COMPUTER HARDWARE

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FP203 Computer Organisation :

FP203 Computer Organisation Computer Hardware and Flow of Information Zawana , Lecturer zawana@psp.edu.my

What is a Computer?:

What is a Computer? Computer Device capable of performing computations and making logical decisions Computers process data under the control of sets of instructions called computer programs Personal computers : economical enough for individual Distributed computing : computing distributed over networks Client/server computing : sharing of information across computer networks between file servers and clients (personal computers)

What is a Computer? (cont.):

What is a Computer? (cont.) Computer Hardware Various devices comprising a computer: Keyboard, screen, mouse, disks, memory, CD-ROM, and processing units High-level Language Assembly Language Firmware Machine Code Hardware User Application Software OS

What is a Computer? (cont.):

What is a Computer? (cont.) Computer Software Computer Programs that run on a computer, including Operation System (OS) Application Software Computer Language High-level Language Assembly Language Firmware Machine Code Hardware User Application Software OS

Computer Architecture:

Computer Architecture A Typical Von-Neumann Architecture Example: Input unit Output unit Memory unit Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) Central processing unit (CPU) Secondary storage unit Control Circuit (ex: PC: Program Counter) ALU Memory I/O CPU

Computer Architecture (cont.):

Computer Architecture (cont.) Five major operations performed by a computer system: Input Obtains information from input devices (keyboard, mouse) Storage Primary or main memory or internal memory / memory the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required. Eg : ROM (Read Only Memory): CMOS, EPROM RAM (Random Access Memory): SRAM, DRAM, SIMM, DIMM Secondary known as external memory or auxiliary storage Not directly accessible by the CPU Eg : Hard disk, flash memory, floppy disks

Computer Architecture (cont.):

Computer Architecture (cont.) Six logical units in every computer (cont): Processing Output Outputs information (to screen, to printer, to control other devices Control

Computer Architecture (cont.):

Computer Architecture (cont.) Basic computer functional units control Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) – part of CPU Performs arithmetic calculations (addition, subtraction...) and logic decisions Control unit (CU) - part of CPU Supervises and coordinates the other sections of the computer

Computer Architecture (cont.):

Computer Architecture (cont.) Central Processing Unit (CPU) “brain” of a computer, consisting of Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU): performs arithmetic calculations (addition, subtraction...) and logic decisions (>, <, =, ...) Control Unit (CU): decodes each machine instruction and sends signal to other components for carrying out the instruction. An integrated circuit (IC) that is a full central processing unit is called a microprocessor (  p ); a CPU’s current instruction and data values are stored temporally inside the CPU in special high-speed memory location called registers. CPU speed: ? MHz (M: Mega = 10 6 , Hz=1/sec);

Computer Architecture (cont.):

Computer Architecture (cont.) Memory A large collection of circuits, each capable of storing bit Cells (words): manageable units; typical size is 8 bits (1 byte), some machines are 16 bits (2 bytes) and some are 32 bits or 64 bits Byte (8 bits), KB (kilobyte, 10 3  2 10 bytes), MB (Megabyte, 10 6  2 20 bytes), GB (Gigabyte, 10 9  2 30 bytes). Note: k ≠ K because 1000 ≠ 1024.

Computer Architecture (cont.):

Computer Architecture (cont.) Computer memory is comparable to a collection of numbered mailboxes. To identify individual cells in a machine’s main memory, each cell is assigned a unique name, called its address The organization of byte-size memory cell ... 01001000 01100101 01101100 01101111 01101100 00101110 H e l l o , ASCII ... Data Address 0000 0101 0000 0110 0000 0111 0000 1000 0001 0001 0001 0010 Address Bus Data Bus 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Low-order end High-order end Least Significant Bit (LSB) Most Significant Bit (MSB)

A Typical Von-Neumann Architecture :

A Typical Von-Neumann Architecture Example: Input unit Output unit Memory unit Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) Central processing unit (CPU) Secondary storage unit Control Circuit (ex: PC: Program Counter) ALU Memory I/O CPU

Computer’s Bus System:

Computer’s Bus System A bus , in computing, is a set of physical connections (cables, printed circuits, etc.) which can be shared by multiple hardware components in order to communicate with one another. think of a bus as a highway on which data travels within a computer .

Computer’s Bus System (cont..):

Computer’s Bus System (cont..) Purpose of buses = to reduce the number of "pathways" needed for communication between the components, by carrying out all communications over a single data channel.

Types of Computer’s Bus:

Types of Computer’s Bus There are generally two buses within a computer: Internal bus (system bus) Allows the processor to communicate with the system's central memory (the RAM). External bus (expansion bus) Allows various motherboard components (USB, serial, and parallel ports, cards inserted in PCI connectors, hard drives, CD-ROM and CD-RW drives, etc.) to communicate with one another. However, it is mainly used to add new devices using what are called expansion slots connected to the input/output bus.

Types of External Buses:

Types of External Buses There are five major types of external bus’s found on the common motherboard. ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) This bus is the low speed work horse of the system. commonly find a Sound Card hooked up this type BUS. PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Supports 32-64 bit bus and is the reigning standard of external buses. Fast slowly making the ISA fade away. Go with a PCI Bus Card when possible.

Types of External Buses (cont…):

Types of External Buses (cont…) AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) This Bus provides from 2 to 4 times the speed of the PCI used for video expansion only. great way to go and takes a lot of stress off the CPU, thus gaining in performance all the way around. USB (Universal Serial Bus) allows to hook up to 127 devices. probably going to wipe out PS/2 ports and more. Allows to hot swap devices or plug and unplug devices while system is running. a great feature and is incorporated on most new motherboards.

Types of External Buses (cont…):

Types of External Buses (cont…) IDE (Intelligent Drive Electronics) used mostly for disk drives connects up to two devices on one connection. More than likely hard drive and CD-ROM are connected through this type bus.

Operation of bus protocol:

Operation of bus protocol PCI SCSI

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