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New York city: crossroads of world trade:

David Robarge /History 141 New York city: crossroads of world trade

Skyscrapers: Episode 5, cosmopolis:

During the late 1920’s New York, there was a competition between businesses to build the tallest building, or “skyscraper” In spring 1929, plans were unveiled about the Chrysler building, which would be the tallest building in the world At about the same time, the Bank of Manhattan company touted a similar project a few blocks away on Wall Street On August 29, 1929, the Empire State building was revealed as a new skyscraper that would stand taller than any other in the world The Empire state building would be the tallest building the world for 40 years – 1931 to 1971. Financially the building was a bomb, however, as it finished construction during the great depression and few had the capital to rent space in the building or were interested in the sub-optimal location of the structure Skyscrapers: Episode 5, cosmopolis

Alfred E. Smith: episode 5, cosmopolis:

In 1928, Alfred E. Smith, governor of New York, ran for President of the United States against Herbert Hoover Ultimately, Smith lost the campaign from his failure to turn sway over the rest of the nation and Hoover’s reputation during the good economy In August 1929, Smith reveals his plans for the tallest building in the world – The Empire State Building W ith the help of financial advisor John Jacob Rascob , Smith would become President of the new structure Smith’s social reform programs in New York were models for President Roosevelt’s New Deal, however Smith would denounce the program and eventually become distant from the Democratic party – the reason, perhaps, being he never recovered form his 1928 presidential defeat or his Governor seat loss to President Roosevelt Alfred E. Smith: episode 5, cosmopolis

The stock market crash: episode 5, cosmopolis:

Leading up to the Stock market crash of 1929, the stock market has been trading ever greater numbers of stock for two years straight, setting records Speculation become a national mindset – that demand for commodities would continue growing even past their peak John Jacob Rascob announced a scheme which would allow for anyone to buy stocks on credit More money was lent to stock buyers than the amount of actual currency in circulation In August 27, 1929, Wall Street stock values were at their peak Against warning by financial experts, buyers still continued their brisk trading Eventually, a snowball effect of selling brought forth the crash of the market and the financial ruin of many investors The stock market crash: episode 5, cosmopolis

Robert Moses: episode 6, city of tomorrow 1931-1940:

Starting in the peak years of the 1920’s, Robert Moses, commissioned by Governor Al Smith – and later Governor Fiorella La Guardia - began a huge campaign of public building The New Deal in the 1930’s gave massive funding to local enterprises, such as New York City, for public works Soon after his new Public Parks Commissioner position was granted under Guardia, he had rebuilt every public park in New York City – over 1700 projects Moses extended his building access to limited access parkways, and would use this power to build the first Urban highway system in the world By building the Triborough bridge, Moses connected the previously isolated boroughs of Queens, Manhattan and the Bronx Moses attempted to expand his public building authority even further by taking control of Public Housing construction, but Governor Guardia refused to let him acquire further power Robert Moses: episode 6, city of tomorrow 1931-1940

Fiorella la guardia: episode 6, city of tomorrow 1931-1940:

In 1934, La Guardia was elected mayor of New York City – a 51 year old, multilingual, hot-headed man and seemingly unlikely candidate for the position – during the city’s extreme financial hardship A few weeks after entering office he began removing loyalists of the corrupt Tammany Hall and replace them with scientific civil service men and women La Guardia fought against corruption, gambling, firearms, and racketeering, and appointed policemen with similar toughness During his term, La Guardia made huge strides social welfare by creating many public programs La Guardia’s personal ties with President Roosevelt and Roosevelt’s New Deal allowed Guardia to garner huge funding for his projects in New York La Guardia commissioned Robert Moses to carry out his expansive civil reconstruction in New York, and with his funding Moses would reshape the city and increase public moral Fiorella la guardia : episode 6, city of tomorrow 1931-1940

Tammany Hall: episode 6, city of tomorrow 1931-1940:

During the Great Depression, Governor Franklin Roosevelt, relief programs were set in place to deal with the financial crisis However, the money intended for the jobless could not reach them because of a corrupt political machine known as Tammany Hall – most of the officials in this political organization pocketed funds and distributed money to part members from 1931-33 Under Mayor James J, Walker, who was a corrupt Tammany official, the illegal poaching of public funds continued without stopping and he cut many public programs and laid off many workers Governor Roosevelt hired Samuel Seabury as a Judge who would investigate corruption in the city government In 1932, Mayor Walker came to testify for his corruption, and later that year he resigned his post after pressure from Franklin Roosevelt Eventually Tammany Hall corruption was eradicated by Governor La Guardia Tammany Hall: episode 6, city of tomorrow 1931-1940

The great transatlantic migration:

Between 1870 and 1914, America took in the most immigrants in its history Immigrants came from all over Europe and Asia, for many different purposes The need for industrial labor, large amounts of land available, and open borders were all contributing factors to the immigration flood Some Americans were not as welcome to the immigrant waves. Beginning in 1980, Anti-immigrant forces were established Most of the population of America were Anglo-Protestant, and did not believe the newcomers were absorbable into society, blaming many issues upon them. The Quota Law in 1924 and the Great Depression slowed the immigration for a while. Although America took in the greatest number of immigrants, many tens of millions, proportionate to initial population other countries like Argentina, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand took in more immigrants The great transatlantic migration

The great transatlantic migration:

Greater than trans-Atlantic migration, in fact, was intra European migration from 1870-1914. One to two million people moved form country to country each year. Family influences as well as economic influences were factors of where Europeans moved. After 1870, steamships allowed for increased immigration, because these vessels were much faster and allowed less time for disease to spread between passengers. In the 1850’s government regulations increased the health standards for ships. Ship sizes also increased with new stem technology. Religious and political prosecution influenced some migration to the Americas, such as anti Jewish programs in Poland and Russia, but most migration was for economic reasons to make a better life Job opportunities were available in farmland, factory work, mining, and construction Repatriation was common – the returning of immigrants to their homeland after a certain period of time to see their families or other reasons. About half of immigrants to America from 1908 to 1914 practiced this routine. The great transatlantic migration

The great transatlantic migration:

Immigration to America was more diverse than neighboring countries like Canada and South America. All European countries experienced emigration to America, except for certain groups like the Portuguese and Spanish of whom most traveled to South America. Before 1900 Cana received almost only Irish and British immigrants. One reason people liked migrating to America was that the land was plentiful, accessible and cheap. Brazilian land, for example, was plentiful but laws but it difficult to settle. World War I put a temporarily disrupted migration to America after 1914, but it resumed after the Armistice was reached a couple years later. The 1920’s immigration restriction laws as well as the Great Depression made immigration to America come to a grinding halt. Mass migration ceased to exist after these events. One of the restriction bills passed on immigrants was a literacy test, and later the Johnson Act of 1921 and Johnson Reed Act of 1924 restricted immigrants based on national origin quotas The great transatlantic migration

A Merger that put new york on top:

In the year 2000, the internet company AOL merged with media company Time Warner. The result of this merger is that New York is a serious player in the fight over media control in the digital age Internet companies in Washington and Southern California may have to create similar mergers in order to compete over e-space New York has held economic superiority in the past due to its location as a port city and because of its concentration of capital and influential company’s headquarters. However, as the global economy becomes internet based, New Yorks influence has eroded and the pressure is on for the new AOL Time Warner company to use its partnership to its greatest potential Advantages areas like Silicon Valley hold is that they are driving digital innovation, while New York has comparitively contributed almost nothing To maintain their strength in the digital market, companies in Washington and Southern California may have to put aside their competitiveness and join together A Merger that put new york on top

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