feminists. Marxist Feminsts - Those who locate women’s subordination in a class contradictions are known to be Marxist feminists. Radical Feminists consider ‘patriarchy’ as main culprit for women’s woes.

Trends in Feminism:

5 Trends in Feminism Socialist Feminists believe that women’s predicaments are determined by the complex interplay of class, caste, race, religion, ethnicity with patriarchy. Hence the need for deconstructing patriarchy in a different socio-cultural, geo-political and historical contexts. Psycho Analytical Feminists focus on individual journeys of women to arrive at mental make up and internalization of values by the people concerned. They critique Freud for its misogyny but also acknowledge Freud’s analysis of childhood experiences playing important role in the rest of the life.

Trends in Feminsm:

6 Trends in Feminsm Post Modern Feminists contest hegemony of meta theories and dominant discourses and bring to the fore the voice of the subjugated, oppressed and marginalized. They emphasise ‘decentreing’ from the mainstream. Eco-feminists believe that women’s role in the subsistence economy is crucial for the survival of the humankind. Women have symbiotic relationship with mother-nature. Male dominated development models are violent towards mother earth and women .

Trends in Feminism:

7 Trends in Feminism Black Feminists- Race is the central reality for the black feminists though they also challenge the patriarchal/male domination. Womanist is a contribution of Afro American feminists who believe that in spite of barbaric experiences of slavery, subjugation and horror the black culture/celebrations have survived due to women’s resilience. There is a need to promote this celebrations/cultural legacies thro’ heritage of oral histories, legend, grandmothers’ stories. They believe that the non-while and coloured women must be proud of HERSTORY instead of aping the white, consumerist, oppressive male culture.


8 WID Women in Development model explains the reasons for women being treated as beneficiaries of the crumbs thrown at them, in the margin of the economy, consumer and an auxiliary labour force to be utilised in the crisis period and eased out the moment men are ready for take over. The discourse revolved around the economic growth paradigm.


9 WAD Women and Development model integrates women in the development work as active change agents. Affirmative action by the state and pro-active approach by the civil society through NGOs and women's groups are advocated by these models for empowerment of women against the forces of patriarchal class society. NGOs-voluntary organisations implementing this approach have become powerful force during 1990s.


10 GAD Gender and Development model is based on an understanding of gender relations and empowers the weak (he or she). Gender is socially constructed and gender relations are power relations. Here power is an important analytical category. Explicit measures of gender inequalities are sex-ratio, literacy rates, health and nutrition indicators, wage differentials, ownership of land and property.

Visibility of women in statistics and data system :

11 Visibility of women in statistics and data system For effective execution of macro policies such as National Perspective Plan for Women, Maharashtra State Women's Policy, we need an accurate data-base, area studies and time allocation studies, studies on energy expenditure and food consumption patterns among women of different communities, public utility services such as safe transport, public urinals, women's room in the office.

Neoclassical versus Institutional Approach:

12 Neoclassical versus Institutional Approach Neoclassical approach of consumer’s rationality (Maximisation of utility) and producers’ rationality (Maximisation of profit) has come under massive attack from the women’s studies scholars as they find it ahistorical, simplistic and gender –neutral. Its philosophy of Laissez Faire. Does not acknowledge the unequal power relations determined by colonialism, neo-colonialism and segmentation in the labour, factor and product markets based on caste, class, ethnicity, race, religion, age and gender. As against this; institutional approach is found more realistic and hence appropriate as takes into consideration historical, socio-cultural, geographical and political dynamics in socio-cultural, political and economic analysis.

Development Debate- Human Development Approach:

13 Development Debate- Human Development Approach Current development debate has resulted into generation of Meaningful Indicators of Women and Development Comparative data of 130 countries regarding gender-related development index (GDI) reveals that gender-equality does not depend entirely on the income level of society. The human development approach which focuses on demographic, health, educational and human rights profiles have revealed that there is an urgent need to reexamine this approach by conducting participatory action research and rapid appraisal .

Affirmative Action for Women’s Development:

14 Affirmative Action for Women’s Development Legislative measures *Equal Remuneration Act *Formation of women’s union *Constitutional guarantees *Job reservation for women *Self Help Groups(SHGs) * Women Empowerment Policy, 2001

Human Development Report:

15 Human Development Report Human Development Report, 2001 has provided development radars comprising of 8 indicators- indices of poverty, per capita consumption expenditure, life expectancy at age one, infant mortality rates, intensity of formal education, literacy rates, access to safe drinking water, proportion of households with pucca houses. What about declining sex- ratio ?

HCF versus HD:

16 HCF versus HD Human Capital Formation School Human Development Approach Right Based Approach Women’s Rights are Human Rights

Thank You:

17 Thank You

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