Collective Nouns: Collective Nouns Prepared by: Shane Vyn M. Reyes BSED I-T Slide 2: In linguistics , a collective noun is a word used to define a group of objects, where objects can be people, animals, emotions, inanimate things, concepts, or other things. For example, in the phrase "a pride of lions," pride is a collective noun. Slide 3: Most collective nouns encountered in everyday speech, such as "group," are mundane and are not specific to one kind of constituent object. For example, the terms "group of people," "group of dogs," and "group of ideas" are all correct uses. Others, especially words belonging to the large subset of collective nouns known as terms of venery (words for groups of animals), are specific to one kind of constituent object. For example, "pride" as a term of venery refers to lions, but not to dogs or llamas Slide 4: Collective nouns should not be confused with mass nouns , or with the collective grammatical number Lists of collective nouns: Lists of collective nouns These are lists of collective nouns : List of collective nouns for various subjects (including animals and people), sortable by subject or collective term List of collective nouns List of collective nouns for animals only, see List of animal names List of collective nouns for birds List of collective nouns for reptiles and amphibians List of collective nouns for fish, invertebrates, and plants List of animal names: List of animal names This list gives names of animals used depending on the context. Many species of animals , particularly those domesticated, have been given specific names for the male , the female , and the young of the species. There are a few generic terms, "bull-cow-calf", for instance, that are found across species, but many species have been granted unique names for these gender/age characteristics. An empty table cell indicates incomplete data and should not be interpreted to mean that the animal does not have a specific name of that type. However, a table cell with a dash in it signifies that no term for the indicated combination exists. It is thought that many of the bizarre words used for collective groupings of animals were first published in 1486 in the Book of St. Albans , in an essay on hunting attributed to Dame Juliana Berners . Many of the words are thought to have been chosen simply for the humorous or poetic images they conjured up in her lively imagination Standard English Terms and Terms following the Middle English tradition: Standard English Terms and Terms following the Middle English tradition Bird Collective noun Source / Origin birds A flock of birds Standard term birds (small) A dissimulation of birds  bitterns A siege of bitterns  chickens A peep of chickens  hens A brood of hens  List of collective nouns for fish, invertebrates, and plants: List of collective nouns for fish, invertebrates, and plants Noun Collectives Source Fish fish draught  drift  school  shoal  goldfish troubling  herrings glean  salmon bind  run  List of collective nouns for reptiles and amphibians: List of collective nouns for reptiles and amphibians Reptile or amphibian Collective noun Source alligators A congregation of alligators  crocodiles A bask of crocodiles  A congregation of crocodiles  A float of crocodiles  A nest of crocodiles  frogs An army of frogs  A colony of frogs  A knot of frogs  snakes A bed of snakes  A den of snakes  A nest of snakes  A pit of snakes  A slither of snakes  Confounding of collective noun and mass noun: Confounding of collective noun and mass noun There is often confusion about, and confounding of, the two different concepts of collective noun and mass noun . Generally, collective nouns are not mass (non-count) nouns, but rather are a special subset of count nouns . However, the term "collective noun" is often used to mean "mass noun" (even in some dictionaries [ citation needed ] ), because users confound two different kinds of verb number invariability: Slide 11: that seen with mass nouns such as "water" or "furniture", with which only singular verb forms are used because the constituent matter is grammatically nondiscrete (although it may ["water"] or may not ["furniture"] be etically nondiscrete ) Slide 12: that seen with collective nouns, which is the result of the metonymical shift, discussed earlier, between the group and its (both grammatically and etically ) discrete constituents Some words, including "mathematics" and "physics", have developed true mass-noun senses despite having grown from count-noun roots. Terms of venery (words for groups of animals): Terms of venery (words for groups of animals) The tradition of using collective nouns that are specific to certain kinds of animals stems from an English Medieval hunting tradition, dating back to at least the fifteenth century. Terms of venery  or nouns of assembly were used by gentlemen to distinguish themselves from yeomen and others and formed part of their education. Only a few of the terms were for groups of animals; others, such as "singular" for boars, described their characteristics or habits of life. "Singular" may also be a corruption of the French (" sanglier "). Misunderstandings over the centuries led to all the terms being regarded as collective nouns and some became unrecognisable through changes to the language and transcription errors : " besynys " (for ferrets) became " fesynes " instead of "busy- ness . Slide 14: Sometimes a term of venery will apply to a group only in a certain context. "Herd" can properly refer to a group of wild horses, but not to a group of domestic horses. [ citation needed ] A "paddling of ducks" only refers to ducks on water. A group of geese on the ground is referred to as a "gaggle of geese" while a "skein of geese" would refer to them in flight. Slide 15: Usage authorities have said that the lesser-known words of this type are not needed for practical purposes  and that some are "the result of light-hearted creativity rather than observation"  or "facetious".  Nevertheless there is still interest in collective nouns, and the coining of candidate collective nouns has been a (usually humorous) pastime of many writers, including nouns pertaining to things other than animals, such as professions, e.g. a "sequitur of logicians."